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Plant Biology

2014

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Articles 1 - 30 of 167

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Effect Of Photoperiod On Redox Regulation Of Phenotypic Plasticity And Cellular Growth In Chlorella Vulgaris, Lauren E. Hollis Dec 2014

Effect Of Photoperiod On Redox Regulation Of Phenotypic Plasticity And Cellular Growth In Chlorella Vulgaris, Lauren E. Hollis

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Photoautotrophs are predisposed to maintain a balance between light energy absorption with the capacity to consume this energy through metabolism. An imbalance in energy flow may be a consequence of increased light intensity and is sensed as modulation of excitation pressure (EP). Chlorella vulgaris acclimated to continuous high EP exhibits a yellow-green phenotype characterized by reduced chlorophyll content and high chlorophyll a/b ratio with reduced light-harvesting complex abundance relative to the dark green phenotype of low EP-acclimated cultures. Previous studies on acclimation to EP in green algae have been conducted under constant growth light. To determine the role of ...


Thylakoid Phosphorylation And Cell Morphology In The Antarctic Psychrophile, Chlamydomonas Sp. Uwo241, Beth Szyszka-Mroz Dec 2014

Thylakoid Phosphorylation And Cell Morphology In The Antarctic Psychrophile, Chlamydomonas Sp. Uwo241, Beth Szyszka-Mroz

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The unicellular green microalga, Chlamydomonas sp. UWO 241, was isolated from Lake Bonney, Antarctica. A unique characteristic of this algal strain is its inability to undergo state transitions combined with an altered thylakoid protein phosphorylation profile, which suggests the absence of LHCII phosphorylation, and preferential phosphorylation of a set of novel proteins. Examination of the unique phosphoproteins revealed that they are associated with a large pigment-protein supercomplex, which contains components of both photosystem I and the cytochrome b6/f complex and likely functions in cyclic electron flow (CEF).

The absence of phosphorylation of LHCII proteins, associated with state transitions ...


Metabolic Engineering Of Oilseed Crops To Produce High Levels Of Novel Acetyl Glyceride Oils With Reduced Viscosity, Freezing Point And Calorific Value, Jinjie Liu, Adam Rice, Kathleen Mcglew, Vincent Shaw, Hyunwoo Park, Thomas E. Clemente, Mike Pollard, John Ohlrogge, Timothy P. Durrett Dec 2014

Metabolic Engineering Of Oilseed Crops To Produce High Levels Of Novel Acetyl Glyceride Oils With Reduced Viscosity, Freezing Point And Calorific Value, Jinjie Liu, Adam Rice, Kathleen Mcglew, Vincent Shaw, Hyunwoo Park, Thomas E. Clemente, Mike Pollard, John Ohlrogge, Timothy P. Durrett

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Seed oils have proved recalcitrant to modification for the production of industrially useful lipids. Here, we demonstrate the successful metabolic engineering and subsequent field production of an oilseed crop with the highest accumulation of unusual oil achieved so far in transgenic plants. Previously, expression of the Euonymus alatus diacylglycerol acetyltransferase (EaDAcT) gene in wild-type Arabidopsis seeds resulted in the accumulation of 45 mol% of unusual 3-acetyl-1,2- diacyl-sn-glycerols (acetyl-TAGs) in the seed oil (Durrett et al., 2010 PNAS 107:9464). Expression of EaDAcT in dgat1 mutants compromised in their ability to synthesize regular triacylglycerols increased acetyl-TAGs to 65 mol%. Camelina ...


Arabidopsis Chromatin Remodeler Brahma: Its Functional Interplay With Polycomb Proteins And The Ref6 Histone Demethylase, Chenlong Li Dec 2014

Arabidopsis Chromatin Remodeler Brahma: Its Functional Interplay With Polycomb Proteins And The Ref6 Histone Demethylase, Chenlong Li

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

BRAHMA (BRM) is a SWI/SNF-type chromatin remodeling ATPase that plays an important role in regulation of gene expression. Tri-methylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 (H3K27me3) is a histone modification that is associated with transcriptionally repressed genes and catalyzed by Polycomb Group (PcG) proteins. BRM has been proposed to antagonize the function of PcG proteins but the underlying molecular mechanism is unclear. To understand how BRM regulates the function of PcG proteins during plant development, a genome-wide analysis of H3K27me3 in brm mutant was performed using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by next generation sequencing (ChIP-seq). Loss of BRM leads to ...


Pore Selectivity And Gating Of Arabidopsis Nodulin 26 Intrinsic Proteins And Roles In Boric Acid Transport In Reproductive Growth, Tian Li Dec 2014

Pore Selectivity And Gating Of Arabidopsis Nodulin 26 Intrinsic Proteins And Roles In Boric Acid Transport In Reproductive Growth, Tian Li

Doctoral Dissertations

Plant nodulin-26 intrinsic proteins (NIPs) are members of the aquaporin superfamily that serve as multifunctional channels of uncharged metabolites and water. They share the same canonical hourglass fold as the aquaporin family. The aromatic arginine (ar/R) selectivity filter controls transport selectivity based on size, hydrophobicity, and hydrogen bonding with substrates. In Arabidopsis thaliana, NIP II subclass proteins contain a conserved ar/R “pore signature” that is composed of Alanine at the helix 2 position (H2), Valine/Isoleucine at the helix 5 position (H5), and an Alanine (LE1) and an invariant Arginine (LE2) at the two loop E positions. In ...


First Report Of Goss's Bacterial Leaf Blight And Wilt Of Corn Caused By Clavibacter Michiganensis Subsp. Nebraskensis In North Dakota, A. Friskop, K. Kinzer, M. Mcconnell, Z. Liu, K. A. Korus, A. Timmerman, T. Jackson Dec 2014

First Report Of Goss's Bacterial Leaf Blight And Wilt Of Corn Caused By Clavibacter Michiganensis Subsp. Nebraskensis In North Dakota, A. Friskop, K. Kinzer, M. Mcconnell, Z. Liu, K. A. Korus, A. Timmerman, T. Jackson

Papers in Plant Pathology

In August of 2011, the North Dakota State University Plant Diagnostic Lab received a hybrid corn (Zea mays) leaf sample from Burleigh County in southcentral North Dakota (ND). The leaf had long, irregular, water-soaked lesions consistent with Goss's leaf blight of corn. Using a light microscope at 10× magnification, bacterial streaming was observed from the excised edge of leaf tissue. A bacterial suspension was created, streaked onto a semi-selective CNS medium (1), and incubated at 22°C. Dark yellow-orange colonies appeared on the medium after 5 days. Single colonies were subcultured onto additional CNS media. To verify the identity ...


The Mechanism Of Lhcp Insertion Into Thylakoid Membranes, Larae Brown Dec 2014

The Mechanism Of Lhcp Insertion Into Thylakoid Membranes, Larae Brown

Theses and Dissertations

The light harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins (LHCPs) are the most abundant membrane proteins. LHCP is a nuclear encoded protein which is targeted to the thylakoid membranes by chloroplast signal recognition particles (cpSRP). Insertion into thylakoid membranes is facilitated by the cpSRP receptor cpFtsY and the Alb3 translocase. Work here focused on understanding the molecular events of LHCP insertion into the thylakoid membranes. Specifically, we sought to develop a tool to detect the insertion of the lumen-localized loop of LHCP into thylakoid membranes, which relies on cleavage of the loop by a thylakoid lumen processing protease. We also sought to ...


Functional Genomics And Microbiome Profiling Of The Asian Longhorned Beetle (Anoplophora Glabripennis) Reveal Insights Into The Digestive Physiology And Nutritional Ecology Of Wood Feeding Beetles, Erin D. Scully, Scott M. Geib, John E. Carlson, Ming Tien, Duane Mckenna, Kelli Hoover Dec 2014

Functional Genomics And Microbiome Profiling Of The Asian Longhorned Beetle (Anoplophora Glabripennis) Reveal Insights Into The Digestive Physiology And Nutritional Ecology Of Wood Feeding Beetles, Erin D. Scully, Scott M. Geib, John E. Carlson, Ming Tien, Duane Mckenna, Kelli Hoover

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Background: Wood-feeding beetles harbor an ecologically rich and taxonomically diverse assemblage of gut microbes that appear to promote survival in woody tissue, which is devoid of nitrogen and essential nutrients. Nevertheless, the contributions of these apparent symbionts to digestive physiology and nutritional ecology remain uncharacterized in most beetle lineages.

Results: Through parallel transcriptome profiling of beetle- and microbial- derived mRNAs, we demonstrate that the midgut microbiome of the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis), a member of the beetle family Cerambycidae, is enriched in biosynthetic pathways for the synthesis of essential amino acids, vitamins, and sterols. Consequently, the midgut microbiome of ...


Potential For Optical Sensor-Based Nitrogen Fertilization In Grain Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor L. Moench) In Arkansas, Kamil H. Rosales Rodriguez Dec 2014

Potential For Optical Sensor-Based Nitrogen Fertilization In Grain Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor L. Moench) In Arkansas, Kamil H. Rosales Rodriguez

Theses and Dissertations

Ground-based active-optical (GBAO) crop sensors have become an effective tool to improve nitrogen (N) use efficiency and to predict yield early in the growing season, particularly for grass crops. Commercially available canopy sensors calculate the normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) by emitting light in the red and near infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The NDVI is used to evaluate vigor status and to estimate yield potential. However, few studies have been conducted to compare the performance of commercially available sensors. Therefore, a study was conducted using the most common crop canopy sensors: i) N-Tech's GreenSeekerTM (GS), ii ...


Protein Body Biogenesis And Utility In Recombinant Protein Production In Nicotiana Benthamiana, Reza Saberianfar Nov 2014

Protein Body Biogenesis And Utility In Recombinant Protein Production In Nicotiana Benthamiana, Reza Saberianfar

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Protein bodies (PBs) are endoplasmic reticulum (ER) derived organelles found in seeds whose function is to accumulate seed storage proteins. It was shown that PB formation is not limited to seeds, and green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to either elastin-like polypeptide (ELP), hydrophobin-I (HFBI) or Zera® fusion tags induces PBs in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana. The mechanism by which fusion tags induce PBs is not well understood. To address how PBs form and develop in plant leaves, I studied the factors involved in their formation including recombinant protein concentration, effect of the fusion tags, PB sequestration patterns and destination in ...


Hairy Stalagmites, A New Biogenic Root Speleothem From Botswana, Gerhard C. Du Preez, Paolo Forti, Gerhard Jacobs, Anine Jordaan, Louwrens Tiedt Nov 2014

Hairy Stalagmites, A New Biogenic Root Speleothem From Botswana, Gerhard C. Du Preez, Paolo Forti, Gerhard Jacobs, Anine Jordaan, Louwrens Tiedt

International Journal of Speleology

Ngamiland in northwestern Botswana hosts the Gcwihaba Caves which present unique subterranean environments and host speleothems never before recorded. Cave atmospheric conditions can be extreme with temperatures as high as 28°C and relative humidity nearing 99.9%. Within Dimapo and Diviner’s Caves peculiar root speleothems that we named ‘Hairy Stalagmites’ were found. These stalagmites are closely associated with the roots of Namaqua fig (Ficus cordata) trees that enter the cave environment in search of water. Pieces of broken stalagmites were sampled from Dimapo Cave for further investigations. Stereo and electron microscopy revealed that the Hairy Stalagmites consist of ...


Assessment Of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis On Invasion Success In Brachypodium Sylvaticum, Caitlin Elyse Lee Nov 2014

Assessment Of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis On Invasion Success In Brachypodium Sylvaticum, Caitlin Elyse Lee

Dissertations and Theses

The effects that mutualistic soil biota have on invasive species success is a growing topic of inquiry. Studies of the interactions between invasive plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have shown changes in AMF community composition, reductions in AMF associations in invasive plants, and changes in native species fitness and competitive outcomes in invasive-shifted AMF communities. These findings support the degraded mutualist hypothesis, where invasive species alter the mutualist community composition, resulting in detrimental associations with the new mutualist community for native species. Here I present two studies that examine various aspects of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) mutualism in ...


Understanding The Transcriptional Regulation Of Secondary Cell Wall Biosynthesis In The Model Grass Brachypodium Distachyon, Pubudu Handakumbura Nov 2014

Understanding The Transcriptional Regulation Of Secondary Cell Wall Biosynthesis In The Model Grass Brachypodium Distachyon, Pubudu Handakumbura

Doctoral Dissertations

Secondary cell wall synthesis occurs in specialized cell types following completion of cell enlargement. By virtue of mechanical strength provided by a wall thickened with cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin, these cells can function as water-conducting vessels and provide structural support. Several transcription factor families regulate genes encoding wall synthesis enzymes. Certain NAC and MYB proteins directly bind upstream of structural genes and other transcription factors. The most detailed model of this regulatory network is established predominantly for a eudicot, Arabidopsis thaliana. In grasses, both the patterning and the composition of secondary cell walls are distinct from that of eudicots. These ...


Volatile Profiles And Resistance To Herbivory In Eastern Hemlock, Elizabeth A. Mckenzie Nov 2014

Volatile Profiles And Resistance To Herbivory In Eastern Hemlock, Elizabeth A. Mckenzie

Masters Theses

Eastern hemlock hosts the hemlock woolly adelgid, an introduced sap-feeding insect that causes rapid deterioration of the host. Like most conifers, eastern hemlock produces a variety of constitutive and induced defenses, primarily terpenoids. To explore the relationship of terpenoid defenses with adelgid infestations, we artificially infested hemlocks at a forest site and a plantation site, and compared their terpenoid concentrations to those in control trees. Infested trees showed lower terpenoid concentrations than control trees, suggesting that eastern hemlock not only fails to induce production of terpenoids in response to adelgid infestation, but becomes less able to produce carbon-based defenses due ...


Sequence Analysis Of Maize Yellow Stripe3 Candidate Genes, Dennis B. Depaolo Nov 2014

Sequence Analysis Of Maize Yellow Stripe3 Candidate Genes, Dennis B. Depaolo

Masters Theses

The work presented here focuses on the molecular mechanism of phytosiderophore secretion in graminaceous plants. In maize, yellow stripe3 (ys3) is a mutant that is deficient in its ability to secrete iron-chelating compounds of the mugineic acid family known as phytosiderophores. Phytosiderophores are specific to grasses and are used for the acquisition of iron. Genetic linkage mapping of the ys3 locus lead to a region of interest on chromosome 3 defined by marker UMC1773. The sequence of eleven candidate genes (GRMZM2G390345, GRMZM2G390374, GRMZM2G342821, GRMZM5G800764, GRMZM2G502560, GRMZM5G849435, GRMZM2G105766, GRMZM5G876835, GRMZM2G036976, GRMZM2G502563, miR167g) revealed several small deletions and point mutations within the ...


Comprehensive Characterization And Rna-Seq Profiling Of The Hd-Zip Transcription Factor Family In Soybean (Glycine Max) During Dehydration And Salt Stress, Vikas Belamkar, Nathan T. Weeks, Arvind K. Bharti, Andrew Farmer, Michelle A. Graham, Steven B. Cannon Nov 2014

Comprehensive Characterization And Rna-Seq Profiling Of The Hd-Zip Transcription Factor Family In Soybean (Glycine Max) During Dehydration And Salt Stress, Vikas Belamkar, Nathan T. Weeks, Arvind K. Bharti, Andrew Farmer, Michelle A. Graham, Steven B. Cannon

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Background:

The homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-Zip) transcription factor family is one of the largest plant specific superfamilies, and includes genes with roles in modulation of plant growth and response to environmental stresses. Many HD-Zip genes are characterized in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and members of the family are being investigated for abiotic stress responses in rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays), poplar (Populus trichocarpa) and cucumber (Cucmis sativus). Findings in these species suggest HD-Zip genes as high priority candidates for crop improvement.

Results:

In this study we have identified members of the HD-Zip gene family in soybean cv. ‘Williams 82’, and ...


New And Unusual Forms Of Calcium Oxalate Raphide Crystals In The Plant Kingdom, Vijayasankar Raman, Harry T. Horner, Ikhlas A. Khan Nov 2014

New And Unusual Forms Of Calcium Oxalate Raphide Crystals In The Plant Kingdom, Vijayasankar Raman, Harry T. Horner, Ikhlas A. Khan

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Calcium oxalate crystals in higher plants occur in five major forms namely raphides, styloids, prisms, druses and crystal sand. The form, shape and occurrence of calcium oxalate crystals in plants are species- and tissue-specific, hence the presence or absence of a particular type of crystal can be used as a taxonomic character. So far, four different types of needle-like raphide crystals have been reported in plants. The present work describes two new and unusual forms of raphide crystals from the tubers of Dioscorea polystachya—six-sided needles with pointed ends (Type V) and four-sided needles with beveled ends (Type VI). Both ...


Rna-Seq Analysis Of The Effect Of Kanamycin And The Abc Transporter Atwbc19 On Arabidopsis Thaliana Seedlings Reveals Changes In Metal Content, Ayalew Mentaweb, Kinnari Matheson, Morayo Adebiyi, Shanice Robinson, Brianna Elston Oct 2014

Rna-Seq Analysis Of The Effect Of Kanamycin And The Abc Transporter Atwbc19 On Arabidopsis Thaliana Seedlings Reveals Changes In Metal Content, Ayalew Mentaweb, Kinnari Matheson, Morayo Adebiyi, Shanice Robinson, Brianna Elston

Spelman College Faculty Publications

Plants are exposed to antibiotics produced by soil microorganisms, but little is known about their responses at the transcriptional level. Likewise, few endogenous mechanisms of antibiotic resistance have been reported. The Arabidopsis thaliana ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter AtWBC19 (ABCG19) is known to confer kanamycin resistance, but the exact mechanism of resistance is not well understood. Here we examined the transcriptomes of control seedlings and wbc19 mutant seedlings using RNA-seq analysis. Exposure to kanamycin indicated changes in the organization of the photosynthetic apparatus, metabolic fluxes and metal uptake. Elemental analysis showed a 60% and 80% reduction of iron uptake in ...


An Eriophyid Mite-Transmitted Plant Virus Contains Eight Genomic Rna Segments With Unusual Heterogeneity In The Nucleocapsid Protein, Satyanarayana Tatineni, Anthony J. Mcmechan, Everlyne N. Wosula, Stephen N. Wegulo, Robert A. Graybosch, Roy French, Gary L. Hein Oct 2014

An Eriophyid Mite-Transmitted Plant Virus Contains Eight Genomic Rna Segments With Unusual Heterogeneity In The Nucleocapsid Protein, Satyanarayana Tatineni, Anthony J. Mcmechan, Everlyne N. Wosula, Stephen N. Wegulo, Robert A. Graybosch, Roy French, Gary L. Hein

Papers in Plant Pathology

Eriophyid mite-transmitted, multipartite, negative-sense RNA plant viruses with membrane-bound spherical virions are classified in the genus Emaravirus. We report here that the eriophyid mite-transmitted Wheat mosaic virus (WMoV), an Emaravirus, contains eight genomic RNA segments, the most in a known negative-sense RNA plant virus. Remarkably, two RNA 3 consensus sequences, encoding the nucleocapsid protein, were found with 12.5% sequence divergence, while no heterogeneity was observed in the consensus sequences of additional genomic RNA segments. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, glycoprotein precursor, nucleocapsid, and P4 proteins of WMoV exhibited limited sequence homology with the orthologous proteins of other emaraviruses, while proteins ...


Using Energy-Efficient Technologies To Produce Bedding Plants And Microgreens In Protected And Controlled Environments, Joshua R. Gerovac Oct 2014

Using Energy-Efficient Technologies To Produce Bedding Plants And Microgreens In Protected And Controlled Environments, Joshua R. Gerovac

Open Access Theses

Gerovac, Joshua R. M.S., Purdue University, December 2014. Using Energy-Efficient Technologies to Produce Bedding Plants and Microgreens in Protected and Controlled Environments. Major Professor: Roberto G. Lopez. Production of bedding plants in commercial greenhouses (GHs) located in northern latitudes begins in late winter and continues through late spring when low outdoor temperatures generally necessitate active heating to maintain temperatures suitable for growth and development. Meanwhile, year-round production of microgreens using multi-layer systems requires sole-source (SS) photosynthetic lighting for production. Energy used to provide active heating in commercial GHs or SS lighting in multi-layer systems is second only to labor ...


Invasive Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys Moltrix) Protein Hydrolysates And Their Efficacy In Increasing Seedling Vigor And Reducing Seed Borne Pathogen Growth, Shanleigh Pauline Thomson Oct 2014

Invasive Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys Moltrix) Protein Hydrolysates And Their Efficacy In Increasing Seedling Vigor And Reducing Seed Borne Pathogen Growth, Shanleigh Pauline Thomson

Open Access Theses

Silver carp are an invasive fish species introduced into the United States within the last forty years. Unable to be effectively eradicated or commercialized as a source of food, other methods must be developed to control and/or use these fish. Fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) are products derived from the proteins inherent within fish. Development of FPH from Silver carp for a variety of uses could aid in controlling their expanding population and provide organic produces with a seed treatment option which is not available to them currently.

In the first study, FPH were used as a seed vigor treatment ...


Nonsyntenic Genes Drive Highly Dynamic Complementation Of Gene Expression In Maize Hybrids, Anja Paschold, Nick B. Larson, Caroline Marcon, James C. Schnable, Cheng-Ting Yeh, Christa Lanz, Dan Nettleton, Hans-Peter Piepho, Patrick S. Schnable, Frank Hochholdinger Oct 2014

Nonsyntenic Genes Drive Highly Dynamic Complementation Of Gene Expression In Maize Hybrids, Anja Paschold, Nick B. Larson, Caroline Marcon, James C. Schnable, Cheng-Ting Yeh, Christa Lanz, Dan Nettleton, Hans-Peter Piepho, Patrick S. Schnable, Frank Hochholdinger

Statistics Publications

Maize (Zea mays) displays an exceptional level of structural genomic diversity, which is likely unique among higher eukaryotes. In this study, we surveyed how the genetic divergence of two maize inbred lines affects the transcriptomic landscape in four different primary root tissues of their F1-hybrid progeny. An extreme instance of complementation was frequently observed: genes that were expressed in only one parent but in both reciprocal hybrids. This single-parent expression (SPE) pattern was detected for 2341 genes with up to 1287 SPE patterns per tissue. As a consequence, the number of active genes in hybrids exceeded that of their parents ...


Biosafety: Evaluation And Regulation Of Genetically Modified (Gm) Crops In The United States, Richard E. Goodman Oct 2014

Biosafety: Evaluation And Regulation Of Genetically Modified (Gm) Crops In The United States, Richard E. Goodman

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

This review of the safety assessment of genetically modified (GM) crops is focused primarily on the process and progress in the United States (US). It reviews the development of the safety evaluation process from the Asilomar conference in 1975 considering issues relevant to recombinant DNA technology, to discussions between the US government, academic and industrial scientists between 1984 and 1994 when the first GM crops were being field tested and evaluated commercial release for food and feed production. International guidelines were also reviewed for consistency with the US system. The overall process includes consideration of information relating to history of ...


The Trehalose Pathway In Maize: Conservation And Gene Regulation In Response To The Diurnal Cycle And Extended Darkness, Clémence Henry, Samuel W. Bledsoe, Allison Siekman, Alec Kollman, Brian M. Waters, Regina Feil, Mark Stitt, L. Mark Lagrimini Sep 2014

The Trehalose Pathway In Maize: Conservation And Gene Regulation In Response To The Diurnal Cycle And Extended Darkness, Clémence Henry, Samuel W. Bledsoe, Allison Siekman, Alec Kollman, Brian M. Waters, Regina Feil, Mark Stitt, L. Mark Lagrimini

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Energy resources in plants are managed in continuously changing environments, such as changes occurring during the day/night cycle. Shading is an environmental disruption that decreases photosynthesis, compromises energy status, and impacts on crop productivity. The trehalose pathway plays a central but not well-defined role in maintaining energy balance. Here, we characterized the maize trehalose pathway genes and deciphered the impacts of the diurnal cycle and disruption of the day/night cycle on trehalose pathway gene expression and sugar metabolism. The maize genome encodes 14 trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) genes, 11 trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP) genes, and one trehalase gene. Transcript abundance ...


Msh1-Induced Non-Genetic Variation Provides A Source Of Phenotypic Diversity In Sorghum Bicolor, Roberto De La Rosa Santamaria, Mon-Ray Shao, Guomei Wang, David O. Nino-Liu, Hardik Kundariya, Yashitola Wamboldt, Ismail M. Dweikat, Sally Ann Mackenzie Sep 2014

Msh1-Induced Non-Genetic Variation Provides A Source Of Phenotypic Diversity In Sorghum Bicolor, Roberto De La Rosa Santamaria, Mon-Ray Shao, Guomei Wang, David O. Nino-Liu, Hardik Kundariya, Yashitola Wamboldt, Ismail M. Dweikat, Sally Ann Mackenzie

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

MutS Homolog 1 (MSH1) encodes a plant-specific protein that functions in mitochondria and chloroplasts. We showed previously that disruption or suppression of the MSH1 gene results in a process of developmental reprogramming that is heritable and non-genetic in subsequent generations. In Arabidopsis, this developmental reprogramming process is accompanied by striking changes in gene expression of organellar and stress response genes. This developmentally reprogrammed state, when used in crossing, results in a range of variation for plant growth potential. Here we investigate the implications of MSH1 modulation in a crop species. We found that MSH1-mediated phenotypic variation in Sorghum bicolor ...


Functional Analysis Of Moss Class Viii Myosin And Its Role In Plant Cell Division, Shu-Zon Wu Aug 2014

Functional Analysis Of Moss Class Viii Myosin And Its Role In Plant Cell Division, Shu-Zon Wu

Doctoral Dissertations

The moss Physcomitrella patens is a great model system for studying plant gene function using reverse genetic approaches. It undergoes efficient gene-targeting by homologous recombination, allowing the generation of specific gene knockout and tagging a gene at its endogenous locus. Additionally, RNAi is quite effective in P. patens, providing an effective tool for rapid gene silencing and phenotypic characterization. Taking advantage of these features, this dissertation described the establishment of a system to perform an unbiased gene-by-gene RNAi assay to screen for tip growth phenotypes in P. patens. A small set of RNAi constructs were tested, within them one gene ...


The Roles Of Myosin Xi And Rop In Moss Tip Growth, Graham M. Burkart Aug 2014

The Roles Of Myosin Xi And Rop In Moss Tip Growth, Graham M. Burkart

Doctoral Dissertations

Because of the large number of myosin XI and ROP genes found in many angiosperms, it has been difficult to determine their precise role with respect to tip growth. In contrast, there are only two myosin XI genes in four ROP genes in the moss Physcomitrella patens. To determine their role in tip growth using a loss-of-function approach, I used RNA interference (RNAi) and found that both of these proteins are essential for tip growth. Consistent with a role in tip growth, I show that a functional, full-length fusion of mEGFP to myosin XI accumulates at a subcortical, apical region ...


Identification And Characterization Of Cysteine Protease Genes In Tobacco For Use In Recombinant Protein Production, Kishor Duwadi Aug 2014

Identification And Characterization Of Cysteine Protease Genes In Tobacco For Use In Recombinant Protein Production, Kishor Duwadi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Plants are an attractive host system for pharmaceutical protein production. Many therapeutic proteins have been produced and scaled up in plants at a low cost compared to the conventional microbial and animal based systems. The main technical challenge during this process is to produce sufficient level of proteins in plants. Low yield is generally caused by proteolytic degradation during expression and downstream processing of recombinant proteins. The yield of a human therapeutic protein interleukin (IL) -10 produced in transgenic tobacco leaves was found to be below the critical level, and is potentially due to degradation by tobacco cysteine proteases (CysPs ...


Contrasting Metabolism In Perenniating Structures Of Upland And Lowland Switchgrass Plants Late In The Growing Season, Nathan Palmer, Aaron J. Saathoff, Christian M. Tobias, Paul Twigg, Yuannan Xia, Kenneth P. Vogel, Soundararajan Madhavan, Scott E. Sattler, Gautam Sarath Aug 2014

Contrasting Metabolism In Perenniating Structures Of Upland And Lowland Switchgrass Plants Late In The Growing Season, Nathan Palmer, Aaron J. Saathoff, Christian M. Tobias, Paul Twigg, Yuannan Xia, Kenneth P. Vogel, Soundararajan Madhavan, Scott E. Sattler, Gautam Sarath

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Background: Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is being developed as a bioenergy crop for many temperate regions of the world. One way to increase biomass yields is to move southern adapted lowland cultivars to more northern latitudes. However, many southerly adapted switchgrass germplasm can suffer significant winter kill in northerly climes.

Materials and Methods: Here, we have applied next-generation sequencing in combination with biochemical analyses to query the metabolism of crowns and rhizomes obtained from two contrasting switchgrass cultivars. Crowns and rhizomes from field-grown lowland (cv Kanlow) and upland (cv Summer) switchgrass cultivars were collected from three randomly selected post-flowering plants ...


Evaluation Of Pretreatment Methods In The Production Of Ethanol From Cattail Leaves, Kristen Krahmer, Elijah Wreh Aug 2014

Evaluation Of Pretreatment Methods In The Production Of Ethanol From Cattail Leaves, Kristen Krahmer, Elijah Wreh

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

Previous research in this lab indicated that cattails are a potential source of biomass for the production of cellulosic ethanol since their carbohydrate composition is comparable to that of other plants being considered for biofuel production. To further test their viability, we tested various pretreatment methods on dried cattail leaves. Before polysaccharides in plants can be enzymatically hydrolyzed to fermentable sugars, the plant material must be pretreated to render the polysaccharides accessible to the enzymes. The purpose of this project has been to compare the efficiency of sulfuric acid and ammonia pretreatment methods in preparing cattail biomass for ethanol production ...