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Plant Biology

1999

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Articles 1 - 24 of 24

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Soybean Glucanases, Compounds Which Encode Therefor And Related Methods, Wei Jin, Harry T. Horner, Reid G. Palmer, Randy C. Shoemaker Sep 1999

Soybean Glucanases, Compounds Which Encode Therefor And Related Methods, Wei Jin, Harry T. Horner, Reid G. Palmer, Randy C. Shoemaker

Iowa State University Patents

The present invention provides 12 different sequences for soybean β-1,3-glucanases and the proteins for which they encode. Also provided are methods for the utilization of knockout mutants of the sequences which are useful for engineering genic male-sterile plants. Other methods and materials related to these sequences are also provided.


Biological Control Of Bipolaris Sorokiniana On Tall Fescue By Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia Strain C3, Z. Zhang, G. Y. Yuen Sep 1999

Biological Control Of Bipolaris Sorokiniana On Tall Fescue By Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia Strain C3, Z. Zhang, G. Y. Yuen

Papers in Plant Pathology

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain C3 was evaluated for control of leaf spot on tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana. In growth chamber experiments, C3 inhibited conidial germination on leaf surfaces and reduced lesion frequency and percent diseased leaf area compared with nontreated controls. The amount of leaf spot suppression was related to the C3 dose applied. The highest dose tested, 109 CFU/ml, prevented nearly all B. sorokiniana conidia from germinating on treated leaf surfaces and provided nearly complete suppression of lesion development. When colloidal chitin was added to C3 cell suspensions of 107 or 108 ...


The Avr (Effector) Proteins Hrma (Hoppsya) And Avrpto Are Secreted In Culture From Pseudomonas Syringae Pathovars Via The Hrp (Type Iii) Protein Secretion System In A Temperature- And Ph-Sensitive Manner, Karin V. Van Dijk, Derrick E. Fouts, Amos H. Rehm, Angela R. Hill, Alan Collmer, James R. Alfano Aug 1999

The Avr (Effector) Proteins Hrma (Hoppsya) And Avrpto Are Secreted In Culture From Pseudomonas Syringae Pathovars Via The Hrp (Type Iii) Protein Secretion System In A Temperature- And Ph-Sensitive Manner, Karin V. Van Dijk, Derrick E. Fouts, Amos H. Rehm, Angela R. Hill, Alan Collmer, James R. Alfano

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

We present here data showing that the Avr proteins HrmA and AvrPto are secreted in culture via the native Hrp pathways from Pseudomonas syringae pathovars that produce these proteins. Moreover, their secretion is strongly affected by the temperature and pH of the culture medium. Both HrmA and AvrPto were secreted at their highest amounts when the temperature was between 18 and 22°C and when the culture medium was pH 6.0. In contrast, temperature did not affect the secretion of HrpZ. pH did affect HrpZ secretion, but not as strongly as it affected the secretion of HrmA. This finding ...


Dnak And The Heat Stress Response Of Pseudomonas Syringae Pv. Glycinea, Lisa M. W. Keith, James E. Partridge, Carol L. Bender Jul 1999

Dnak And The Heat Stress Response Of Pseudomonas Syringae Pv. Glycinea, Lisa M. W. Keith, James E. Partridge, Carol L. Bender

Papers in Plant Pathology

The dnaK gene from Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea PG4180 was cloned and sequenced. The dnaK coding region was 1,917 bp and contained a putative O32 heat shock promoter 86 bp upstream of the translational start site. grpE, another heat shock gene, was found immediately upstream of the putative dnaK promoter. The predicted amino acid sequence of dnaK showed relatedness to the ATPase and substrate binding domains commonly found in heat shock proteins, as well as the highly conserved signature sequence motifs belonging to the Hsp70 protein family. Furthermore, the PG4180 dnaK gene complemented an Escherichia coli dnaK mutant ...


An Engineered Closterovirus Rna Replicon And Analysis Of Heterologous Terminal Sequences For Replication, Satyanarayana Tatineni, Siddarame Gowda, V. P. Boyko, Maria R. Albiach-Marti, Munir Mawassi, J. Navas-Castillo, Alexander V. Karasev, V. Dolja, Mark E. Hilf, D. J. Lewandowski, P. Moreno, Moshe Bar-Joseph, S. M. Garnsey, William O. Dawson Jun 1999

An Engineered Closterovirus Rna Replicon And Analysis Of Heterologous Terminal Sequences For Replication, Satyanarayana Tatineni, Siddarame Gowda, V. P. Boyko, Maria R. Albiach-Marti, Munir Mawassi, J. Navas-Castillo, Alexander V. Karasev, V. Dolja, Mark E. Hilf, D. J. Lewandowski, P. Moreno, Moshe Bar-Joseph, S. M. Garnsey, William O. Dawson

Papers in Plant Pathology

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) populations in citrus trees are unusually complex mixtures of viral genotypes and defective RNAs developed during the long-term vegetative propagation of the virus and by additional mixing by aphid transmission. The viral replication process allows the maintenance of minor amounts of disparate genotypes and defective RNAs in these populations. CTV is a member of the Closteroviridae possessing a positive-stranded RNA genome of ≈20 kilobases that expresses the replicase-associated genes as an ≈400-kDa polyprotein and the remaining 10 3' genes through subgenomic mRNAs. A full-length cDNA clone of CTV was generated from which RNA transcripts capable of ...


Internal Temperature Of Douglas-Fir Buds Is Altered At Elevated Temperature, Martha E. Apple, Melissa S. Lucash, David M. Olszyk, David T. Tingey, Donald L. Phillips Feb 1999

Internal Temperature Of Douglas-Fir Buds Is Altered At Elevated Temperature, Martha E. Apple, Melissa S. Lucash, David M. Olszyk, David T. Tingey, Donald L. Phillips

Environmental Science and Management Faculty Publications and Presentations

Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir) saplings were grown in sun-lit controlled environment chambers at ambient or elevated (4°C above ambient) temperature. We measured internal temperatures of vegetative buds with thermocouple probes and compared temperatures of normal buds and abnormal buds with loosened, rosetted outer scales in elevated temperature chambers. The abnormal buds had higher and earlier peak daily temperatures than normal buds. Elevated temperature may influence the internal temperature of buds and contribute to the development of abnormal, rosetted buds with loosened outer scales. Abnormal bud development may alter branching patterns and allometry of Douglas-fir trees subjected to climatic change.


A Copper Cofactor For The Ethylene Receptor Etr1 From Arabidopsis, Brad Binder, Fernando Rodríguez, Jeffrey Esch, Anne Hall, G. Schaller, Anthony Bleecker Jan 1999

A Copper Cofactor For The Ethylene Receptor Etr1 From Arabidopsis, Brad Binder, Fernando Rodríguez, Jeffrey Esch, Anne Hall, G. Schaller, Anthony Bleecker

Brad M. Binder

The ETR1 receptor from Arabidopsis binds the gaseous hormone ethylene. A copper ion associated with the ethylene-binding domain is required for high-affinity ethylene-binding activity. A missense mutation in the domain that renders the plant insensitive to ethylene eliminates both ethylene binding and the interaction of copper with the receptor. A sequence from the genome of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain 6803 that shows homology to the ethylene-binding domain of ETR1 encodes a functional ethylene-binding protein. On the basis of sequence conservation between the Arabidopsis and the cyanobacterial ethylene-binding domains and on in vitro mutagenesis of ETR1, a structural model for ...


Structural, Functional And Biochemical Responses Of Datura Innoxia Mill. To Coal-Smoke Pollution, Azamal Husen, Muhammad Iqbal Jan 1999

Structural, Functional And Biochemical Responses Of Datura Innoxia Mill. To Coal-Smoke Pollution, Azamal Husen, Muhammad Iqbal

Dr. Azamal Husen

Effect of coal-smoke pollution on Datura innoxia Mill. was investigated. D. innoxia has shown that leaf length, single leaf area, total leaf area and leaves per plant decreased but leaf biomass increased under pollution stress. Epidermal features of upper and lower leaf surface responded to pollution stress differently. Rate of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were low, internal CO2 concentration was high and levels of chlorophyll a and b, total chlorophyll and carotenoids were reduced in polluted condition. Levels of proteins, reducing sugar in roots and sulphur contents in leaves, stem, roots and seeds showed significant increase under the polluted condition ...


Identification And Characterization Of Genes Required For Hyphal Morphogenesis In The Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus Nidulans, Steven D. Harris, Amy F. Hofmann, Hugo W. Tedford, Maurice P. Lee Jan 1999

Identification And Characterization Of Genes Required For Hyphal Morphogenesis In The Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus Nidulans, Steven D. Harris, Amy F. Hofmann, Hugo W. Tedford, Maurice P. Lee

Papers in Plant Pathology

In the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, germination of an asexual conidiospore results in the formation of a hyphal cell. A key feature of spore germination is the switch from isotropic spore expansion to polarized apical growth. Here, temperature-sensitive mutations are used to characterize the roles of five genes (sepA, hypA, podB–podD) in the establishment and maintenance of hyphal polarity. Evidence that suggests that the hypA, podB, and sepA genes are required for multiple aspects of hyphal morphogenesis is presented. Notably, podB and sepA are needed for organization of the cytoskeleton at sites of polarized growth. In contrast, podC and ...


Plant Phenology In Central Minnesota, Max Partch Jan 1999

Plant Phenology In Central Minnesota, Max Partch

Biology Faculty Publications

Phenological data in this study were collected between 1949 and 1980. Data were recorded on field trips with classes or while doing vegetation research in various plant communities, or from herbarium speciments or from dated slides. With some exceptions, which are noted, the records are mostly from central Minnesota. All records, for each species, include date, phenophase and location. The records have been obtained from several hundred locations. Some locations may have been visited only once. Some like the Cold Spring Heron Colony, the Waubun Prairie, the Partch Woods and others used for class field trips, or special research, were ...


A Vegetation Analysis Of Plant Communities In And Around Selected Holding Ponds At Mcclintic Wildlife Management Area, Mason County, West Virginia, Russell Bowman Shrader Jan 1999

A Vegetation Analysis Of Plant Communities In And Around Selected Holding Ponds At Mcclintic Wildlife Management Area, Mason County, West Virginia, Russell Bowman Shrader

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

This study was conducted as an analysis of vegetation in and around four ponds at McClintic Wildlife Management Area (MWMA), located in Mason County, West Virginia. The MWMA is the former West Virginia Ordnance Works (WVOW), having served as a trinitrotoluene (TNT) manufacturing site from 1941-1946. Such history presents the area with unique conditions resulting in diverse types and amounts of plants, since any type of forest disturbance, regardless of cause, alters ecosystem functions. This project was originally designed as part of a groundwater pump-and-treat plan for MWMA, where potential impacts of groundwater removal to ponds and the associated plant ...


Growth And Water Relations Of Bt And Non-Bt Corn Plants Subjected To Soil Moisture Stress , Seydou Brehima Traore Jan 1999

Growth And Water Relations Of Bt And Non-Bt Corn Plants Subjected To Soil Moisture Stress , Seydou Brehima Traore

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A study was conducted at the Iowa State University Hinds Irrigation Farm, Ames, IA during the summers of 1997 and 1998 to compare the Bt and non-Bt versions of two maize (Zea mays, L.) hybrids. The plants were grown in buried, one meter deep, containers filled with a Nicollet loam (Aquic Hapludoll) soil. A rainout shelter protected the plots from the interruption of water deficit by rainfall. Irrigation was scheduled so that the plants experienced water deficit during the peak egg hatch of the first and second European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) generations. Water deficit during the vegetative period ...


Genetics And Cytology Of A New Male-Sterile, Female-Fertile Soybean Mutant, H. Ilarslan, Harry T. Horner, R. G. Palmer Jan 1999

Genetics And Cytology Of A New Male-Sterile, Female-Fertile Soybean Mutant, H. Ilarslan, Harry T. Horner, R. G. Palmer

Botany Publication and Papers

Mutants affecting male sterility have potential applications in breeding methodology studies and for commercialization of hybrids. Male-sterile, female-fertile soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] plants were observed in an F2 entry. Our objectives were to determine the inheritance, linkage, and allelism of the A94-JB-124 male-sterile, female-fertile mutant, and to conduct a detailed comparative microscopic study of microsporogenesis and microgametogenesis of fertile and sterile plants. The A94-JB-124 male-sterile, female-fertile mutant is a single recessive gene, allelic to ms6, and is linked to the W1 (flower color locus) with 4.3 ± 0.3% recombination value based on 988 F2 plants in ...


Effects Of Stress Temperatures Of Germination On Polyamine Titers Of Soybean Seeds , Renan Pineda Mejia Jan 1999

Effects Of Stress Temperatures Of Germination On Polyamine Titers Of Soybean Seeds , Renan Pineda Mejia

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

High and low stress temperatures during seed germination and seedling development limit total germination and the rate of germination and growth. Changes in polyamine (PA) concentrations in seeds of different species have been associated with germination, growth and environmental stresses such as temperature, drought, oxygen, chilling injury and osmotic conditions. Two studies were conducted to determine the effect of stress temperatures during germination and seedling development on polyamine titers in soybean seeds. Three germination temperatures, 25, 30, and 36 0C were used in the first study to evaluate their influence on changes in polyamine concentrations in soybean seeds germinated at ...


Physicochemical Properties Of Selected Root And Tuber Starches And Characterization Of Extruded, Chemically Modified Corn Starches , Andrew Edward Mcpherson Jan 1999

Physicochemical Properties Of Selected Root And Tuber Starches And Characterization Of Extruded, Chemically Modified Corn Starches , Andrew Edward Mcpherson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The physicochemical properties of normal potato, waxy potato, yam and sweet potato starches were examined and compared. Normal potato and waxy potato starches displayed the B-type x-ray diffraction pattern, whereas yam and sweet potato displayed the CA- and C-type, respectively. X-ray diffraction patterns of Naegeli dextrins of normal potato and waxy potato remained the B-type, but those of yam and sweet potato changed to the A-type. 31P-NMR showed the phosphorus contents of the starches to be primarily phosphate monoesters with no detectable phospholipid in any of the four starches. Normal potato and waxy potato starches displayed lower proportions (13 and ...


Amanoa, W. John Hayden Jan 1999

Amanoa, W. John Hayden

Biology Faculty Publications

Monoecious or dioecious trees or shrubs, latex absent. Leaves alternate, distichous, evergreen, simple, coriaceous, glabrous; stipules intrapetiolar, paired, or confluent across the leaf axil; margins entire; venation pinnate. Inflorescence axillary and/or terminal, of densely bracteate clusters (reduced cymules), in the axils of ordinary foliage leaves, in nonleafy pseudoterminal aggregates that revert to vegetative growth, or (in neotropical species) in the axils of alternate, reduced, crescentiform stipular bracts of determinate deciduous spiciform axes borne in groups of 1-several per branch apex; axes straight or sinuous; floral bracts minute, deltate, with abaxially pubescent midribs. Staminate flowers sessile or pedicellate, regular; perianth ...


Variation In Alfalfa (Medicago Sativa L.) For Germination And Seedling Vigor At Suboptimal Temperatures: And Laboratory And Field Response To Selection Within Six Alfalfa Populations , Kathy Lynn Esvelt Klos Jan 1999

Variation In Alfalfa (Medicago Sativa L.) For Germination And Seedling Vigor At Suboptimal Temperatures: And Laboratory And Field Response To Selection Within Six Alfalfa Populations , Kathy Lynn Esvelt Klos

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Establishment of alfalfa stands planted in the early spring requires rapid germination and vigorous seedling growth at cool temperatures. The extent of variation among ten alfalfa cultivars, 'Marathon' red clover, and 'Norcen' birdsfoot trefoil for germination time and radicle growth rate at 5, 10, and 15 C was evaluated, variation for germination time at 5 and 10 C among seven alfalfa cultivars was compared with variation among seed lots within these cultivars, and same of these cultivars were evaluated for field emergence. The initial radicle growth rate of cultivars increased with temperature, and the germination time of cultivars and of ...


Changes In Physiology, Molecular Biology, And Biochemistry Associated With Maize Seedlings Germinated From Freeze-Damaged Seed , Jack Alan Hartwigsen Jan 1999

Changes In Physiology, Molecular Biology, And Biochemistry Associated With Maize Seedlings Germinated From Freeze-Damaged Seed , Jack Alan Hartwigsen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Injury to immature maize seed caused by early season frost is of great economic concern to seed producers. Surprisingly, there has been very little research investigating the adverse effects of freezing on immature seed and the resulting biochemical changes in seedlings germinated from freeze damaged seed. In this three part study, we investigated the effects of freezing injury, first as they pertained to the overall viability of the seed, then to how exposure of immature seed to freezing induces biochemical changes in seedlings germinated from these seed. We found that the extent of freezing injury as determined by reduced viability ...


Effect Of Atmospheric Co2 Enrichment On Root Growth And Carbohydrate Allocation Of Phaseolus Spp., Katrina J. Salsman, Dean N. Jordan, S. D. Smith, D. S. Neuman Jan 1999

Effect Of Atmospheric Co2 Enrichment On Root Growth And Carbohydrate Allocation Of Phaseolus Spp., Katrina J. Salsman, Dean N. Jordan, S. D. Smith, D. S. Neuman

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

A glasshouse experiment was conducted with plants of Phaseolus grown in liquid culture. Root growth parameters (biomass, diameter, length, growth rate, zone of cell division), root rheological components (wall extensibility, water potential yield threshold, water potential), shoot growth, carbon allocation, and abscisic acid (ABA) concentration were measured in Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray at ambient (550 μmol mol−1) and elevated (700 μmol mol−1) atmospheric CO2 concentrations. For contrast, measurements of above‐ and belowground growth were conducted on Phaseolus vulgaris L. in the same treatments. Under nonlimiting conditions of water and nutrients, elevated CO2 increased root and shoot growth of ...


Comparison Of Common Cytotypes Of Andropogon Gerardii (Andropogoneae, Poaceae), Kathleen H. Keeler, Geoffrey A. Davis Jan 1999

Comparison Of Common Cytotypes Of Andropogon Gerardii (Andropogoneae, Poaceae), Kathleen H. Keeler, Geoffrey A. Davis

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

Many plant species contain populations with more than one polyploid cytotype, but little is known of the mechanisms maintaining several cytotypes in a population. Andropogon gerardii cytotypes were compared to evaluate different models of autopolyploid cytotype coexistence. The enneaploid (90 chromosome, 9x) cytotype was found to be larger and taller than the hexaploid (60 chromosome, 6x) cytotype. Seed production is significantly more efficient in hexaploids, but seed production per area was not significantly different. The two cytotypes are not exomorphologically separable in the field because of great plasticity in response to environmental variation and wide variation within each ...


Notes: Evaluation Of A Filter Bag System For Ndf, Adf, And Ivdmd Forage Analysis, Kenneth P. Vogel, Jeffrey F. Pedersen, Steven D. Masterson, John J. Toy Jan 1999

Notes: Evaluation Of A Filter Bag System For Ndf, Adf, And Ivdmd Forage Analysis, Kenneth P. Vogel, Jeffrey F. Pedersen, Steven D. Masterson, John J. Toy

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

A new method of determining in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) as recently developed in which the digestion is conducted with the forage samples in filter bags. Our objective was to compare the filter bag and conventional IVDMD analysis methods using smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss.), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), and forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] samples. In addition, the filter bag analysis systems for determining non-sequential neutral and acid detergent fiber (NDF and ADF), respectively, were compared with the non-sequential conventional analysis systems. In the filter bag systems, the forage samples are sealed in filter bags and the ...


Effect Of Leaf Phosphorus And Potassium Concentration On Chlorophyll Meter Reading In Rice, Shaobing Peng, Arnel L. Sanico, Felipe V. Garcia, Rebecca C. Laza, Romeo M. Visperas, Josue P. Descalsota, Kenneth G. Cassman Jan 1999

Effect Of Leaf Phosphorus And Potassium Concentration On Chlorophyll Meter Reading In Rice, Shaobing Peng, Arnel L. Sanico, Felipe V. Garcia, Rebecca C. Laza, Romeo M. Visperas, Josue P. Descalsota, Kenneth G. Cassman

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Chlorophyll meter (SPAD) is a convenient tool to estimate leaf nitrogen (N) concentration of rice plants. There is no information on the effects of leaf phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) concentration on SP AD readings and on the relationship between SPAD values and leaf N concentration in the literature. In 1996 dry season, cv IR72 was grown at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) and the Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice) under various N, P and K fertilizer combinations. SPAD measurements were made on the topmost fully expanded leaves at mid-tillering and panicle initiation. The leaves were then detached, dried ...


Loci Controlling Resistance To High Plains Virus And Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus In A B73 × Mo17 Population Of Maize, A. Marçon, S. M. Kaeppler, S. G. Jensen, L. Senior, C. Stuber Jan 1999

Loci Controlling Resistance To High Plains Virus And Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus In A B73 × Mo17 Population Of Maize, A. Marçon, S. M. Kaeppler, S. G. Jensen, L. Senior, C. Stuber

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

High Plains disease has the potential to cause significant yield loss in susceptible corn (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes, especially in the central and western USA. The primary causal agent, High Plains virus (HPV), is vectored by wheat curl mite (WCM; Aceria tossicheila Keifer), which is also the vector of wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV). In general, the two diseases occur together as a mixed infection in the field. The objective of this research was to characterize the inheritance of HPV and WSMV resistance using B73 (resistant to HPV and WSMV) × Mo17 (moderately susceptible to HPV ...


Measurement Of Sorghum Stalk Strength Using The Missouri-Modified Electronic Rind Penetrometer, Jeffrey F. Pedersen, J. J. Toy Jan 1999

Measurement Of Sorghum Stalk Strength Using The Missouri-Modified Electronic Rind Penetrometer, Jeffrey F. Pedersen, J. J. Toy

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Resistance to lodging is critical in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] grown for grain, yet adequate tools for plant breeders to assess this character at or before anthesis have not been developed. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether an electronic penetrometer previously shown to be an effective tool for measuring stalk strength in maize (Zea mays L.) could be usedd to differentiate among grain sorghum hybrids. Entries in three commercial grain sorghum hybrid trials were evaluated for rind penetrometer resistance (RPR) of the peduncle, the lower stalk anthesis and the lower stalk at maturity. Actual lodging counts ...