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Principles, Applications, And Biosafety Of Plant Genome Editing Using Crispr-Cas9, Kaoutar El-Mounadi, María Luisa Morales-Floriano, Hernan Garcia-Ruiz Jan 2020

Principles, Applications, And Biosafety Of Plant Genome Editing Using Crispr-Cas9, Kaoutar El-Mounadi, María Luisa Morales-Floriano, Hernan Garcia-Ruiz

Papers in Plant Pathology

The terms genome engineering, genome editing, and gene editing, refer to modifications (insertions, deletions, substitutions) in the genome of a living organism. The most widely used approach to genome editing nowadays is based on Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats and associated protein 9 (CRISPR-Cas9). In prokaryotes, CRISPR-Cas9 is an adaptive immune system that naturally protects cells from DNA virus infections. CRISPR-Cas9 has been modified to create a versatile genome editing technology that has a wide diversity of applications in medicine, agriculture, and basic studies of gene functions. CRISPR-Cas9 has been used in a growing number of monocot and dicot ...


Transcriptome Divergence During Leaf Development In Two Contrasting Switchgrass (Panicum Virgatum L.) Cultivars, Nathan A. Palmer, R. V. Chowda-Reddy, Anthony A. Muhle, Satyanarayana Tatineni, Gary Y. Yuen, Serge J. Edme, Robert B. Mitchell, Gautam Sarath Sep 2019

Transcriptome Divergence During Leaf Development In Two Contrasting Switchgrass (Panicum Virgatum L.) Cultivars, Nathan A. Palmer, R. V. Chowda-Reddy, Anthony A. Muhle, Satyanarayana Tatineni, Gary Y. Yuen, Serge J. Edme, Robert B. Mitchell, Gautam Sarath

Papers in Plant Pathology

The genetics and responses to biotic stressors of tetraploid switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) lowland cultivar ‘Kanlow’ and upland cultivar Summer are distinct and can be exploited for trait improvement. In general, there is a paucity of data on the basal differences in transcription across tissue developmental times for switchgrass cultivars. Here, the changes in basal and temporal expression of genes related to leaf functions were evaluated for greenhouse grown ‘Kanlow’, and ‘Summer’ plants. Three biological replicates of the 4th leaf pooled from 15 plants per replicate were harvested at regular intervals beginning from leaf emergence through senescence. Increases and decreases ...


Neonicotinoid Seed Treatments Of Soybean Provide Negligible Benefits To Us Farmers, Spyridon Mourtzinis, Christian H. Krupke, Paul D. Esker, Adam J. Varenhorst, Nicholas J. Arneson, Carl A. Bradley, Adam M. Byrne, Martin I. Chilvers, Loren Giesler, Ames Herbert, Yuba R. Kandel, Maciej J. Kazula, Catherine Hunt, Laura E. Lindsey, Sean Malone, Daren S. Mueller, Seth Naeve, Emerson Nafziger, Dominic D. Reisig, William J. Ross, Devon R. Rossman, Sally Taylor, Shawn P. Conley Sep 2019

Neonicotinoid Seed Treatments Of Soybean Provide Negligible Benefits To Us Farmers, Spyridon Mourtzinis, Christian H. Krupke, Paul D. Esker, Adam J. Varenhorst, Nicholas J. Arneson, Carl A. Bradley, Adam M. Byrne, Martin I. Chilvers, Loren Giesler, Ames Herbert, Yuba R. Kandel, Maciej J. Kazula, Catherine Hunt, Laura E. Lindsey, Sean Malone, Daren S. Mueller, Seth Naeve, Emerson Nafziger, Dominic D. Reisig, William J. Ross, Devon R. Rossman, Sally Taylor, Shawn P. Conley

Papers in Plant Pathology

Neonicotinoids are the most widely used insecticides worldwide and are typically deployed as seed treatments (hereafter NST) in many grain and oilseed crops, including soybeans. However, there is a surprising dearth of information regarding NST effectiveness in increasing soybean seed yield, and most published data suggest weak, or inconsistent yield benefit. The US is the key soybean-producing nation worldwide and this work includes soybean yield data from 194 randomized and replicated field studies conducted specifically to evaluate the effect of NSTs on soybean seed yield at sites within 14 states from 2006 through 2017. Here we show that across the ...


Meta-Analysis Of Yield Response Of Foliar Fungicide-Treated Hybrid Corn In The United States And Ontario, Canada, Kiersten A. Wise, Damon Smith, Anna Freije, Daren S. Mueller, Yuba Kandel, Tom Allen, Carl A. Bradley, Emmanuel Byamukama, Martin Chilvers, Travis Faske, Andrew Friskop, Clayton Hollier, Tamra Jackson-Ziems, Heather Kelly, Bob Kemerait, Paul Price Iii, Alison Robertson, Albert Tenuta Jun 2019

Meta-Analysis Of Yield Response Of Foliar Fungicide-Treated Hybrid Corn In The United States And Ontario, Canada, Kiersten A. Wise, Damon Smith, Anna Freije, Daren S. Mueller, Yuba Kandel, Tom Allen, Carl A. Bradley, Emmanuel Byamukama, Martin Chilvers, Travis Faske, Andrew Friskop, Clayton Hollier, Tamra Jackson-Ziems, Heather Kelly, Bob Kemerait, Paul Price Iii, Alison Robertson, Albert Tenuta

Papers in Plant Pathology

Foliar fungicide applications to corn (Zea mays L.) occur at one or more application timings ranging from early vegetative growth stages to mid-reproductive stages. Previous studies indicated that fungicide applications are profitable under high disease pressure when applied during the tasseling to silking growth stages. Few comprehensive studies in corn have examined the impact of fungicide applications at an early vegetative growth stage (V6) compared to late application timings (VT) for yield response and return on fungicide investment (ROI) across multiple locations.


Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus Alters The Transcriptome Of Its Vector, Wheat Curl Mite (Aceria Tosichella Keifer), To Enhance Mite Development And Population Expansion, Adarsh K. Gupta, Erin D. Scully, Nathan A. Palmer, Scott M. Geib, Gautam Sarath, Gary L. Hein, Satyanarayana Tatineni Apr 2019

Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus Alters The Transcriptome Of Its Vector, Wheat Curl Mite (Aceria Tosichella Keifer), To Enhance Mite Development And Population Expansion, Adarsh K. Gupta, Erin D. Scully, Nathan A. Palmer, Scott M. Geib, Gautam Sarath, Gary L. Hein, Satyanarayana Tatineni

Papers in Plant Pathology

Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV; genus Tritimovirus; family Potyviridae) is an economically important wheat virus that is transmitted by the wheat curl mite (WCM; Aceria tosichella Keifer) in a persistent manner. Virus–vector coevolution may potentially influence vector gene expression to prolong viral association and thus increase virus transmission efficiency and spread. To understand the transcriptomic responses of WCM to WSMV, RNA sequencing was performed to assemble and analyse transcriptomes of WSMV viruliferous and aviruliferous mites. Among 7291 de novo-assembled unigenes, 1020 were differentially expressed between viruliferous and aviruliferous WCMs using edgeR at a false discovery rate 0.05. Differentially ...


Response Of Sorghum Enhanced In Monolignol Biosynthesis To Stalk Rot Pathogens, Deanna L. Funnell-Harris, Scott E. Sattler, Patrick M. O'Neill, Tammy Gries, Hannah M. Tetreault, Thomas E. Clemente Apr 2019

Response Of Sorghum Enhanced In Monolignol Biosynthesis To Stalk Rot Pathogens, Deanna L. Funnell-Harris, Scott E. Sattler, Patrick M. O'Neill, Tammy Gries, Hannah M. Tetreault, Thomas E. Clemente

Papers in Plant Pathology

To increase phenylpropanoid constituents and energy content in the versatile C4 grass sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench), sorghum genes for protiens related to monolignol biosynthesis were overexpressed: SbMyb60 (transcriptional activator), SbPAL (phenylalanine ammonia ase), Bmr2 (4-coumarate: CoA ligase), and SbC3H (coumaroyl shikimate 3-hydroxylase). Overexpression lines were evaluted for responses to stalk pahtogens under greenhouse and field conditions. Greenhouse-grown plants were inoculated with Fusarium thapsinum (Fusarium stalk rot) and Macrophomia phaseolina (charocal rot), which cause yield-reducing diseases. F. thapsinum-inoculated overexpression plants had mean lesion lengths not significantly different than wild-type, except for significantly smaller lesions on two of three SbMyb60 and ...


Mitotic Recombination And Rapid Genome Evolution In The Invasive Forest Pathogen Phytophthora Ramorum, Angela L. Dale, Nicolas Feau, Sydney E. Everhart, Braham Dhillon, Barbara Wong, Julie Sheppard, Guillaume J. Bilodeau, Avneet Brar, Javier F. Tabima, Danyu Shen, Clive M. Brasier, Brett M. Tyler, Niklaus J. Grünwald, Richard C. Hamelin Mar 2019

Mitotic Recombination And Rapid Genome Evolution In The Invasive Forest Pathogen Phytophthora Ramorum, Angela L. Dale, Nicolas Feau, Sydney E. Everhart, Braham Dhillon, Barbara Wong, Julie Sheppard, Guillaume J. Bilodeau, Avneet Brar, Javier F. Tabima, Danyu Shen, Clive M. Brasier, Brett M. Tyler, Niklaus J. Grünwald, Richard C. Hamelin

Papers in Plant Pathology

Invasive alien species often have reduced genetic diversity and must adapt to new environments. Given the success of many invasions, this is sometimes called the genetic paradox of invasion. Phytophthora ramorum is invasive, limited to asexual reproduction within four lineages, and presumed clonal. It is responsible for sudden oak death in the United States, sudden larch death in Europe, and ramorum blight in North America and Europe. We sequenced the genomes of 107 isolates to determine how this pathogen can overcome the invasion paradox. Mitotic recombination (MR) associated with transposons and low gene density has generated runs of homozygosity (ROH ...


Cryopreservation Of Paramecium Bursaria Chlorella Virus-1 During An Active Infection Cycle Of Its Host, Samantha R. Coy, Alyssa N. Alsante, James L. Van Etten, Steven W. Wilhelm Jan 2019

Cryopreservation Of Paramecium Bursaria Chlorella Virus-1 During An Active Infection Cycle Of Its Host, Samantha R. Coy, Alyssa N. Alsante, James L. Van Etten, Steven W. Wilhelm

Papers in Plant Pathology

Best practices in laboratory culture management often include cryopreservation of microbiota, but this can be challenging with some virus particles. By preserving viral isolates researchers can mitigate genetic drift and laboratory-induced selection, thereby maintaining genetically consistent strains between experiments. To this end, we developed a method to cryopreserve the model, green-alga infecting virus, Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1). We explored cryotolerance of the infectivity of this virus particle, whereby freezing without cryoprotectants was found to maintain the highest infectivity (~2.5%). We then assessed the cryopreservation potential of PBCV-1 during an active infection cycle in its Chlorella variabilis NC64A ...


Host Factors Against Plant Viruses, Hernan Garcia Ruiz Jan 2019

Host Factors Against Plant Viruses, Hernan Garcia Ruiz

Papers in Plant Pathology

Plant virus genome replication and movement is dependent on host resources and factors. However, plants respond to virus infection through several mechanisms, such as autophagy, ubiquitination, mRNA decay and gene silencing, that target viral components. Viral factors work in synchrony with pro-viral host factors during the infection cycle and are targeted by antiviral responses. Accordingly, establishment of virus infection is genetically determined by the availability of the pro-viral factors necessary for genome replication and movement, and by the balance between plant defence and viral suppression of defence responses. Sequential requirement of pro-viral factors and the antagonistic activity of antiviral factors ...


A Small Viral Potassium Ion Channel With An Inherent Inward Rectification, Denise Eckert, Tobias Schulze, Julian Stahl, Oliver Rauh, James L. Van Etten, Brigitte Hertel, Indra Schroeder, Anna Moroni, Gerhard Thiel Jan 2019

A Small Viral Potassium Ion Channel With An Inherent Inward Rectification, Denise Eckert, Tobias Schulze, Julian Stahl, Oliver Rauh, James L. Van Etten, Brigitte Hertel, Indra Schroeder, Anna Moroni, Gerhard Thiel

Papers in Plant Pathology

Some algal viruses have coding sequences for proteins with structural and functional characteristics of pore modules of complex K+ channels. Here we exploit the structural diversity among these channel orthologs to discover new basic principles of structure/function correlates in K+ channels. The analysis of three similar K+ channels with ≤ 86 amino acids (AA) shows that one channel (Kmpv1) generates an ohmic conductance in HEK293 cells while the other two (KmpvSP1, KmpvPL1) exhibit typical features of canonical Kir channels. Like Kir channels, the rectification of the viral channels is a function of the K+ driving force. Reconstitution ...


When Viruses Infect Plants, Hernan Garcia-Ruiz Jan 2019

When Viruses Infect Plants, Hernan Garcia-Ruiz

Papers in Plant Pathology

Just as human beings can catch a cold, plants can also get viral infections. Understanding the mechanisms regulating the interactions between plants and viruses is the first step towards developing better management strategies and using biotechnology methods to immunise plants and engineer genetic resistance to viruses in plants. This is the focus of research by Dr Hernan Garcia-Ruiz and his team based at the University of Nebraska, USA.

Viral diseases in plants can cause important economic losses as a result of poor-quality products and lower yield. This impact can particularly seriously affect developing countries which are more likely to be ...


Dna Barcoding Evidence For The North American Presence Of Alfalfa Cyst Nematode, Heterodera Medicaginis, Tom Powers, Andrea Skantar, Timothy Harris, Rebecca Higgins, Peter Mullin, Saad Hafez, Zafar Handoo, Tim Todd, Kirsten S. Powers Aug 2018

Dna Barcoding Evidence For The North American Presence Of Alfalfa Cyst Nematode, Heterodera Medicaginis, Tom Powers, Andrea Skantar, Timothy Harris, Rebecca Higgins, Peter Mullin, Saad Hafez, Zafar Handoo, Tim Todd, Kirsten S. Powers

Papers in Plant Pathology

Specimens of Heterodera have been collected from alfalfa fields in Kearny County, Kansas and Carbon County, Montana. DNA barcoding with the COI mitochondrial gene indicate that the species is not Heterodera glycines, soybean cyst nematode, H. schachtii, sugar beet cyst nematode, or H. trifolii, clover cyst nematode. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees show that the alfalfa specimens form a sister clade most closely related to H. glycines, with a 4.7% mean pairwise sequence divergence across the 862 nucleotides of the COI marker. Morphological analyses of juveniles and cysts conform to the measurements of H. medicaginis, the alfalfa cyst nematode originally ...


Clarireedia: A New Fungal Genus Comprising Four Pathogenic Species Responsible For Dollar Spot Disease Of Turfgrass, Catalina Salgado-Salazar, Lisa A. Beirn, Adnan Ismaiel, Michael J. Boehm, Ignazio Carbone, Alexander I. Putman, Lane P. Tredway, Bruce B. Clarke, Jo Anne Crouch Apr 2018

Clarireedia: A New Fungal Genus Comprising Four Pathogenic Species Responsible For Dollar Spot Disease Of Turfgrass, Catalina Salgado-Salazar, Lisa A. Beirn, Adnan Ismaiel, Michael J. Boehm, Ignazio Carbone, Alexander I. Putman, Lane P. Tredway, Bruce B. Clarke, Jo Anne Crouch

Papers in Plant Pathology

Dollar spot is one of the most destructive and economically important fungal diseases of amenity turfgrasses. The causal agent was first described in 1937 as the ascomycete Sclerotinia homoeocarpa. However, the genus-level taxonomic placement of this fungus has been the subject of an ongoing debate for over 75 y. Existing morphological and rDNA sequence evidence indicates that this organism is more appropriately placed in the family Rutstroemiaceae rather than the Sclerotiniaceae. Here we use DNA sequence data from samples of the dollar spot fungus and other members of the Rutstroemiaceae (e.g. Rutstroemia, Lanzia, Lambertella) collected throughout the world to ...


Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Nss Protein Supports Infection And Systemic Movement Of A Potyvirus And Is A Symptom Determinant, Hernan Garcia-Ruiz, Sergio M. Gabriel Peralta, Patricia A. Harte-Maxwell Jan 2018

Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Nss Protein Supports Infection And Systemic Movement Of A Potyvirus And Is A Symptom Determinant, Hernan Garcia-Ruiz, Sergio M. Gabriel Peralta, Patricia A. Harte-Maxwell

Papers in Plant Pathology

Plant viruses are inducers and targets of antiviral RNA silencing. To condition susceptibility, most plant viruses encode silencing suppressor proteins that interfere with antiviral RNA silencing. The NSs protein is an RNA silencing suppressor in orthotospoviruses, such as the tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). The mechanism of RNA silencing suppression by NSs and its role in virus infection and movement are poorly understood. Here, we cloned and tagged TSWV NSs and expressed it from a GFP-tagged turnip mosaic virus (TuMV-GFP) carrying either a wild-type or suppressor-deficient (AS9) helper component proteinase (HC-Pro). When expressed in cis, NSs restored pathogenicity and promoted ...


Tor-Autophagy Branch Signaling Via Imp1 Dictates Plant-Microbe Biotrophic Interface Longevity, Guangchao Sun, Christian Elowsky, Gang Li, Richard Wilson Jan 2018

Tor-Autophagy Branch Signaling Via Imp1 Dictates Plant-Microbe Biotrophic Interface Longevity, Guangchao Sun, Christian Elowsky, Gang Li, Richard Wilson

Papers in Plant Pathology

Like other intracellular eukaryotic phytopathogens, the devastating rice blast fungus Magnaporthe (Pyricularia) oryzae first infects living host cells by elaborating invasive hyphae (IH) surrounded by a plant-derived membrane. This forms an extended biotrophic interface enclosing an apoplastic compartment into which fungal effectors can be deployed to evade host detection. M. oryzae also forms a focal, plant membrane-rich structure, the biotrophic interfacial complex (BIC), that accumulates cytoplasmic effectors for translocation into host cells. Molecular decision-making processes integrating fungal growth and metabolism in host cells with interface function and dynamics are unknown. Here, we report unanticipated roles for the M. oryzae Target-of-Rapamycin ...


Intermolecular Rna Recombination Occurs At Different Frequencies In Alternate Forms Of Brome Mosaic Virus Rna Replication Compartments, Hernan Garcia-Ruiz, Arturo Diaz, Paul Ahlquist Jan 2018

Intermolecular Rna Recombination Occurs At Different Frequencies In Alternate Forms Of Brome Mosaic Virus Rna Replication Compartments, Hernan Garcia-Ruiz, Arturo Diaz, Paul Ahlquist

Papers in Plant Pathology

Positive-strand RNA viruses replicate their genomes in membrane-bound replication compartments. Brome mosaic virus (BMV) replicates in vesicular invaginations of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. BMV has served as a productive model system to study processes like virus-host interactions, RNA replication and recombination. Here we present multiple lines of evidence showing that the structure of the viral RNA replication compartments plays a fundamental role and that recruitment of parental RNAs to a common replication compartment is a limiting step in intermolecular RNA recombination. We show that a previously defined requirement for an RNA recruitment element on both parental RNAs is not to ...


Profile Of Genetically Modified Plants Authorized In Mexico, Mayra Teresa Garcia Ruiz, Aaron N. Knapp, Hernan Garcia Ruiz Jan 2018

Profile Of Genetically Modified Plants Authorized In Mexico, Mayra Teresa Garcia Ruiz, Aaron N. Knapp, Hernan Garcia Ruiz

Papers in Plant Pathology

Mexico is a center of origin for several economically important plants including maize, cotton, and cocoa. Maize represents more than a food crop, has been declared a biological, cultural, agricultural and economic patrimony, and is linked to the national identity of Mexicans. In this review, we describe the historic and current use of genetically modified plants in Mexico and factors that contributed to the development of the biosafety regulation. We developed a database containing all permit applications received by the government to release genetically modified plants. A temporal and geographical analysis identified the plant species that have been authorized for ...


Proteomic Analysis Of Ubiquitinated Proteins In Rice (Oryza Sativa) After Treatment With Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern (Pamp) Elicitors, Xiao-Lin Chen, Xin Xie, Liye Wu, Caiyun Liu, Lirong Zeng, Xueping Zhou, Feng Luo, Guo-Liang Wang, Wende Liu Jan 2018

Proteomic Analysis Of Ubiquitinated Proteins In Rice (Oryza Sativa) After Treatment With Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern (Pamp) Elicitors, Xiao-Lin Chen, Xin Xie, Liye Wu, Caiyun Liu, Lirong Zeng, Xueping Zhou, Feng Luo, Guo-Liang Wang, Wende Liu

Papers in Plant Pathology

Reversible protein ubiquitination plays essential roles in regulating cellular processes. Although many reports have described the functions of ubiquitination in plant defense responses, few have focused on global changes in the ubiquitome. To better understand the regulatory roles of ubiquitination in rice pattern-triggered immunity (PTI), we investigated the ubiquitome of rice seedlings after treatment with two pathogen-associated molecular patterns, the fungal-derived chitin or the bacterialderived flg22, using label-free quantitative proteomics. In chitin-treated samples, 144 and 167 lysine-ubiquitination sites in 121 and 162 proteins showed increased and decreased ubiquitination, respectively. In flg22-treated samples, 151 and 179 lysine-ubiquitination sites in 118 and ...


Pushing The Resolution Limit By Correcting The Ewald Sphere Effect In Single-Particle Cryo-Em Reconstructions, Dongjie Zhu, Xiangxi Wang, Qianglin Fang, James L. Van Etten, Michael G. Rossmann, Zihe Rao, Xinzheng Zhang Jan 2018

Pushing The Resolution Limit By Correcting The Ewald Sphere Effect In Single-Particle Cryo-Em Reconstructions, Dongjie Zhu, Xiangxi Wang, Qianglin Fang, James L. Van Etten, Michael G. Rossmann, Zihe Rao, Xinzheng Zhang

Papers in Plant Pathology

The Ewald sphere effect is generally neglected when using the Central Projection Theorem for cryo electron microscopy single-particle reconstructions. This can reduce the resolution of a reconstruction. Here we estimate the attainable resolution and report a “block-based” reconstruction method for extending the resolution limit. We find the Ewald sphere effect limits the resolution of large objects, especially large viruses. After processing two real datasets of large viruses, we show that our procedure can extend the resolution for both datasets and can accommodate the flexibility associated with large protein complexes.


Clean Low-Biomass Procedures And Their Application To Ancient Ice Core Microorganisms, Zhi-Ping Zhong, Natalie E. Solonenko, Maria C. Gazitua, Donald V. Kenny, Ellen Mosley-Thompson, Virginia I. Rich, James L. Van Etten, Lonnie G. Thompson, Matthew B. Sullivan Jan 2018

Clean Low-Biomass Procedures And Their Application To Ancient Ice Core Microorganisms, Zhi-Ping Zhong, Natalie E. Solonenko, Maria C. Gazitua, Donald V. Kenny, Ellen Mosley-Thompson, Virginia I. Rich, James L. Van Etten, Lonnie G. Thompson, Matthew B. Sullivan

Papers in Plant Pathology

Microorganisms in glacier ice provide tens to hundreds of thousands of years archive for a changing climate and microbial responses to it. Analyzing ancient ice is impeded by technical issues, including limited ice, low biomass, and contamination. While many approaches have been evaluated and advanced to remove contaminants on ice core surfaces, few studies leverage modern sequencing to establish in silico decontamination protocols for glacier ice. Here we sought to apply such “clean” sampling techniques with in silico decontamination approaches used elsewhere to investigate microorganisms archived in ice at ~41 (D41, ~20,000 years) and ~49 m (D49, ~30,000 ...


Field Evaluation Of Commercially Available Small Unmanned Aircraft Crop Spray Systems, Wayne Woldt, D. Martin, M. Latheef, Greg Kruger, Robert J. Wright, Justin Mcmechan, Christopher A. Proctor, Tamra Jackson-Ziems Jan 2018

Field Evaluation Of Commercially Available Small Unmanned Aircraft Crop Spray Systems, Wayne Woldt, D. Martin, M. Latheef, Greg Kruger, Robert J. Wright, Justin Mcmechan, Christopher A. Proctor, Tamra Jackson-Ziems

Papers in Plant Pathology

Agricultural research and development on small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) has been directed toward UAS enabled sensing to detect features of interest. While compelling, there is an immediate need to increase the breadth and depth of UAS-based research, to move beyond sensing, and explore active intervention in agricultural production systems. This paper is focused on the concept of crop protection through ultra-precise, unmanned aerial application systems, and seeks to initiate research discussion in this important area of opportunity. Toward this end, two different, commercially available, small Unmanned Aerial Application Systems (sUAAS - defined as less than 55 lbs. maximum take-off weight ...


Elucidating The Role Of Highly Homologous Nicotiana Benthamiana Ubiquitin E2 Gene Family Members In Plant Immunity Through An Improved Virus‑Induced Gene Silencing Approach, Bangjun Zhou, Lirong Zeng Jan 2018

Elucidating The Role Of Highly Homologous Nicotiana Benthamiana Ubiquitin E2 Gene Family Members In Plant Immunity Through An Improved Virus‑Induced Gene Silencing Approach, Bangjun Zhou, Lirong Zeng

Papers in Plant Pathology

Background: Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has been used in many plant species as an attractive post transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) method for studying gene function either individually or at large-scale in a high-throughput manner. However, the specificity and efficiency for knocking down members of a highly homologous gene family have remained to date a significant challenge in VIGS due to silencing of off-targets. Results: Here we present an improved method for the selection and evaluation of gene fragments used for VIGS to specifically and efficiently knock down members of a highly homologous gene family. Using this method, we knocked down ...


The Tomato U-Box Type E3 Ligase Pub13 Acts With Group Iii Ubiquitin E2 Enzymes To Modulate Fls2-Mediated Immune Signaling, Bangjun Zhou, Lirong Zeng Jan 2018

The Tomato U-Box Type E3 Ligase Pub13 Acts With Group Iii Ubiquitin E2 Enzymes To Modulate Fls2-Mediated Immune Signaling, Bangjun Zhou, Lirong Zeng

Papers in Plant Pathology

In Arabidopsis and rice, the ubiquitin ligase PUB13-mediated protein degradation plays a significant role in plant pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and flowering time control. The Arabidopsis PUB13 has been shown to attenuate the pattern recognition receptor FLS2-mediated immune signaling by ubiquitinating FLS2 and consequently promoting its degradation by the 26S proteasome. Nevertheless, the cognate ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2) with which PUB13 acts to modulate FLS2-mediated PTI are unknown. To address this question, we investigate here the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) homolog of PUB13, SlPUB13 by utilizing the recently characterized complete set of tomato E2s. Of the 13 groups of tomato E2s, only members ...


Susceptibility Genes To Plant Viruses, Hernan Garcia Ruiz Jan 2018

Susceptibility Genes To Plant Viruses, Hernan Garcia Ruiz

Papers in Plant Pathology

Plant viruses use cellular factors and resources to replicate and move. Plants respond to viral infection by several mechanisms, including innate immunity, autophagy, and gene silencing, that viruses must evade or suppress. Thus, the establishment of infection is genetically determined by the availability of host factors necessary for virus replication and movement and by the balance between plant defense and viral suppression of defense responses. Host factors may have antiviral or proviral activities. Proviral factors condition susceptibility to viruses by participating in processes essential to the virus. Here, we review current advances in the identification and characterization of host factors ...


Characterization Of Neofabraea Actinidiae And N. Brasiliensis As Causal Agents Of Apple Bull’S-Eye Rot In Southern Brazil, Amauri Bogo, Carla C. Comparin, Rosa M. Valdebenito Sanhueza, Patricia Ritschel, Ricardo T. Casa, Fábio N. Silva, Sydney E. Everhart Jan 2018

Characterization Of Neofabraea Actinidiae And N. Brasiliensis As Causal Agents Of Apple Bull’S-Eye Rot In Southern Brazil, Amauri Bogo, Carla C. Comparin, Rosa M. Valdebenito Sanhueza, Patricia Ritschel, Ricardo T. Casa, Fábio N. Silva, Sydney E. Everhart

Papers in Plant Pathology

The causal agents of apple bull’s-eye rot in southern Brazil have recently been described as Neofabraea actinidiae and N. brasiliensis. Isolates of both species were evaluated for response of mycelial growth index (MGI) to different temperatures, enzyme production, mycelial growth inhibition and effective concentrations (EC50 and EC100) of the fungicides triflumizole, pyrimethanil and thiophanate methyl, as well as aggressiveness on fruits of ‘Fuji’ hybrid and ‘Pink Lady’. There was significantly lower mycelium growth in N. brasiliensis compared with N. actinidiae at all temperatures tested. Neither species grew at 3 and 32°C. There were minor differences in ...


Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolism And Plant-Fungal Interactions, Lauren M. Segal, Richard A. Wilson Jan 2018

Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolism And Plant-Fungal Interactions, Lauren M. Segal, Richard A. Wilson

Papers in Plant Pathology

Fungal interactions with plants can involve specific morphogenetic developments to access host cells, the suppression of plant defenses, and the establishment of a feeding lifestyle that nourishes the colonizer often—but not always—at the expense of the host. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism is central to the infection process, and the stage-specific production and/or neutralization of ROS is critical to the success of the colonization process. ROS metabolism during infection is dynamic—sometimes seemingly contradictory—and involves endogenous and exogenous sources. Yet, intriguingly, molecular decision-making involved in the spatio-temporal control of ROS metabolism is largely unknown. When also ...


Genome-Wide Analysis Of Genes Encoding Core Components Of The Ubiquitin System In Soybean (Glycine Max) Reveals A Potential Role For Ubiquitination In Host Immunity Against Soybean Cyst Nematode, Chunyu Zhang, Li Song, Mani Kant Choudhary, Bangjun Zhou, Guangchao Sun, Kyle C. Broderick, Loren Giesler, Lirong Zeng Jan 2018

Genome-Wide Analysis Of Genes Encoding Core Components Of The Ubiquitin System In Soybean (Glycine Max) Reveals A Potential Role For Ubiquitination In Host Immunity Against Soybean Cyst Nematode, Chunyu Zhang, Li Song, Mani Kant Choudhary, Bangjun Zhou, Guangchao Sun, Kyle C. Broderick, Loren Giesler, Lirong Zeng

Papers in Plant Pathology

Background: Ubiquitination is a major post-translational protein modification that regulates essentially all cellular and physiological pathways in eukaryotes. The ubiquitination process typically involves three distinct classes of enzymes, ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1), ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) and ubiquitin ligase (E3). To date, a comprehensive identification and analysis of core components comprising of the whole soybean (Glycine max) ubiquitin system (UBS) has not been reported.

Results: We performed a systematic, genome-wide analysis of genes that encode core members of the soybean UBS in this study. A total of 1431 genes were identified with high confidence to encode putative soybean UBS components, including 4 ...


Evaluation Of Bacillus Strains For Plant Growth Promotion And Predictability Of Efficacy By In Vitro Physiological Traits, Rufus J. Akinrinlola, Gary Y. Yuen, Rhae A. Drijber, Anthony O. Adesemoye Jan 2018

Evaluation Of Bacillus Strains For Plant Growth Promotion And Predictability Of Efficacy By In Vitro Physiological Traits, Rufus J. Akinrinlola, Gary Y. Yuen, Rhae A. Drijber, Anthony O. Adesemoye

Papers in Plant Pathology

Bacilli are commonly used as plant growth-promoting agents but can be limited in effectiveness to certain crop and soil environments. The objectives of this study were to (1) identify Bacillus strains that can be consistent in promoting the growth of corn, wheat, and soybean and (2) determine whether physiological traits expressed in vitro can be predictive of growth promotion efficacy/consistency and be used for selecting effective strains. Twelve Bacillus strains isolated from wheat rhizospheres were evaluated in greenhouse pot tests with nonsterile soil for their effects on the growth of corn, soybean, and wheat. The strains also were assessed ...


Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus: A Century Old Virus With Rising Importance Worldwide, Khushwant Singh, Stephen N. Wegulo, Anna Skoracka, Jiban Kumar Kundu Jan 2018

Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus: A Century Old Virus With Rising Importance Worldwide, Khushwant Singh, Stephen N. Wegulo, Anna Skoracka, Jiban Kumar Kundu

Papers in Plant Pathology

Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) causes wheat streak mosaic, a disease of cereals and grasses that threatens wheat production worldwide. It is a monopartite, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus and the type member of the genus Tritimovirus in the family Potyviridae. The only known vector is the wheat curl mite (WCM, Aceria tosichella), recently identified as a species complex of biotypes differing in virus transmission. Low rates of seed transmission have been reported. Infected plants are stunted and have a yellow mosaic of parallel discontinuous streaks on the leaves. In the autumn, WCMs move from WSMV-infected volunteer wheat and other grass ...


Determination Of Vegetative Development And Flower Effect Of Transgenic Nicotiana Tabacum, Hasan Pinar, Aydin Uyun, Semih Yilmaz, Nedim Mutlu, Amitava Mitra Jan 2018

Determination Of Vegetative Development And Flower Effect Of Transgenic Nicotiana Tabacum, Hasan Pinar, Aydin Uyun, Semih Yilmaz, Nedim Mutlu, Amitava Mitra

Papers in Plant Pathology

Species and varieties in the Nicotiana genus may respond differently to photoperiodism in terms of flowering time control. These are classified as short day, neutral day and long day plants. One of these, Nicotiana tabacum cv. The Xanthi nc is a genotype which can flowering on a long day. But the genotype Kanamycin resistance can open its flowers in January when the resistance gene is transferred to the plant. On the other hand, the effect of rootstock to scion in plant species is very important. One of the issues raised is whether the transgenic plant in the rootstock is effect ...