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Semantic Segmentation Of Sorghum Using Hyperspectral Data Identifies Genetic Associations, Chenyong Miao, Alejandro Pages, Zheng Xu, Eric Rodene, Jinliang Yang, James C. Schnable Jan 2020

Semantic Segmentation Of Sorghum Using Hyperspectral Data Identifies Genetic Associations, Chenyong Miao, Alejandro Pages, Zheng Xu, Eric Rodene, Jinliang Yang, James C. Schnable

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

This study describes the evaluation of a range of approaches to semantic segmentation of hyperspectral images of sorghum plants, classifying each pixel as either nonplant or belonging to one of the three organ types (leaf, stalk, panicle). While many current methods for segmentation focus on separating plant pixels from background, organ-specific segmentation makes it feasible to measure a wider range of plant properties. Manually scored training data for a set of hyperspectral images collected from a sorghum association population was used to train and evaluate a set of supervised classification models. Many algorithms show acceptable accuracy for this classification task ...


Plant Segmentation By Supervised Machine Learning Methods, Jason Adams, Yumou Qiu, Yuhang Xu, James C. Schnable Jan 2020

Plant Segmentation By Supervised Machine Learning Methods, Jason Adams, Yumou Qiu, Yuhang Xu, James C. Schnable

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

High-throughput phenotyping systems provide abundant data for statistical analysis through plant imaging. Before usable data can be obtained, image processing must take place. In this study, we used supervised learning methods to segment plants from the background in such images and compared them with commonly used thresholding methods. Because obtaining accurate training data is a major obstacle to using supervised learning methods for segmentation, a novel approach to producing accurate labels was developed. We demonstrated that, with careful selection of training data through such an approach, supervised learning methods, and neural networks in particular, can outperform thresholding methods at segmentation.


Isoseq Transcriptome Assembly Of C3 Panicoid Grasses Provides Tools To Study Evolutionary Change In The Panicoideae, Daniel S. Carvalho, Aime V. Nishimwe, James C. Schnable Jan 2020

Isoseq Transcriptome Assembly Of C3 Panicoid Grasses Provides Tools To Study Evolutionary Change In The Panicoideae, Daniel S. Carvalho, Aime V. Nishimwe, James C. Schnable

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

The number of plant species with genomic and transcriptomic data has been increasing rapidly. The grasses—Poaceae—have been well represented among species with published reference genomes. However, as a result the genomes of wild grasses are less frequently targeted by sequencing efforts. Sequence data from wild relatives of crop species in the grasses can aid the study of domestication, gene discovery for breeding and crop improvement, and improve our understanding of the evolution of C4 photosynthesis. Here, we used long-read sequencing technology to characterize the transcriptomes of three C3 panicoid grass species: Dichanthelium oligosanthes, Chasmanthium laxum, and ...


Biological And Cellular Functions Of The Microdomain-Associated Fwl/Cnr Protein Family In Plants, Sandra Thibivilliers, Andrew Farmer, Marc Libault Jan 2020

Biological And Cellular Functions Of The Microdomain-Associated Fwl/Cnr Protein Family In Plants, Sandra Thibivilliers, Andrew Farmer, Marc Libault

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Membrane microdomains/nanodomains are sub-compartments of the plasma membrane enriched in sphingolipids and characterized by their unique protein composition. They play important roles in regulating plant development and plant-microbe interactions including mutualistic symbiotic interactions. Several protein families are associated with the microdomain fraction of biological membranes such as flotillins, prohibitins, and remorins. More recently, GmFWL1, a FWL/CNR protein exclusively expressed in the soybean nodule, was functionally characterized as a new microdomain-associated protein. Interestingly, GmFWL1 is homologous to the tomato FW2-2 protein, a major regulator of tomato fruit development. In this review, we summarize the knowledge gained about the biological ...


Oxidosqualene Cyclases Involved In The Biosynthesis Of Triterpenoids In Quercus Suber Cork, Lucas Busta, Olga Serra, Ok Tae Kim, Marisa Molinas, Irene Peré-Fossoul, Mercè Figueras, Reinhard Jetter Jan 2020

Oxidosqualene Cyclases Involved In The Biosynthesis Of Triterpenoids In Quercus Suber Cork, Lucas Busta, Olga Serra, Ok Tae Kim, Marisa Molinas, Irene Peré-Fossoul, Mercè Figueras, Reinhard Jetter

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Cork is a water-impermeable, suberin-based material harboring lignin, (hemi)cellulose, and extractable small molecules (primarily triterpenoids). Extractables strongly influence the properties of suberin-based materials. Though these previous findings suggest a key role for triterpenoids in cork material quality, directly testing this idea is hindered in part because it is not known which genes control cork triterpenoid biosynthesis. Here, we used gas chromatography and mass spectrometry to determine that the majority (>85%) of non-polar extractables from cork were pentacyclic triterpenoids, primarily betulinic acid, friedelin, and hydroxy-friedelin. In other plants, triterpenoids are generated by oxidosqualene cyclases (OSCs). Accordingly, we mined Quercus suber ...


Nature-Guided Synthesis Of Advanced Bio-Lubricants, Trevor Romsdahl, Asghar Shirani, Robert E. Minto, Chunyu Zhang, Edgar B. Cahoon, Kent D. Chapman, Diana Berman Aug 2019

Nature-Guided Synthesis Of Advanced Bio-Lubricants, Trevor Romsdahl, Asghar Shirani, Robert E. Minto, Chunyu Zhang, Edgar B. Cahoon, Kent D. Chapman, Diana Berman

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Design of environmentally friendly lubricants derived from renewable resources is highly desirable for many practical applications. Here, Orychophragmus violaceus (Ov) seed oil is found to have superior lubrication properties, and this is based on the unusual structural features of the major lipid species— triacylglycerol (TAG) estolides. Ov TAG estolides contain two non-hydroxylated, glycerol-bound fatty acids (FAs) and one dihydroxylated FA with an estolide branch. Estolide branch chains vary in composition and length, leading to their thermal stability and functional properties. Using this concept, nature-guided estolides of castor oil were synthesized. As predicted, they showed improved lubrication properties similar to Ov ...


The Database Of Identified Root-Specific Genes And Their Promoters In Maize, Sorghum, And Soybean, Gleb Moisseyev, Divith Rajagopal, Alix Cui, Kiyoul Park, Edgar B. Cahoon, Chi Zhang Aug 2019

The Database Of Identified Root-Specific Genes And Their Promoters In Maize, Sorghum, And Soybean, Gleb Moisseyev, Divith Rajagopal, Alix Cui, Kiyoul Park, Edgar B. Cahoon, Chi Zhang

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Root genes are essential to plants as they dictate factors such as the strength of the plant, reproductivity success, etc. However, in the status quo, studies on root genes are simply ineffective. To be more specific, currently, there are very few online databases of root genes and promoters, which essentially deters root gene studies from being successful. To fix this problem, our lab constructed and coded an online database that contains information about the roots of maize, soybean, and sorghum. We collected 1200 root genes and assessed the strength and success of a given gene. This online database of these ...


Assessing Anthocyanin Biosynthesis In Solanaceae As A Model Pathway For Secondary Metabolism, Zou Li, Trisha Vickrey, Moira G. Mcnally, Shirley J. Sato, Thomas E. Clemente, Jeffrey P. Mower Jul 2019

Assessing Anthocyanin Biosynthesis In Solanaceae As A Model Pathway For Secondary Metabolism, Zou Li, Trisha Vickrey, Moira G. Mcnally, Shirley J. Sato, Thomas E. Clemente, Jeffrey P. Mower

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Solanaceae have played an important role in elucidating how flower color is specified by the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway (FBP), which produces anthocyanins and other secondary metabolites. With well-established reverse genetics tools and rich genomic resources, Solanaceae provide a robust framework to examine the diversification of this well-studied pathway over short evolutionary timescales and to evaluate the predictability of genetic perturbation on pathway flux. Genomes of eight Solanaceae species, nine related asterids, and four rosids were mined to evaluate variation in copy number of the suite of FBP enzymes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Comparison of annotation sources indicated that the NCBI ...


Network‐Based Feature Selection Reveals Substructures Of Gene Modules Responding To Salt Stress In Rice, Qian Du, Malachy Campbell, Huihui Yu, Kan Liu, Harkamal Walia, Qi Zhang, Chi Zhang Jul 2019

Network‐Based Feature Selection Reveals Substructures Of Gene Modules Responding To Salt Stress In Rice, Qian Du, Malachy Campbell, Huihui Yu, Kan Liu, Harkamal Walia, Qi Zhang, Chi Zhang

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Rice, an important food resource, is highly sensitive to salt stress, which is directly related to food security. Although many studies have identified physiological mechanisms that confer tolerance to the osmotic effects of salinity, the link between rice genotype and salt tolerance is not very clear yet. Association of gene co‐expression network and rice phenotypic data under stress has penitential to identify stress‐responsive genes, but there is no standard method to associate stress phenotype with gene co‐expression network. A novel method for integration of gene co‐expression network and stress phenotype data was developed to conduct a ...


Identification Of Climate And Genetic Factors That Control Fat Content And Fatty Acid Composition Of Theobroma Cacao L. Beans, Guiliana M. Mustiga, Joe Morrissey, Joseph Conrad Stack, Ashley Duval, Stefan Royaert, Johannes Jansen, Carolina Bizzotto, Cristiano Villela-Dias, Linkai Mei, Edgar B. Cahoon, Ed Seguine, Jean Philippe Marelli, Juan Carlos Motamayor Jan 2019

Identification Of Climate And Genetic Factors That Control Fat Content And Fatty Acid Composition Of Theobroma Cacao L. Beans, Guiliana M. Mustiga, Joe Morrissey, Joseph Conrad Stack, Ashley Duval, Stefan Royaert, Johannes Jansen, Carolina Bizzotto, Cristiano Villela-Dias, Linkai Mei, Edgar B. Cahoon, Ed Seguine, Jean Philippe Marelli, Juan Carlos Motamayor

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

The main ingredients of chocolate are usually cocoa powder, cocoa butter, and sugar. Both the powder and the butter are extracted from the beans of the cacao tree (Theobroma cacao L.). The cocoa butter represents the fat in the beans and possesses a unique fatty acid profile that results in chocolate’s characteristic texture and mouthfeel. Here, we used a linkage mapping population and phenotypic data of 3,292 samples from 420 progeny which led to the identification of 27 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fatty acid composition and six QTLs for fat content. Progeny showed extensive variation in fat ...


Manipulation Of Β-Carotene Levels In Tomato Fruits Results In Increased Aba Content And Extended Shelf-Life, Gianfranco Diretto, Sarah Frusciante, Claudia Fabbri, Nicolas Schauer, Lucas Busta, Zhonghua Wang, Antonio J. Matas, Alessia Fiore, Jocelyn K. C. Rose, Alisdair R. Fernie, Reinhard Jetter, Benedetta Mattei, Jim Giovannoni, Giovanni Giuliano Jan 2019

Manipulation Of Β-Carotene Levels In Tomato Fruits Results In Increased Aba Content And Extended Shelf-Life, Gianfranco Diretto, Sarah Frusciante, Claudia Fabbri, Nicolas Schauer, Lucas Busta, Zhonghua Wang, Antonio J. Matas, Alessia Fiore, Jocelyn K. C. Rose, Alisdair R. Fernie, Reinhard Jetter, Benedetta Mattei, Jim Giovannoni, Giovanni Giuliano

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Tomato fruit ripening is controlled by the hormone ethylene and by a group of transcription factors, acting upstream of ethylene. During ripening, the linear carotene lycopene accumulates at the expense of cyclic carotenoids. Fruit-specific overexpression of LYCOPENE β-CYCLASE (LCYb) resulted in increased β-carotene (provitamin A) content. Unexpectedly, LCYb-overexpressing fruits also exhibited a diverse array of ripening phenotypes, including delayed softening and extended shelf life. These phenotypes were accompanied, at the biochemical level, by an increase of abscisic acid (ABA) content, decreased ethylene production, increased density of cell wall material containing linear pectins with a low degree of methylation, and ...


Mac3a And Mac3b, Two Core Subunits Of The Mos4-Associated Complex, Positively Influence Mirna Biogenesis, Shengjun Li, Kan Liu, Bangjun Zhou, Mu Li, Shuxin Zhang, Lirong Zeng, Chi Zhang, Bin Yu Feb 2018

Mac3a And Mac3b, Two Core Subunits Of The Mos4-Associated Complex, Positively Influence Mirna Biogenesis, Shengjun Li, Kan Liu, Bangjun Zhou, Mu Li, Shuxin Zhang, Lirong Zeng, Chi Zhang, Bin Yu

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

MAC3A and MAC3B are conserved U-box containing proteins in eukaryotes. They are subunits of the MOS4-associated complex (MAC) that plays essential roles in plant immunity and development in Arabidopsis. However, their functional mechanisms remain elusive. Here we show that Arabidopsis thaliana MAC3A and MAC3B act redundantly in microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis. Lack of both MAC3A and MAC3B in the mac3b mac3b double mutant reduces the accumulation of miRNAs, causing elevated transcript levels of miRNA targets. mac3a mac3b also decreases the levels of primary miRNA transcripts (pri-miRNAs). However, MAC3A and MAC3B do not affect the promoter activity of genes encoding miRNAs (MIR ...


Mac3a And Mac3b, Two Core Subunits Of The Mos4-Associated Complex, Positively Influence Mirna Biogenesis, Shengjun Li, Kan Liu, Bangjun Zhou, Mu Li, Shuxin Zhang, Lirong Zeng, Chi Zhang, Bin Yu Jan 2018

Mac3a And Mac3b, Two Core Subunits Of The Mos4-Associated Complex, Positively Influence Mirna Biogenesis, Shengjun Li, Kan Liu, Bangjun Zhou, Mu Li, Shuxin Zhang, Lirong Zeng, Chi Zhang, Bin Yu

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

MAC3A and MAC3B are conserved U-box containing proteins in eukaryotes. They are subunits of the MOS4-associated complex (MAC) that plays essential roles in plant immunity and development in Arabidopsis. However, their functional mechanisms remain elusive. Here we show that Arabidopsis thaliana MAC3A and MAC3B act redundantly in microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis. Lack of both MAC3A and MAC3B in the mac3b mac3b double mutant reduces the accumulation of miRNAs, causing elevated transcript levels of miRNA targets. mac3a mac3b also decreases the levels of primary miRNA transcripts (pri-miRNAs). However, MAC3A and MAC3B do not affect the promoter activity of genes encoding miRNAs (MIR ...


Conventional And Hyperspectral Time-Series Imaging Of Maize Lines Widely Used In Field Trials, Zhikai Liang, Piyush Pandey, Vincent Stoerger, Yuhang Xu, Yumou Qiu, Yufeng Ge, James C. Schnable Jan 2018

Conventional And Hyperspectral Time-Series Imaging Of Maize Lines Widely Used In Field Trials, Zhikai Liang, Piyush Pandey, Vincent Stoerger, Yuhang Xu, Yumou Qiu, Yufeng Ge, James C. Schnable

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Background: Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) is 1 of 3 crops, along with rice and wheat, responsible for more than one-half of all calories consumed around the world. Increasing the yield and stress tolerance of these crops is essential to meet the growing need for food. The cost and speed of plant phenotyping are currently the largest constraints on plant breeding efforts. Datasets linking new types of high-throughput phenotyping data collected from plants to the performance of the same genotypes under agronomic conditions across a wide range of environments are essential for developing new statistical approaches and computer vision–based ...


Single-Molecule Sequencing And Optical Mapping Yields An Improved Genome Of Woodland Strawberry (Fragaria Vesca) With Chromosome-Scale Contiguity, Patrick P. Edger, Robert Vanburen, Marivi Colle, Thomas J. Poorten, Ching Man Wai, Chad E. Niederhuth, Elizabeth I. Alger, Shujun Ou, Charlotte B. Acharya, Jie Wang, Pete Callow, Michael R. Mckain, Jinghua Shi, Chad Collier, Zhiyong Xiong, Jeffrey P. Mower, Janet P. Slovin, Timo Hytonen, Ning Jiang, Kevin L. Childs, Steven J. Knapp Jan 2018

Single-Molecule Sequencing And Optical Mapping Yields An Improved Genome Of Woodland Strawberry (Fragaria Vesca) With Chromosome-Scale Contiguity, Patrick P. Edger, Robert Vanburen, Marivi Colle, Thomas J. Poorten, Ching Man Wai, Chad E. Niederhuth, Elizabeth I. Alger, Shujun Ou, Charlotte B. Acharya, Jie Wang, Pete Callow, Michael R. Mckain, Jinghua Shi, Chad Collier, Zhiyong Xiong, Jeffrey P. Mower, Janet P. Slovin, Timo Hytonen, Ning Jiang, Kevin L. Childs, Steven J. Knapp

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Background: Although draft genomes are available for most agronomically important plant species, the majority are incomplete, highly fragmented, and often riddled with assembly and scaffolding errors. These assembly issues hinder advances in tool development for functional genomics and systems biology. Findings: Here we utilized a robust, cost-effective approach to produce high-quality reference genomes.We report a near-complete genome of diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) using single-molecule real-time sequencing from Pacific Biosciences (PacBio). This assembly has a contig N50 length of ~7.9 million base pairs (Mb), representing a ~300-fold improvement of the previous version. The vast majority (>99.8%) of ...


Identification Of Bottlenecks In The Accumulation Of Cyclic Fatty Acids In Camelina Seed Oil, Xiao-Hong Yu, Rebecca E. Cahoon, Patrick J. Horn, Hai Shi, Richa R. Prakash, Yuanheng Cai, Maegan Hearney, Kent D. Chapman, Edgar B. Cahoon, Jorg Schwender, John Shanklin Jan 2018

Identification Of Bottlenecks In The Accumulation Of Cyclic Fatty Acids In Camelina Seed Oil, Xiao-Hong Yu, Rebecca E. Cahoon, Patrick J. Horn, Hai Shi, Richa R. Prakash, Yuanheng Cai, Maegan Hearney, Kent D. Chapman, Edgar B. Cahoon, Jorg Schwender, John Shanklin

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Modified fatty acids (mFA) have diverse uses; for example, cyclopropane fatty acids (CPA) are feedstocks for producing coatings, lubricants, plastics and cosmetics. The expression of mFA-producing enzymes in crop and model plants generally results in lower levels of mFA accumulation than in their natural-occurring source plants. Thus, to further our understanding of metabolic bottlenecks that limit mFA accumulation, we generated transgenic Camelina sativa lines co-expressing Escherichia coli cyclopropane synthase (EcCPS) and Sterculia foetida lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (SfLPAT). In contrast to transgenic CPA-accumulating Arabidopsis, CPA accumulation in camelina caused only minor changes in seed weight, germination rate, oil accumulation and seedling ...


Sma1, A Homolog Of The Splicing Factor Prp28, Has A Multifaceted Role In Mirna Biogenesis In Arabidopsis, Shengjun Li, Ran Xu, Aixia Li, Kan Liu, Liqing Gu, Mu Li, Hairui Zhang, Yueying Zhang, Shangshang Zhuang, Quanhui Wang, Gang Gao, Na Li, Chi Zhang, Yunhai Li, Bin Yu Jan 2018

Sma1, A Homolog Of The Splicing Factor Prp28, Has A Multifaceted Role In Mirna Biogenesis In Arabidopsis, Shengjun Li, Ran Xu, Aixia Li, Kan Liu, Liqing Gu, Mu Li, Hairui Zhang, Yueying Zhang, Shangshang Zhuang, Quanhui Wang, Gang Gao, Na Li, Chi Zhang, Yunhai Li, Bin Yu

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that repress gene expression. In plants, the RNase III enzyme Dicer-like (DCL1) processes primary miRNAs (pri-miRNAs) into miRNAs. Here, we show that SMALL1 (SMA1), a homolog of the DEADbox pre-mRNA splicing factor Prp28, plays essential roles in miRNA biogenesis in Arabidopsis. A hypomorphic sma1-1 mutation causes growth defects and reduces miRNA accumulation correlated with increased target transcript levels. SMA1 interacts with the DCL1 complex and positively influences primiRNA processing. Moreover, SMA1 binds the promoter region of genes encoding pri-miRNAs (MIRs) and is required for MIR transcription. Furthermore, SMA1 also enhances ...


Xanthomonas Oryzae Pv. Oryzae Tale Proteins Recruit Ostfiiaγ1 To Compensate For The Absence Of Ostfiiaγ5 In Bacterial Blight In Rice, Wenxiu Ma, Lifang Zou, Zhiyuan Ji, Xiameng Xu, Zhengyin Xu, Yangyang Yang, James R. Alfano Jan 2018

Xanthomonas Oryzae Pv. Oryzae Tale Proteins Recruit Ostfiiaγ1 To Compensate For The Absence Of Ostfiiaγ5 In Bacterial Blight In Rice, Wenxiu Ma, Lifang Zou, Zhiyuan Ji, Xiameng Xu, Zhengyin Xu, Yangyang Yang, James R. Alfano

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the causal agent of bacterial blight (BB) of rice, uses transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) to interact with the basal transcription factor gamma subunit OsTFIIAγ5 (Xa5) and activates the transcription of host genes. However, how OsTFIIAγ1, the other OsTFIIAγ protein, functions in the presence of TALEs remains unclear. In this study, we show that OsTFIIAγ1 plays a compensatory role in the absence of Xa5. The expression of OsTFIIAγ1, which is activated by TALE PthXo7, increases the expression of host genes targeted by avirulent and virulent TALEs. Defective OsTFIIAγ1 rice lines show reduced expression of the TALE-targeted ...


Development Of Ifox-Hunting As A Functional Genomic Tool And Demonstration Of Its Use To Identify Early Senescence-Related Genes In The Polyploid Brassica Napus, Juan Ling, Renjie Li, Chinedu Charles Nwafor, Junluo Cheng, Maoteng Li, Qing Xi, Jian Wu, Lu Gan, Qingyong Yang, Chao Liu, Ming Chen, Yongming Zhou, Edgar B. Cahoon, Chunyu Zhang Jan 2018

Development Of Ifox-Hunting As A Functional Genomic Tool And Demonstration Of Its Use To Identify Early Senescence-Related Genes In The Polyploid Brassica Napus, Juan Ling, Renjie Li, Chinedu Charles Nwafor, Junluo Cheng, Maoteng Li, Qing Xi, Jian Wu, Lu Gan, Qingyong Yang, Chao Liu, Ming Chen, Yongming Zhou, Edgar B. Cahoon, Chunyu Zhang

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Functional genomic studies of many polyploid crops, including rapeseed (Brassica napus), are constrained by limited tool sets. Here we report development of a gain-of-function platform, termed ‘iFOX (inducible Full-length cDNA OvereXpressor gene)-Hunting’, for inducible expression of B. napus seed cDNAs in Arabidopsis. A Gateway-compatible plant gene expression vector containing a methoxyfenozide-inducible constitutive promoter for transgene expression was developed. This vector was used for cloning of random cDNAs from developing B. napus seeds and subsequent Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Arabidopsis. The inducible promoter of this vector enabled identification of genes upon induction that are otherwise lethal when constitutively overexpressed and to ...


Integrating Phylogenetic And Network Approaches To Study Gene Family Evolution: The Case Of The Agamous Family Of Floral Genes, Daniel Santana De Carvalho, James C. Schnable, Ana Maria R. Almeida Jan 2018

Integrating Phylogenetic And Network Approaches To Study Gene Family Evolution: The Case Of The Agamous Family Of Floral Genes, Daniel Santana De Carvalho, James C. Schnable, Ana Maria R. Almeida

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

The study of gene family evolution has benefited from the use of phylogenetic tools, which can greatly inform studies of both relationships within gene families and functional divergence. Here, we propose the use of a network-based approach that in combination with phylogenetic methods can provide additional support for models of gene family evolution. We dissect the contributions of each method to the improved understanding of relationships and functions within the well-characterized family of AGAMOUS floral development genes. The results obtained with the two methods largely agreed with one another. In particular, we show how network approaches can provide improved interpretations ...


Functional Modeling Of Plant Growth Dynamics, Y. Xu, Y. Qiu, James C. Schnable Jan 2018

Functional Modeling Of Plant Growth Dynamics, Y. Xu, Y. Qiu, James C. Schnable

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Recent advances in automated plant phenotyping have enabled the collection of time series measurements from the same plants of a wide range of traits at different developmental time scales. The availability of time series phenotypic datasets has increased interest in statistical approaches for comparing patterns of change among different plant genotypes and different treatment conditions. Two widely used methods of modeling growth with time are pointwise analysis of variance (ANOVA) and parametric sigmoidal curve fitting. Pointwise ANOVA yields discontinuous growth curves, which do not reflect the true dynamics of growth patterns in plants. In contrast, fitting a parametric model to ...


Gipc Glcnac Glycosyltransferase, Toshiki Ishikawa, Lin Fang, Emilie A. Rennie, Julien Sechet, Jingwei Yan, Beibei Jing, William Moore, Edgar B. Cahoon, Henrik V. Scheller, Maki Kawai-Yamada, Jenny C. Mortimer Jan 2018

Gipc Glcnac Glycosyltransferase, Toshiki Ishikawa, Lin Fang, Emilie A. Rennie, Julien Sechet, Jingwei Yan, Beibei Jing, William Moore, Edgar B. Cahoon, Henrik V. Scheller, Maki Kawai-Yamada, Jenny C. Mortimer

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Glycosylinositol phosphorylceramides (GIPCs), which have a ceramide core linked to a glycan headgroup of varying structure, are the major sphingolipids in the plant plasma membrane. Recently, we identified the major biosynthetic genes for GIPC glycosylation in Arabidopsis thaliana, and demonstrated that the glycan headgroup is essential for plant viability. However, the function of GIPCs and the significance of their structural variation are poorly understood. Here, we characterized the Arabidopsis glycosyltransferase GLUCOSAMINE INOSITOLPHOSPHORYLCERAMIDE TRANSFERASE1 (GINT1) and showed that it is responsible for the glycosylation of a subgroup of GIPCs found in seeds and pollen that contain N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and glucosamine (GlcN ...


Molecular Tools Enabling Pennycress (Thlaspi Arvense) As A Model Plant And Oilseed Cash Cover Crop, Michaela Mcginn, Winthrop B. Phippen, Ratan Chopra, Sunil Bansal, Brice A. Jarvis, Mary E. Phippen, Kevin M. Dorn, Maliheh Esfahanian, Tara J. Nazarenus, Edgar B. Cahoon, Timothy P. Durrett, M. David Marks, John C. Sedbrook Jan 2018

Molecular Tools Enabling Pennycress (Thlaspi Arvense) As A Model Plant And Oilseed Cash Cover Crop, Michaela Mcginn, Winthrop B. Phippen, Ratan Chopra, Sunil Bansal, Brice A. Jarvis, Mary E. Phippen, Kevin M. Dorn, Maliheh Esfahanian, Tara J. Nazarenus, Edgar B. Cahoon, Timothy P. Durrett, M. David Marks, John C. Sedbrook

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Thlapsi arvense L. (pennycress) is being developed as a profitable oilseed cover crop for the winter fallow period throughout the temperate regions of the world, controlling soil erosion and nutrients run-off on otherwise barren farmland. We demonstrate that pennycress can serve as a user-friendly model system akin to Arabidopsis that is well-suited for both laboratory and field experimentation. We sequenced the diploid genome of the spring-type Spring 32-10 inbred line (1C DNA content of 539 Mb; 2n = 14), identifying variation that may explain phenotypic differences with winter-type pennycress, as well as predominantly a one-to-one correspondence with Arabidopsis genes, which ...


The Role Of Type Iii Effectors From Xanthomonas Axonopodis Pv. Manihotis In Virulence And Suppression Of Plant Immunity, Cesar Augusto Medina, Paola Andrea Reyes, Cesar Augusto Trujillo, Juan Luis Gonzalez, David Alejandro Bejarano, Nathaly Andrea Montenegro, Jonathan M. Jacobs, Anna Joe, Silvia Restrepo, James R. Alfano, Adriana Bernal Jan 2018

The Role Of Type Iii Effectors From Xanthomonas Axonopodis Pv. Manihotis In Virulence And Suppression Of Plant Immunity, Cesar Augusto Medina, Paola Andrea Reyes, Cesar Augusto Trujillo, Juan Luis Gonzalez, David Alejandro Bejarano, Nathaly Andrea Montenegro, Jonathan M. Jacobs, Anna Joe, Silvia Restrepo, James R. Alfano, Adriana Bernal

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam) causes cassava bacterial blight, the most important bacterial disease of cassava. Xam, like other Xanthomonas species, requires type III effectors (T3Es) for maximal virulence. Xam strain CIO151 possesses 17 predicted T3Es belonging to the Xanthomonas outer protein (Xop) class. This work aimed to characterize nine Xop effectors present in Xam CIO151 for their role in virulence and modulation of plant immunity. Our findings demonstrate the importance of XopZ, XopX, XopAO1 and AvrBs2 for full virulence, as well as a redundant function in virulence between XopN and XopQ in susceptible cassava plants. We tested their role ...


Generation And Evaluation Of Modified Opaque-2 Popcorn Suggests A Route To Quality Protein Popcorn, Ying Ren, Abou Yobi, Leandra Marshall, Ruthie Angelovici, Oscar Rodriguez, David R. Holding Jan 2018

Generation And Evaluation Of Modified Opaque-2 Popcorn Suggests A Route To Quality Protein Popcorn, Ying Ren, Abou Yobi, Leandra Marshall, Ruthie Angelovici, Oscar Rodriguez, David R. Holding

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Introducing traits from dent corn to popcorn is challenging because it is difficult to recover adequate popping characteristics. QPM (Quality Protein Maize) is a dent corn variety carrying the opaque-2 (o2) mutation, specifying increased amounts of normally limiting essential amino acids, and modifier genes which restore the wild type vitreous kernel phenotype. In this study, we introgressed o2 and selected for endosperm modification using vitreousness and high 27-kD gamma zein content. In this way, we recovered high-lysine, fully poppable Quality Protein Popcorn (QPP). BC2F4 individuals with vitreous kernels were confirmed to be o2 mutants by both genotyping ...


Lycophyte Plastid Genomics: Extreme Variation In Gc, Gene And Intron Content And Multiple Inversions Between A Direct And Inverted Orientation Of The Rrna Repeat, Jeffrey P. Mower, Peng-Fei Ma, Felix Grewe, Alex Taylor, Todd P. Michael, Robert Vanburen, Yin-Long Qiu Jan 2018

Lycophyte Plastid Genomics: Extreme Variation In Gc, Gene And Intron Content And Multiple Inversions Between A Direct And Inverted Orientation Of The Rrna Repeat, Jeffrey P. Mower, Peng-Fei Ma, Felix Grewe, Alex Taylor, Todd P. Michael, Robert Vanburen, Yin-Long Qiu

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Lycophytes are a key group for understanding vascular plant evolution. Lycophyte plastomes are highly distinct, indicating a dynamic evolutionary history, but detailed evaluation is hindered by the limited availability of sequences. Eight diverse plastomes were sequenced to assess variation in structure and functional content across lycophytes. Lycopodiaceae plastomes have remained largely unchanged compared with the common ancestor of land plants, whereas plastome evolution in Isoetes and especially Selaginella is highly dynamic. Selaginella plastomes have the highest GC content and fewest genes and introns of any photosynthetic land plant. Uniquely, the canonical inverted repeat was converted into a direct repeat (DR ...


Provitamin A Biofortification Of Cassava Enhances Shelf Life But Reduces Dry Matter Content Of Storage Roots Due To Altered Carbon Partitioning Into Starch, Getu Beyene, Felix R. Solomon, Raj D. Chauhan, Eliana Gaitán-Solis, Narayanan Narayanan, Jackson Gehan, Dimuth Siritunga, Robin L. Stevens, John Jifon, Joyce Van Eck, Edward Linsler, Malia Gehan, Muhammad Ilyas, Martin Fregene, Richard T. Sayre, Paul Anderson, Nigel Taylor, Edgar B. Cahoon Dec 2017

Provitamin A Biofortification Of Cassava Enhances Shelf Life But Reduces Dry Matter Content Of Storage Roots Due To Altered Carbon Partitioning Into Starch, Getu Beyene, Felix R. Solomon, Raj D. Chauhan, Eliana Gaitán-Solis, Narayanan Narayanan, Jackson Gehan, Dimuth Siritunga, Robin L. Stevens, John Jifon, Joyce Van Eck, Edward Linsler, Malia Gehan, Muhammad Ilyas, Martin Fregene, Richard T. Sayre, Paul Anderson, Nigel Taylor, Edgar B. Cahoon

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Storage roots of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a major subsistence crop of sub-Saharan Africa, are calorie rich but deficient in essential micronutrients, including provitamin A β-carotene. In this study, β-carotene concentrations in cassava storage roots were enhanced by coexpression of transgenes for deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS) and bacterial phytoene synthase (crtB), mediated by the patatin-type 1 promoter. Storage roots harvested from field-grown plants accumulated carotenoids to ≤50 lg/g DW, 15- to 20-fold increases relative to roots from nontransgenic plants. Approximately 85%–90% of these carotenoids accumulated as all-trans-β-carotene, the most nutritionally efficacious carotenoid. β-Carotene-accumulating storage roots displayed delayed onset of ...


Differentially Regulated Orthologs In Sorghum And The Subgenomes Of Maize, Yang Zhang, Daniel W. Ngu, Daniel Santana De Carvalho, Zhikai Liang, Yumou Qiu, Rebecca Roston, James C. Schnable Aug 2017

Differentially Regulated Orthologs In Sorghum And The Subgenomes Of Maize, Yang Zhang, Daniel W. Ngu, Daniel Santana De Carvalho, Zhikai Liang, Yumou Qiu, Rebecca Roston, James C. Schnable

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Identifying interspecies changes in gene regulation, one of the two primary sources of phenotypic variation, is challenging on a genome-wide scale. The use of paired time-course data on cold-responsive gene expression in maize (Zea mays) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) allowed us to identify differentially regulated orthologs. While the majority of cold-responsive transcriptional regulation of conserved gene pairs is species specific, the initial transcriptional responses to cold appear to be more conserved than later responses. In maize, the promoters of genes with conserved transcriptional responses to cold tend to contain more micrococcal nuclease hypersensitive sites in their promoters, a proxy for ...


A Specialized Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Contributes To The Extreme Medium-Chain Fatty Acid Content Of Cuphea Seed Oil, Umidjon Iskandarov, Jillian E. Silva, Hae Jin Kim, Mariette Andersson, Rebecca E. Cahoon, Keithanne Mockaitis, Edgar B. Cahoon May 2017

A Specialized Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Contributes To The Extreme Medium-Chain Fatty Acid Content Of Cuphea Seed Oil, Umidjon Iskandarov, Jillian E. Silva, Hae Jin Kim, Mariette Andersson, Rebecca E. Cahoon, Keithanne Mockaitis, Edgar B. Cahoon

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Seed oils of many Cuphea sp. contain .90% of medium-chain fatty acids, such as decanoic acid (10:0). These seed oils, which are among the most compositionally variant in the plant kingdom, arise from specialized fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes and specialized acyltransferases. These include lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases (LPAT) and diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT) that are required for successive acylation of medium-chain fatty acids in the sn-2 and sn-3 positions of seed triacylglycerols (TAGs). Here we report the identification of a cDNA for a DGAT1-type enzyme, designated CpuDGAT1, from the transcriptome of C. avigera var pulcherrima developing seeds. Microsomes of camelina (Camelina ...


Towards The Development Of A Sustainable Soya Bean-Based Feedstock For Aquaculture, Hyunwoo Park, Steven Weier, Fareha Razvi, Pamela A. Peña, Neil A. Sims, Jennica Lowell, Cory Hungate, Karma Kissinger, Gavin Key, Paul Fraser, Jonathan Napier, Edgar B. Cahoon, Thomas Clemente Feb 2017

Towards The Development Of A Sustainable Soya Bean-Based Feedstock For Aquaculture, Hyunwoo Park, Steven Weier, Fareha Razvi, Pamela A. Peña, Neil A. Sims, Jennica Lowell, Cory Hungate, Karma Kissinger, Gavin Key, Paul Fraser, Jonathan Napier, Edgar B. Cahoon, Thomas Clemente

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Soya bean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is sought after for both its oil and protein components. Genetic approaches to add value to either component are ongoing efforts in soya bean breeding and molecular biology programmes. The former is the primary vegetable oil consumed in the world. Hence, its primary usage is in direct human consumption. As a means to increase its utility in feed applications, thereby expanding the market of soya bean coproducts, we investigated the simultaneous displacement of marine ingredients in aquafeeds with soya bean-based protein and a high Omega-3 fatty acid soya bean oil, enriched with alpha-linolenic and ...