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Floral Traits And Carbon Dynamics Of Cucumber In Response To Climate Change, Sarah Josina Mcdonald Aug 2020

Floral Traits And Carbon Dynamics Of Cucumber In Response To Climate Change, Sarah Josina Mcdonald

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Pollination by animals is an important ecosystem service that contributes to the reproduction of many angiosperms. Climate change may alter this mutualism by affecting floral traits that are important to pollinators. Using Cucumis sativus, I tested the effects of experimentally elevated temperature and CO2 concentration on flowering onset, flower number, flower size, and floral rewards. Additionally, to better understand plant carbon balance and investment in reproduction, I measured biomass partitioning and leaf carbon fluxes of plants under their growth conditions. Carbon dynamics were similar across treatments, and plants grown under high [CO2] and temperature showed similar biomass production ...


Investigating The Role Of Carbon Stress In The Mortality Of Tamarack Seedlings Under A Warming Environment, Bridget K. Murphy May 2020

Investigating The Role Of Carbon Stress In The Mortality Of Tamarack Seedlings Under A Warming Environment, Bridget K. Murphy

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Climate warming is increasing the frequency of climate-induced tree mortality events. While drought combined with heat is considered the primary cause of this tree mortality, little is known about whether high temperatures alone can induce mortality, or whether rising CO2 will increase survival. I grew tamarack in two experiments combining warming (0-8 ˚C above ambient) and CO2 (400-750 ppm) to investigate whether high growth temperatures led to carbon limitations and mortality. Using glasshouses, +8 ˚C warming with ambient CO2 (8TAC) led to 40% mortality despite thermal acclimation of respiration. Dying 8TAC seedlings had lower needle carbon concentrations ...


Soybean Root Exudates Increase The Physiological Diversity Of Bacteria In Cadmium-Treated Soil, Leily Kazemi Movahed Feb 2020

Soybean Root Exudates Increase The Physiological Diversity Of Bacteria In Cadmium-Treated Soil, Leily Kazemi Movahed

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Three soybean cultivars with contrasting retention of cadmium (Cd) in the root were grown in Cd-spiked nutrient solution and used to determine that symplastic compartmentalization of Cd in roots is probably responsible for retention of Cd in roots. Roots of the low Cd-accumulator AC Hime treated with 30 mM Cd exuded up to 10-fold higher concentrations of citric, succinic, fumaric and malic acids into the hydroponic solution when compared to control; concentrations of the same organic acids from the high Cd-accumulator Westag 97 increased by up to 3-fold. The same cultivars were grown in Cd-spiked soil and the physiological profiles ...


Carbon And Nitrogen Dynamics In Plants Grown At Low Co2 Conditions Of The Past, Andre Galvao Duarte Sep 2019

Carbon And Nitrogen Dynamics In Plants Grown At Low Co2 Conditions Of The Past, Andre Galvao Duarte

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

For most of the recent evolutionary history of plants, atmospheric CO2 concentrations have been far below modern values. However, little is known about how plants grown in a low CO2 environment balance their carbon demand for growth while meeting their requirement for nitrogen acquisition, the establishment of mycorrhizal fungal associations, and the production of defense compounds. Here, I investigated how low CO2 affects Elymus canadensis and Picea mariana by comparing their growth at low and current CO2 concentrations. I found that reduced N availability exacerbated low CO2 effects on growth, and reduced stomatal index and ...


Identifying Brachypodium Distachyon Proteins Interacting With Histone Deacetylase Bdhd1, Alberto Giovanni Torrez Jul 2019

Identifying Brachypodium Distachyon Proteins Interacting With Histone Deacetylase Bdhd1, Alberto Giovanni Torrez

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Current evidence has revealed the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms, including histone deacetylases (HDACs), in plant stress responses. In Arabidopsis thaliana, HDA19, belonging to the RPD3/HDA1 class, interacts with transcription factors to form repressor complexes. HDAC research mainly exists for dicotyledons, whereas research on monocotyledons is limited. Brachypodium distachyon is used as a model plant to investigate questions unique to monocot crops. BdHD1 is the closest homologous gene to HDA19 in B. distachyon. This study investigated potential protein-protein interactions between BdHD1 and each of BdMYB22, BdWRKY24, and BdHOS15. Protein interactions were investigated using yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) and bimolecular fluorescence complementation ...


Partial Characterization Of Putative Cyp86a Genes From Soybean, Trish Tully Mar 2019

Partial Characterization Of Putative Cyp86a Genes From Soybean, Trish Tully

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) is a globally cultivated crop that is important to the sustainability of many industries. However, like all plants, optimal cultivation of soybean is threatened by detrimental environmental factors. For example, high yield of soybean is threatened by soil-borne pathogens like Phytophthora sojae. Resistance against P. sojae was previously positively correlated with aliphatic suberin deposition in soybean. As such, a deeper understanding of the biosynthesis of suberin may assist in engineering a resistant form of soybean, based on enhanced suberin content. In soybean, the ω-OH fatty acid monomers are predominant and most strongly correlated with resistance ...


Quantitative Proteome Analysis Of Alfalfa In Drought Stress Under The Influence Of Mir156, Alpa Puri Mar 2019

Quantitative Proteome Analysis Of Alfalfa In Drought Stress Under The Influence Of Mir156, Alpa Puri

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Medicago sativa is one of the most produced perennial forage crops in Canada. Drought stress is a major form of abiotic stress affecting the productivity and annual yield of alfalfa. A small noncoding RNA, miR156 has a role in abiotic stress tolerance, while regulating downstream SPL genes. In this study, whole leaf proteome and amino acid concentrations of miR156OE (A8) genotype of alfalfa under drought stress were quantified. In results, 3,000 proteins groups were identified using MaxQuant when searched against Medicago truncatula protein sequence database. Gene ontology analysis showed enriched proteins were involved in biological and molecular processes such ...


Suberin Biosynthesis And Deposition In The Wound-Healing Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Tuber Model, Kathlyn Natalie Woolfson Dec 2018

Suberin Biosynthesis And Deposition In The Wound-Healing Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Tuber Model, Kathlyn Natalie Woolfson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Suberin is a heteropolymer comprising a cell wall-bound poly(phenolic) domain (SPPD) covalently linked to a poly(aliphatic) domain (SPAD) that is deposited between the cell wall and plasma membrane. Potato tuber skin contains suberin to protect against water loss and microbial infection. Wounding triggers suberin biosynthesis in usually non-suberized tuber parenchyma, providing a model system to study suberin production. Spatial and temporal coordination of SPPD and SPAD-related metabolism are required for suberization, as the former is produced soon after wounding, and the latter is synthesized later into wound-healing. Many steps involved in suberin biosynthesis remain uncharacterized, and the mechanism ...


Defective Aba-Mediated Sugar Signalling Pathway In An Established Arabidopsis Thaliana Cell Suspension Culture Explains Its Stay-Green Phenotype At High Sugar Concentrations, Avery Mccarthy Jun 2018

Defective Aba-Mediated Sugar Signalling Pathway In An Established Arabidopsis Thaliana Cell Suspension Culture Explains Its Stay-Green Phenotype At High Sugar Concentrations, Avery Mccarthy

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

An unusual sugar insensitive phenotype was identified in an established cell suspension culture of Arabidopsis thaliana. We characterized the physiology, biochemistry and genetics of the sugar insensitive cell culture, in order to identify factors contributing to the phenotype. Chlorophyll levels of the cell suspension culture were insensitive to high sucrose (6-15% w/v) and maintained a green phenotype. Immunoblotting indicated that levels of key photosynthetic proteins (PsaA, Lhcb2 and Rubisco) increased as a function of external sucrose concentration. The green cell culture was photosynthetically competent based on light-dependent, CO2-saturated rates of O2 evolution as well as Fv ...


Characterization Of Acaricide Resistance, Plant-Mediated Rnai Against Two-Spotted Spider Mites (Tetranychus Urticae Koch), And Assessing Off- And Non-Target Effects, Hooman Hosseinzadeh Namin Oct 2017

Characterization Of Acaricide Resistance, Plant-Mediated Rnai Against Two-Spotted Spider Mites (Tetranychus Urticae Koch), And Assessing Off- And Non-Target Effects, Hooman Hosseinzadeh Namin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The two-spotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae (Koch), is one of the most damaging agricultural pests in the world. It feeds on over 150 crops, causing considerable yield losses in greenhouses and agricultural fields. Currently, using synthetic acaricides is the main method to control TSSM. However, it can develop resistance to acaricides with repeated exposure, and typically resistance can occur within two to four years. To understand the underlying mechanisms of spider mite adaptation to acaricides is an essential part of resistance management strategy. The resistance ratio of the pyridaben-selected strain compared with the pre-selection strain was estimated at greater ...


Deciphering Sulfur Amino Acid Metabolism In Developing Seeds Of Common Bean, Jaya Joshi Aug 2017

Deciphering Sulfur Amino Acid Metabolism In Developing Seeds Of Common Bean, Jaya Joshi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

With increasing food insecurity in the populated world, the number of people affected by chronic undernourishment is also increasing. Alone, protein energy malnutrition is linked to 6 million deaths annually. Despite being a good source of protein and dietary fibre, the quality of bean protein is limited because of sub optimal levels of essential sulfur amino acids: methionine and cysteine. Levels of cysteine and methionine in developing seeds have an inverse relationship with the non-protein sulfur amino acid S-methyl-cysteine (S-methylCys) and dipeptide g-glutamyl-S-methyl-cysteine (g-Glu-S-methylCys).

One of the strategies to improve protein quality in bean ...


Genetic Analysis Of Nitrate Transporter 2 Family In Brachypodium Distachyon, With An Essential Role Of Bdnrt2.1 To Nitrogen Use Efficiency, Jiang Wang Jul 2017

Genetic Analysis Of Nitrate Transporter 2 Family In Brachypodium Distachyon, With An Essential Role Of Bdnrt2.1 To Nitrogen Use Efficiency, Jiang Wang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Plant agricultural productivity relies heavily on nitrogenous fertilizers. Excess N fertilizer application can often lead to lower nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) along with energy waste and environmental problems. Therefore, understanding and improving NUE in plants are of key importance. The small monocot plant Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) is rapidly emerging as a powerful model system to study questions unique to monocot crops (wheat, maize, rice, etc.).

Here, through an intensive BLAST search, six putative orthologues of the Arabidopsis NRT2 gene family were identified in the fully sequenced Brachypodium genome (Phytozome v11.0), among which I isolated a T-DNA mutant (bdnrt2.1 ...


Developing A Plant Virus-Based Expression System For The Expression Of Vaccines Against Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Hong Hanh Tran Jul 2017

Developing A Plant Virus-Based Expression System For The Expression Of Vaccines Against Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Hong Hanh Tran

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Virus-based expression systems have been widely exploited for the production of recombinant proteins in plants during the last three decades. Advances in technology have boosted scale-up manufacturing of plant-made pharmaceuticals to high levels, via the complementation of transient expression and viral vectors. This combination allows proteins of interest to be produced in plants within a matter of days and thus, is well suited for the development of plant-made vaccines or therapeutics against emerging infectious diseases and potential bioterrorism agents. Several plant-based products are currently in varying stages of clinical development. To investigate the viability of virus-based expression systems for plant-made ...


Gmmyb176 Interactome And Regulation Of Isoflavonoid Biosynthesis In Soybean, Arun Kumaran Anguraj Vadivel Jun 2017

Gmmyb176 Interactome And Regulation Of Isoflavonoid Biosynthesis In Soybean, Arun Kumaran Anguraj Vadivel

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

MYB transcription factors are one of the largest transcription factor families characterized in plants. They are classified into four types: R1 MYB, R2R3 MYB, R3 MYB and R4 MYB. GmMYB176 is an R1MYB transcription factor that regulates Chalcone synthase (CHS8) gene expression and isoflavonoid biosynthesis in soybean. Silencing of GmMYB176 suppressed the expression of the GmCHS8 gene and reduced the accumulation of isoflavonoids in soybean hairy roots. However, overexpression of GmMYB176 does not alter either GmCHS8 gene expression or isoflavonoid levels suggesting that GmMYB176 alone is not sufficient for GmCHS8 gene regulation. I hypothesized that GmMYB176 acts cooperatively with another ...


The Influence Of Adjacent Forest And Agriculture On Restored Grassland Diversity And Composition, Rachel A. Chambers Apr 2017

The Influence Of Adjacent Forest And Agriculture On Restored Grassland Diversity And Composition, Rachel A. Chambers

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Little native grassland remains in North America due to land-use changes. Conversion to agriculture is a common means of loss. This fragmentation creates edges in the landscape and associated edge effects. Grassland plant communities are susceptible to edge effects, directly via dispersal and indirectly through environment. This study took place in Norfolk County, Ontario, Canada, in a landscape of agriculture, forest, rural development, and patches of grassland restored by Nature Conservancy Canada. I examined restored grassland edges bordering forest and crops. An intensive study at a single site identified spatial and soil environmental influences on plant diversity and composition. I ...


Gatekeepers Of Nitrogen-Fixing Symbiosis: Cytokinin-Ethylene Crosstalk Regulates Symbiotic Interaction In Lotus Japonicus, Seyedehmandana Miri Apr 2017

Gatekeepers Of Nitrogen-Fixing Symbiosis: Cytokinin-Ethylene Crosstalk Regulates Symbiotic Interaction In Lotus Japonicus, Seyedehmandana Miri

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Leguminous plants thrive under nitrogen-limited soil conditions because of their ability to symbiotically interact with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, known as rhizobia. In the presence of compatible strains of rhizobia, they develop specialized symbiotic organs, called root nodules, which host the bacteria and provide the appropriate conditions for symbiotic nitrogen fixation to occur. The plant hormone cytokinin is the key endogenous trigger for the inception of root nodule organogenesis. In the model legume Lotus japonicus, analysis of the cytokinin receptor gene Lotus histidine kinase 1 (Lhk1) showed that it is required and also sufficient for the initiation of nodule organogenesis. However, mutant ...


Cytosolic Acetyl-Coa Promotes Histone H3 Lysine 27 Acetylation In Arabidopsis, Chen Chen Feb 2017

Cytosolic Acetyl-Coa Promotes Histone H3 Lysine 27 Acetylation In Arabidopsis, Chen Chen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) serves as a central metabolite in energy metabolism and biosynthesis. High level of acetyl-CoA can fuel the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle to generate energy and store excess energy in fatty acids. Meanwhile, it also provides acetyl groups for protein acetylation, which normally occurs at the lysine or arginine residues. Acetylation regulates protein functions largely due to the change of total charges. Acetylation of histones, for example, can lead to loss of the interaction between histone and DNA, thus relaxing chromatin structure and potentially promoting gene expression. However, whether and how acetyl-CoA regulates plant chromatin remains unexplored. Here ...


Identification And Characterization Of The Isoflavonoid-Specific Prenyltransferase Gene Family To Prevent Stem And Root Rot In Soybean, Arjun Sukumaran Sep 2016

Identification And Characterization Of The Isoflavonoid-Specific Prenyltransferase Gene Family To Prevent Stem And Root Rot In Soybean, Arjun Sukumaran

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Soybean is one of the most predominantly grown legumes worldwide, however, one deterrent to maximizing its yield is the pathogen, Phytophthora sojae, which causes stem and root rot disease. Many strategies have been implemented to combat this pathogen such as use of pesticides and certain agricultural practices. However, these have been largely ineffective in completely preventing P. sojae infection. An alternative strategy would be to improve the innate resistance of soybean by promoting increased glyceollin production. Glyceollins are soybean-specific antimicrobial agents which are derived from the isoflavonoid branch of the general phenylpropanoid pathway. Soybeans produce 3 forms of glyceollin: glyceollin ...


Evapotranspiration From Extensive Green Roofs: Influence Of Climatological Conditions, Vegetation Type, And Substrate Depth, Maria Eloisa Sia Sep 2016

Evapotranspiration From Extensive Green Roofs: Influence Of Climatological Conditions, Vegetation Type, And Substrate Depth, Maria Eloisa Sia

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Green roofs are gaining popularity worldwide as a low impact development tool to mitigate increasing stormwater runoff within dense urban areas. Evapotranspiration (ET) is the key hydrologic process governing the capacity of a green roof to retain rainfall as it regenerates available water storage space in the green roof substrate (soil) between rainfall events. To date, there are limited data on how the interaction between different climatological conditions and design parameters (e.g., vegetation type, substrate depth) affect ET rates. This currently limits the ability to optimize green roof design for stormwater management. In this field study, the impact of ...


An Investigation Of The Plant Growth Promoting Abilities Of Pseudomonas Fluorescens Uw4 Under Toxic Metal Stress, Joshua J. Frank Aug 2016

An Investigation Of The Plant Growth Promoting Abilities Of Pseudomonas Fluorescens Uw4 Under Toxic Metal Stress, Joshua J. Frank

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

I investigated plant-microbe-metal interactions under metal stress. In theory, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) promote plant growth by reducing stress ethylene and synthesizing indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The putative PGPR Pseudomonas fluorescens UW4 and a mutant strain that lacked an enzyme critical to the reduction of plant ethylene were studied to determine if they could promote Arabidopsis thaliana growth under cadmium and copper stress conditions. Both strains of P. fluorescens UW4 adhered to roots and synthesized IAA, and the wild-type lowered metal stress-induced ethylene in Arabidopsis, but neither strain enhanced plant growth. Wildtype P. fluorescens UW4 and its mutant had no ...


Evaluation Of The Water Stress-Inducible Promoter Wsi18 In The Model Monocot Brachypodium Distachyon, Patrick D. Langille Aug 2016

Evaluation Of The Water Stress-Inducible Promoter Wsi18 In The Model Monocot Brachypodium Distachyon, Patrick D. Langille

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Water deficit-inducible promoters that function in multiple species are valuable components for engineering stress-tolerant crops. Wsi18 is a water deficit-inducible promoter native to Oryza sativa. In this study, Brachypodium distachyon (B. distachyon) was used to determine if Wsi18 retained its water deficit-inducible characteristics in another monocot. Transgenic B. distachyon plants, in which the Wsi18 promoter drove the expression of the uidA reporter gene, were developed and exposed to osmotic stress generated by mannitol, salt stress conditions, and the water deficit-signaling phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). GUS histochemical assays demonstrated increased uidA expression in the leaves and stem of mannitol, NaCl, and ...


Role Of Fatty Acid Omega-Hydroxylase 1 And Abscisic Acid In Potato Tuber Suberin Formation, Meg Haggitt May 2016

Role Of Fatty Acid Omega-Hydroxylase 1 And Abscisic Acid In Potato Tuber Suberin Formation, Meg Haggitt

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Suberin is a complex biopolymer composed of two distinct but covalently-linked domains. The first domain is composed of polymerized phenolic monomers, whereas the second domain is predominately fatty acid derivatives esterified with glycerol. Deposited in specialized cells during development or in response to abiotic stress, suberin functions as a barrier to water loss and pathogen attack. In potato, more than 65% of suberin monomers undergo ω-hydroxylation, representing a major class of fatty acids in the final biopolymer. The ω-hydroxylation reaction is catalyzed by Cytochrome P450 (CYP) proteins, of which few have been characterized to date. In 2009, CYP86A33 from potato ...


Photosynthetic Acclimation To Warming And Elevated Co2 In Two Antarctic Vascular Plant Species, Vi Nt Bui Mar 2016

Photosynthetic Acclimation To Warming And Elevated Co2 In Two Antarctic Vascular Plant Species, Vi Nt Bui

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Climate change can affect the performance of the only two vascular plant species found in Antarctica, Deschampsia antarctica and Colobanthus quitensis. I investigated the response of these two species to warming and elevated CO2 in terms of photosynthesis and leaf anatomy. While photosynthesis increased directly with rising temperature and CO2, it showed no acclimation to changes in growth temperature, and a small degree of acclimation to growth under elevated CO2. Likewise, leaf anatomy displayed little plasticity in response to changes in the growth environment, although D. antarctica’s stomatal groove structure was modified under warming, likely to ...


Glucan Synthase-Like 8: A Key Player In Early Seedling Development In Arabidopsis, Behnaz Saatian Mar 2016

Glucan Synthase-Like 8: A Key Player In Early Seedling Development In Arabidopsis, Behnaz Saatian

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Plants’ cell walls have unique chemical composition and features which enable them to play essential roles during plant development as shaping the cells and providing intercellular communication between adjacent cells. Polysaccharides, including callose, and glycoproteins are known as the main constituents of the cell wall. Callose, a linear β-1,3-glucan polymer, is accumulated at the cell plate during cytokinesis, in plasmodesmata, where it regulates cell-to-cell communication, in dormant phloem, where it seals sieve plates after mechanical injury and pathogen attack, and in male and female gametophytes. GLUCAN SYNTHASE-LIKE (GSL) genes in Arabidopsis comprise a family of 12 members. A new ...


Functional Analysis Of The Mir156 Regulatory Network In Arabidopsis Siliques, Zhishuo Wang Dec 2015

Functional Analysis Of The Mir156 Regulatory Network In Arabidopsis Siliques, Zhishuo Wang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Siliques are photosynthetically active seed capsules and their development is strongly influenced by embryo development. MicroRNA156 (miR156)-SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) network is involved in regulating plant growth and development, but the downstream genes of this network are still not fully elucidated. Here, I show that the miR156/SPL2 pathway controls the development of floral organs, regulates pollen production, and thus affects male fertility in Arabidopsis thaliana. I present evidence that SPL2 binds to the 5’UTR of the ASYMMETRIC LEAVES 2 (AS2) gene in vivo, indicating that AS2 acts downstream of SPL2. When compared to wild-type plants, AS2 ...


Inferring Plastid Metabolic Pathways Within The Nonphotosynthetic Free-Living Green Algal Genus Polytomella, Sara Asmail Sep 2015

Inferring Plastid Metabolic Pathways Within The Nonphotosynthetic Free-Living Green Algal Genus Polytomella, Sara Asmail

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The advent of photosynthesis facilitated the evolution of aerobic life on Earth. However, species such as Prototheca wickerhamii and Plasmodium falciparum, among many others, have lost photosynthesis and opted for a free-living/parasitic lifestyle. Despite this loss, these species have retained the plastid for its metabolic pathways, without which they would die. Polytomella is a nonphotosynthetic free-living alga, closely related to the photosynthetic model organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and has been shown to lack a plastid genome. I set out to determine Polytomella plastid metabolic pathways using bioinformatics to look for mRNA and DNA homologous sequences matching pathway enzymes in model ...


Planting The Chalcone Reductase Family Tree: Identification And Characterization Of Chalcone Reductase Genes In Soybean, Caroline Julia Sepiol Aug 2015

Planting The Chalcone Reductase Family Tree: Identification And Characterization Of Chalcone Reductase Genes In Soybean, Caroline Julia Sepiol

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr) is an important crop grown in Canada, generating $2.4 billion in sales. Though this number may be promising, soybean farmers lose about $50 million worth of yield annually due to root and stem rot disease caused by Phytophthora sojae. Many strategies have been developed to combat the infection; however, these methods are prohibitively expensive. A ‘cost effective’ approach to this problem is to select a trait naturally found in soybean that can increase resistance. One such trait is the increased production of root glyceollins. One of the key enzymes exclusively involved in glyceollin synthesis ...


Genetic Analysis Of A Non-Germinating Mutant Of Arabidopsis Thaliana, Md Jakir Hossan Aug 2015

Genetic Analysis Of A Non-Germinating Mutant Of Arabidopsis Thaliana, Md Jakir Hossan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Seed germination is partially controlled by plant hormone gibberellins (GAs). Chemical mutagenesis yielded an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant gm11, which has an absolute gibberellin requirement for seed germination. This mutant exhibited phenotypes of GA-rescuable dwarfs, including dark-green leaves, and reduced fertility. However, with repeated GA treatment, gm11 develops into fertile plants with a nearly wild type phenotype. Bulked-segregant analysis mapped gm11 to the bottom arm of chromosome 1, and subsequent next-generation mapping revealed that the mutation is a G → A transition in At1g79460 (GA2), creating a premature stop codon. This gene encodes an ent-kaurene synthase (KS) which catalyzes the conversion of ...


Ginsenosides, Glycosidases And The Ginseng-Pythium Interaction, Dimitre A. Ivanov Jul 2015

Ginsenosides, Glycosidases And The Ginseng-Pythium Interaction, Dimitre A. Ivanov

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Ginsenosides, the triterpenoid saponins produced by American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.), have been extensively studied for their medicinal value, however, their function in the rhizosphere remains largely unknown. Like other saponins, ginsenosides possess mild fungitoxic activity toward some common ginseng pathogens. However, numerous oomycete root pathogens of ginseng, most notably Pythium irregulare Buisman, are able to partially deglycosylate the 20 (S)-protopanaxadiol ginsenosides Rb1, Rd and gypenoside XVII via extracellular glycosidases (ginsenosidases), leading to the formation of a common product, ginsenoside F2. In this thesis the potential role(s) of these extracellular ginsenosidases and the ginsenoside products they produce (ie ...


Identification Of Putative Plant Defense Genes Using A Novel Hydroponic Co-Cultivation Technique For Studying Plant-Pathogen Interaction, Naeem Nathoo Jun 2015

Identification Of Putative Plant Defense Genes Using A Novel Hydroponic Co-Cultivation Technique For Studying Plant-Pathogen Interaction, Naeem Nathoo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Previous work on identifying the molecular mechanisms mediating plant-pathogen interactions and reciprocal host responses have little emphasis on developing models that closely resemble host-microbe interaction in planta. This work establishes an amalgamated model of interaction wherein successful pathogens elicit and overcome host defenses activated by microbial signatures and virulence factors. Using a hydroponic co-cultivation model, we assessed the responses of Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 to Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 to ameliorate limitations of previous approaches. Comparisons of differential gene expression between directly and indirectly affected host sites by microarray analysis revealed both reactive and pro-active defense responses, respectively. Selected homozygous single-gene knockouts ...