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Nitrogen Fixation In Roots Of Ceanothus, W. John Hayden Jul 2019

Nitrogen Fixation In Roots Of Ceanothus, W. John Hayden

Biology Faculty Publications

Roots are usually out of sight and, therefore, out of mind. But as any good gardener will tell you, it is of utmost importance to understand those unique plant organs, even if their essential functions occur hidden from cursory observation. The red roots of the 2019 VNPS Wildflower of the Year, Ceanothus americanus, are particularly important because they host symbiotic bacteria that perform the essential function of nitrogen fixation. These prominent, knobby, distinctively pigmented roots are also the inspiration for the common name Redroot, applied to many species in the genus.


Water Permeability/Impermeability In Seeds Of 15 Species Of Caragana (Fabaceae), Dali Chen, Rui Zhang, Carol C. Baskin, Xiaowen Hu May 2019

Water Permeability/Impermeability In Seeds Of 15 Species Of Caragana (Fabaceae), Dali Chen, Rui Zhang, Carol C. Baskin, Xiaowen Hu

Biology Faculty Publications

Majority legumes in the temperate and arctic zones have water-impermeable seeds (physical dormancy, PY). However, various authors have reported that seeds of some Caragana species are water-permeable and thus non-dormant. We (1) tested seeds of 15 species of Caragana matured in the same site in 2014, 2016 and/or 2017 for presence of PY, (2) determined if dry storage decreased or increased the percentage of seeds with PY and (3) located the site on the seed coat of 11 species where water enters the seed. Sixty-three percent and 45% of the seeds of C. roborovskyi had PY in 2016 and ...


Effects Of Increased Precipitation On The Life History Of Spring- And Autumn-Germinated Plants Of The Cold Desert Annual Erodium Oxyrhynchum (Geraniaceae), Yanfeng Chen, Xiang Shi, Lingwei Zhang, Jerry M. Baskin, Carol C. Baskin, Huiliang Liu, Daoyuan Zhang Apr 2019

Effects Of Increased Precipitation On The Life History Of Spring- And Autumn-Germinated Plants Of The Cold Desert Annual Erodium Oxyrhynchum (Geraniaceae), Yanfeng Chen, Xiang Shi, Lingwei Zhang, Jerry M. Baskin, Carol C. Baskin, Huiliang Liu, Daoyuan Zhang

Biology Faculty Publications

Future increased precipitation in cold desert ecosystems may impact annual/ephemeral plant species that germinate in both spring and autumn. Our primary aim was to compare the life history characteristics of plants from spring-germinating (SG) and autumn-germinating (AG) seeds of Erodium oxyrhynchum. Plants in field plots with simulated increases in precipitation of 0, 30 and 50 % in spring and summer were monitored to determine seedling survival, phenology, plant size, seed production and biomass accumulation and allocation. Germination characteristics were determined in the laboratory for seeds produced by plants in all increased precipitation treatments. Increased precipitation in spring significantly improved survival ...


A Stimulatory Role For Cytokinin In The Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis Of Pea, Dane M. Goh, Marco Cosme, Anna B. Kislala, Samantha Mulholland, Zakaria M.F. Said, Lukáš Spíchal, R.J. Neil Emery, Stéphane Declerck, Frédérique C. Guinel Mar 2019

A Stimulatory Role For Cytokinin In The Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis Of Pea, Dane M. Goh, Marco Cosme, Anna B. Kislala, Samantha Mulholland, Zakaria M.F. Said, Lukáš Spíchal, R.J. Neil Emery, Stéphane Declerck, Frédérique C. Guinel

Biology Faculty Publications

The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis between terrestrial plants and AM fungi is regulated by plant hormones. For most of these, a role has been clearly assigned in this mutualistic interaction; however, there are still contradictory reports for cytokinin (CK). Here, pea plants, the wild type (WT) cv. Sparkle and its mutant E151 (Pssym15), were inoculated with the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis. E151 has previously been characterized as possessing high CK levels in non-mycorrhizal (myc-) roots and exhibiting high number of fungal structures in mycorrhizal (myc+) roots. Myc- and myc+ plants were treated 7, 9, and 11 days after inoculation (DAI ...


Refernment: An R Package For Annotating Rna Editing In Plastid Genomes, Tanner A. Robison, Paul G. Wolf Jan 2019

Refernment: An R Package For Annotating Rna Editing In Plastid Genomes, Tanner A. Robison, Paul G. Wolf

Biology Faculty Publications

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: In the absence of cDNA, the annotation of RNA editing in plastomes must be done manually, representing a significant time cost to those studying the organellar genomes of ferns and hornworts.

METHODS AND RESULTS: We developed an R package to automatically annotate apparent nonsense mutations in plastid genomes. The software successfully annotates such sites and results in no false positives for data with no sequencing or assembly errors.

CONCLUSIONS: Compared to manual annotation, ReFernment offers greater speed and accuracy for annotating RNA editing sites. This software should be especially useful for researchers generating large numbers of ...


Structural Basis For Light Control Of Cell Development Revealed By Crystal Structures Of A Myxobacterial Phytochrome, Nicole C. Woitowich, Andrei S. Halavaty, Patricia Waltz, Christopher Kupitz, Joseph Valera, Gregory Tracy, Kevin D. Gallagher, Elin Claesson, Takanori Nakane, Suraj Pandey, Garrett Nelson, Rie Tanaka, Eriko Nango, Eiichi Mizohata, Shigeki Owada, Kensure Tono, Yasumasa Joti, Angela C. Nugent, Hardik Patel, Ayesha Mapara, James Hopkins, Phu Duong, Dorina Bizhga, Svetlana E. Kovaleva, Rachel St. Peter, Cynthia N. Hernandez, Wesley B. Ozarowski, Shatabdi Roy-Chowdhuri, Jay-How Yang, Petra Edlund, Heikki Takala, Janne Ihalainen, Jennifer Brayshaw, Tyler Norwood, Ishwor Poudyal, Petra Fromme, John C.H. Spence, Keith Moffat, Sebastian Westenhoff, Marius Schmidt, Emina A. Stojkovic Sep 2018

Structural Basis For Light Control Of Cell Development Revealed By Crystal Structures Of A Myxobacterial Phytochrome, Nicole C. Woitowich, Andrei S. Halavaty, Patricia Waltz, Christopher Kupitz, Joseph Valera, Gregory Tracy, Kevin D. Gallagher, Elin Claesson, Takanori Nakane, Suraj Pandey, Garrett Nelson, Rie Tanaka, Eriko Nango, Eiichi Mizohata, Shigeki Owada, Kensure Tono, Yasumasa Joti, Angela C. Nugent, Hardik Patel, Ayesha Mapara, James Hopkins, Phu Duong, Dorina Bizhga, Svetlana E. Kovaleva, Rachel St. Peter, Cynthia N. Hernandez, Wesley B. Ozarowski, Shatabdi Roy-Chowdhuri, Jay-How Yang, Petra Edlund, Heikki Takala, Janne Ihalainen, Jennifer Brayshaw, Tyler Norwood, Ishwor Poudyal, Petra Fromme, John C.H. Spence, Keith Moffat, Sebastian Westenhoff, Marius Schmidt, Emina A. Stojkovic

Biology Faculty Publications

Phytochromes are red-light photoreceptors that were first characterized in plants, with homologs in photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic bacteria known as bacteriophytochromes (BphPs). Upon absorption of light, BphPs interconvert between two states denoted Pr and Pfr with distinct absorption spectra in the red and far-red. They have recently been engineered as enzymatic photoswitches for fluorescent-marker applications in non-invasive tissue imaging of mammals. This article presents cryo- and room-temperature crystal structures of the unusual phytochrome from the non-photosynthetic myxobacterium Stigmatella aurantiaca (SaBphP1) and reveals its role in the fruitingbody formation of this photomorphogenic bacterium. SaBphP1 lacks a conserved histidine (His) in the chromophore-binding ...


Mobile Elements Shape Plastome Evolution In Ferns, Tanner A. Robison, Amanda L. Grusz, Paul G. Wolf, Jeffrey P. Mower, Blake D. Fauskee, Karla Sosa, Eric Schuettpelz Aug 2018

Mobile Elements Shape Plastome Evolution In Ferns, Tanner A. Robison, Amanda L. Grusz, Paul G. Wolf, Jeffrey P. Mower, Blake D. Fauskee, Karla Sosa, Eric Schuettpelz

Biology Faculty Publications

Plastid genomes display remarkable organizational stability over evolutionary time. From green algae to angiosperms, most plastid genomes are largely collinear, with only a few cases of inversion, gene loss, or, in extremely rare cases, gene addition. These plastome insertions are mostly clade-specific and are typically of nuclear or mitochondrial origin. Here, we expand on these findings and present the first family-level survey of plastome evolution in ferns, revealing a novel suite of dynamic mobile elements. Comparative plastome analyses of the Pteridaceae expose several mobile open reading frames that vary in sequence length, insertion site, and configuration among sampled taxa. Even ...


Mobilization And Role Of Starch, Protein, And Fat Reserves During Seed Germination Of Six Wild Grassland Species, Ming Zhao, Hongxiang Zhang, Hong Yan, Lu Qiu, Carol C. Baskin Feb 2018

Mobilization And Role Of Starch, Protein, And Fat Reserves During Seed Germination Of Six Wild Grassland Species, Ming Zhao, Hongxiang Zhang, Hong Yan, Lu Qiu, Carol C. Baskin

Biology Faculty Publications

Since seed reserves can influence seed germination, the quantitative and qualitative differences in seed reserves may relate to the germination characteristics of species. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the correlation between germination and seed reserves, as well as their mobilization during germination of six grassland species (Chloris virgata, Kochia scoparia, Lespedeza hedysaroides, Astragalus adsurgens, Leonurus artemisia, and Dracocephalum moldavica) and compare the results with domesticated species. We measured starch, protein, and fat content in dry seeds and the initial absorption of water during imbibition. Starch, soluble protein, fat, and soluble sugar content also were determined at five ...


Lethal Effects Of Leaf Leachate From The Non-Native Invasive Shrub Amur Honeysuckle (Lonicera Maackii) On A Model Aquatic Organism (Hyalella Azteca), Eric B. Borth, Kevin W. Custer, Ryan W. Mcewan Jan 2018

Lethal Effects Of Leaf Leachate From The Non-Native Invasive Shrub Amur Honeysuckle (Lonicera Maackii) On A Model Aquatic Organism (Hyalella Azteca), Eric B. Borth, Kevin W. Custer, Ryan W. Mcewan

Biology Faculty Publications

The invasive shrub Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle) is a problematic species in the eastern United States and there is growing evidence that materials from this species have toxic effects on some organisms. We used a sequence of microcosm bioassays to assess the influence of L. maackii leaf leachate on the macroinvertebrate Hyalella azteca, which is a standard aquatic organism for toxicity assessment. In a laboratory setting, H. azteca were exposed to a leaf leachate dilution series (6.25%, 12.5%, 25%, 50%, 100%) in 48-h toxicity tests. This was repeated throughout the growing season to assess the potential for changes ...


The Role Of Environmental Filtering In Structuring Appalachian Tree Communities: Topographic Influences On Functional Diversity Are Mediated Through Soil Characteristics, Julia I. Chapman, Ryan W. Mcewan Jan 2018

The Role Of Environmental Filtering In Structuring Appalachian Tree Communities: Topographic Influences On Functional Diversity Are Mediated Through Soil Characteristics, Julia I. Chapman, Ryan W. Mcewan

Biology Faculty Publications

Identifying the drivers of community assembly has long been a central goal in ecology, and the development of functional diversity indices has provided a new way of detecting the influence of environmental gradients on biotic communities. For an old-growth Appalachian forest, we used path analysis to understand how patterns of tree functional diversity relate to topography and soil gradients and to determine whether topographic effects are mediated through soil chemistry. All of our path models supported the idea of environmental filtering: stressful areas (high elevation, low soil moisture, low soil nutrients) were occupied by communities of low functional diversity, which ...


Endless Symbioses Most Intricate, W. John Hayden Jul 2016

Endless Symbioses Most Intricate, W. John Hayden

Biology Faculty Publications

Orchids, such as our Wildflower of the Year for 2016, Downy Rattlesnake Plantain (Goodyera pubescens) (Fig. 1), exemplify the interconnectedness of life on Earth. As would be the case for many kinds of plants, pollination comes readily to mind as a prominent example of mutualistic symbiosis. Downy Rattlesnake Plantain is pollinated by bumblebees and other native bees. The bees gain nectar and the orchid gets an efficient means to move pollen from one flower to another; each organism gains benefit from the interaction, the very definition of mutualism. Pollination by bees is widespread among the orchids, but there can be ...


Changes In Oxidative Patterns During Dormancy Break By Warm And Cold Stratification In Seeds Of An Edible Fruit Tree, Dilinuer Shalimu, Jia Sun, Carol C. Baskin, Jerry M. Baskin, Liwei Sun, Yujun Liu May 2016

Changes In Oxidative Patterns During Dormancy Break By Warm And Cold Stratification In Seeds Of An Edible Fruit Tree, Dilinuer Shalimu, Jia Sun, Carol C. Baskin, Jerry M. Baskin, Liwei Sun, Yujun Liu

Biology Faculty Publications

The transition from seed dormancy to germination is triggered by environmental factors, and in pomegranate (Punica granatum) seeds higher germination percentages are achieved by warm + cold stratification rather than by cold stratification alone. Our objective was to define the pattern of internal oxidative changes in pomegranate seeds as dormancy was being broken by warm + cold stratification and by cold stratification alone. Embryos isolated from seeds after 1–42 days of warm stratification, after 56 days of warm stratification + 7, 28 or 56 days of cold stratification, and after 1–84 days of cold stratification alone, were used in biochemical tests ...


Seed Dispersal: A Tale Of Two Species, W. John Hayden Apr 2016

Seed Dispersal: A Tale Of Two Species, W. John Hayden

Biology Faculty Publications

Orchids have minute, dustlike seeds. In this respect, Goodyera pubescens (Downy Rattlesnake Plantain), the 2016 VNPS Wildflower of the Year, is a typical orchid. Like all other orchids, Goodyera seeds contain little more than a few embryonic cells enclosed in a thin seed coat. There are two advantages to small seed size in orchids: minute seeds can be produced in prodigious quantities, and they can disperse over great distances by wind.


2016 Virginia Wildflower Of The Year: Downy Rattlesnake Plantain, Goodyera Pubescens, W. John Hayden Jan 2016

2016 Virginia Wildflower Of The Year: Downy Rattlesnake Plantain, Goodyera Pubescens, W. John Hayden

Biology Faculty Publications

Regardless of season, Downy Rattlesnake Plantain is a delight to encounter in the woods of Virginia. This evergreen orchid is a perennial rhizomatous herb of the forest floor. The horizontal rhizomes, usually covered lightly by leaf litter, bear roots at intervals and terminate in a rosette of leaves. Leaves are alternate, somewhat crowded together, and only slightly elevated above ground level. Leaf blades are ovate, 3–8 cm long, and 1.5–3 cm wide, often of varying size within a rosette. Leaves are present year-round, bluish-green, with prominent white veins; on each leaf, a broad midvein is flanked by ...


There's Much Left To Learn: Clethra's Chromosomes, W. John Hayden Oct 2015

There's Much Left To Learn: Clethra's Chromosomes, W. John Hayden

Biology Faculty Publications

Many would argue that chromosomes, genes, and DNA form the ineluctable essence of modern biology. Not only do these fundamental components of living cells provide moment-to-moment instructions by which cells carry out basic life processes, they also control inheritance of characteristics from one generation to the next. These essential functions of DNA stem from its repetitive structure. Hugely long DNA molecules are built from just four components, referenced by their singleletter abbreviations, A, C, G, and T. It is the specific sequence of these As, Cs, Gs, and Ts that constitutes the coded information of DNA. Moreover, molecular biologists have ...


When It Comes To Clethra: Roots Matter, W. John Hayden Jul 2015

When It Comes To Clethra: Roots Matter, W. John Hayden

Biology Faculty Publications

Roots, too often, are out of sight and out of mind, but they are critical for vigorous, healthy plant growth. All plant enthusiasts—including gardeners, farmers, foresters, and naturalists—should think about and appreciate roots if they wish to acquire a holistic understanding of plant biology. This article introduces readers to the mycorrhizal roots of the 2015 VNPS Wildflower of the Year, Clethra alnifolia (Sweet Pepperbush), and explores the diversity of mycorrhizae in a closely related family, Ericaceae.


Upside-Down Anthers Of Clethra Stand Out, W. John Hayden Apr 2015

Upside-Down Anthers Of Clethra Stand Out, W. John Hayden

Biology Faculty Publications

For the most part, the flowers of the 2015 VNPS Wildflower of the Year, Clethra alnifolia (Sweet Pepperbush), are unremarkable. Five separate sepals, 5 sepa rate petals, 10 stamens in 2 whorls, and a 3-carpellate superior ovary—an organization that can only be considered prosaic among the dicots. One floral feature, however, stands out: the anthers in the open flowers are upside-down! (See Figure 1A.) Further, these upside-down anthers open by pores (Figures 1B, 1C) rather than longitudinal slits, as in most flowering plants. These pores initially form on what would normally be the lowermost extremity of the anther, the ...


Native Orchids In Winter?, W. John Hayden Jan 2015

Native Orchids In Winter?, W. John Hayden

Biology Faculty Publications

A very special place in Southwest Virginia will soon expand its borders, thanks in part to the annual fundraising appeal by the Virginia Native Plant Society. The Cedars Natural Area Preserve supports ex ceptional natural communities including rocky, dry limestone glades and woodlands located across nearly 20 square miles in Lee County near the Powell River. The karst landscape, where thin soils develop over easily dissolved limestone bedrock, creates terrain that tends to be rolling, rocky, rugged, and full of sinkholes, caves, and sinking streams. The preserve is a haven for rare plants that have adapted to the mostly thin ...


2015 Virginia Wildflower Of The Year: Sweet Pepperbush, Clethra Alnifolia, W. John Hayden Jan 2015

2015 Virginia Wildflower Of The Year: Sweet Pepperbush, Clethra Alnifolia, W. John Hayden

Biology Faculty Publications

Clethra alnifolia is a rhizomatous shrub with aerial stems from 1 to 3 m tall. Leaves are simple, alternate, and bear stellate hairs; petioles are short, 5–10 mm long; leaf blades are obovate to oblong, 5–10 cm long, with relatively blunt apices, cuneate (wedgelike) bases, and margins that are entire toward the base but finely serrate above the middle; venation is pinnate with secondary veins that extend to leaf margins. Stipules are lacking. Flowers are borne on erect terminal racemes that may be solitary or accompanied by additional racemes terminating few-leaved branches arising from upper nodes. Raceme axes ...


Little Things Reveal The Big Picture, W. John Hayden Jan 2015

Little Things Reveal The Big Picture, W. John Hayden

Biology Faculty Publications

As enthusiasts who enjoy native plants in natural habitats, we tend to focus on gross morphology— aspects of plant form that can be readily observed with the naked eye or with a hand lens. And there is plenty to see at the gross level. The Flora of Virginia contains 1,269 pages of keys and descriptions devoted to gross morphology of the commonwealth’s botanical treasures. Morphological diversity, however, does not stop at the magnifi cation limit of a hand lens. Light and electron microscopes open up whole new worlds of intricate structure for appreciation and study. And tiny structural ...


Two Honeysuckles: A Tale Of Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde, W. John Hayden Feb 2014

Two Honeysuckles: A Tale Of Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde, W. John Hayden

Biology Faculty Publications

There are about 180 species of Lonicera (honeysuckles) widely distributed in the north temperate zone. These are mostly shrubby plants, but in Virginia, we have two species that are woody vines (lianas). These two lianous honeysuckles should be familiar to all Virginia Native Plant Society members. One is this year’s VNPS Wildflower of the Year, Lonicera sempervirens (coral honeysuckle), and the other is Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle), widely and deservedly reviled as one of our most aggressive invasive exotic species. Together, these two plants make an odd pair, a sort of botanical Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. What is ...


2014 Virginia Wildflower Of The Year: Coral Honeysuckle, Lonicera Sempervirens, W. John Hayden Jan 2014

2014 Virginia Wildflower Of The Year: Coral Honeysuckle, Lonicera Sempervirens, W. John Hayden

Biology Faculty Publications

The flashy red flowers of coral honeysuckle beckon hummingbirds to their sweet nectar. Coral honeysuckle is a twining woody vine, usually climbing on other vegetation but sometimes trailing along the ground; older stems have papery-brown exfoliating bark.


Sarpa Salpa Herbivory On Shallow Reaches Of Posidonia Oceanica Beds, Latina Steele, Kelly M. Darnell, Just Cebrián, Jose Luis Sanchez-Lizaso Jan 2014

Sarpa Salpa Herbivory On Shallow Reaches Of Posidonia Oceanica Beds, Latina Steele, Kelly M. Darnell, Just Cebrián, Jose Luis Sanchez-Lizaso

Biology Faculty Publications

Sarpa salpa herbivory on shallow reaches of Posidonia oceanica beds.— Here, we examined the temporal and small–scale spatial variability of grazing by the herbivorous fish Sarpa salpa on shallow beds of the temperate seagrass Posidonia oceanica. Herbivory intensity expressed as the percent of leaf area taken by fish bites was higher in September 2006 than in February 2007, and at 0.5 m than at 1.5 m during both sampling times. All S. salpa feeding at the shallow locations studied were juveniles, with bite sizes ranging from 0.03 to 0.62 cm2. Juveniles feeding at 1.5 ...


Redbud Seedpods Hold Surprises, W. John Hayden Oct 2013

Redbud Seedpods Hold Surprises, W. John Hayden

Biology Faculty Publications

As fall advances across the Old Dominion, canopies of redbud, the 2013 VNPS Wildflower of the Year, transform themselves from green to gold, revealing seed pods also changing color from pale green to dark chocolaty brown. These seedpods, which may be retained on the tree into winter, are typical legume fruits, the product of the flower’s simple pistil, each containing several seeds. Unlike most legumes, however, redbud seed pods seem disinclined to open and release individual seeds for dispersal. Redbud fruits tend to disperse intact. Once on the ground, the inevitable action of weather and microbes gradually degrades the ...


Redbud Cauliflory: The Inside Story, W. John Hayden Jan 2013

Redbud Cauliflory: The Inside Story, W. John Hayden

Biology Faculty Publications

One of the most distinctive features of redbuds, Cercis canadensis, the 2013 VNPS Wildflower of the Year, is its production of flowers on mature trunks and major branches, a habit termed cauliflory. Redbud flowers also form on young, one-year old twigs; as explained below, twig- and trunk-borne flowers are parts of a single developmental continuum; twigs bearing flowers eventually becoming trunks and large branches that continue to bear flowers.


2013 Virginia Wildflower Of The Year: Redbud, Cercis Canadensis, W. John Hayden Jan 2013

2013 Virginia Wildflower Of The Year: Redbud, Cercis Canadensis, W. John Hayden

Biology Faculty Publications

Redbuds are small trees or shrubs that may attain heights of 10 m or so. Leaves are alternate and two-ranked, simple, entire, deciduous, broadly cordate, with an acute apex, 611 cm long, 712 cm wide, and palmately veined. Petioles have two swollen pulvini, one at its connection with the stem, the other at its junction with the leaf blade.


Closely Paired Flowers Produce Single Fruit, W. John Hayden Jul 2012

Closely Paired Flowers Produce Single Fruit, W. John Hayden

Biology Faculty Publications

Perhaps one of the most striking features of partridge berry (Mitchella repens), the 2012 VNPS Wildflower of the Year, is its closely paired flowers that yield a single berry fruit (figure 1). That these fruits are double structures, formed by pairs of flowers, is revealed in the presence of two discrete rings of five sepals each on the fruit apex, or in some cases, by a single ring of 10 sepals. Viewed in isolation, without context, the nature of these double fruits may seem perplexing, but as in so many things, a comparative perspective helps to make sense of conundrums ...


Partridge Berry: Simple Beauty Belies Complexity, W. John Hayden Mar 2012

Partridge Berry: Simple Beauty Belies Complexity, W. John Hayden

Biology Faculty Publications

Superficially, plants seem so simple. Rooted in place, they do not move around. And while plant growth is a dynamic process, without time-lapse photography, growth events are so imperceptibly slow that, to us impatient humans, plants seem both immobile and static. Nevertheless, there is a lot going on inside the plant body, and this is especially true for the events of reproduction that play out inside flowers and fruits. As one of my students recently commented, “I used to think it was just a matter of pollen plus stigma and, presto-change-o, seeds happen.” That student, I hope, learned otherwise, as ...


Light Management Important Factor For Partridge Berry, W. John Hayden Jan 2012

Light Management Important Factor For Partridge Berry, W. John Hayden

Biology Faculty Publications

Factors essential for plant life include adequate levels of light, moisture, mineral nutrients, and temperature; though the list is small, each is crucial for survival. This article is a contemplation of how one of these critical factors, light, impacts the biology of our 2012 Wildflower of the Year, Mitchella repens, partridge berry. Aside from issues of reproductive biology, ecological literature on partridge berry is meager. Consequently most of what follows is derived from general works on woodland ecology, perusal of which provides sufficient insight about the biology of Mitchella to inspire ideas worthy of further study.


2012 Wildflower Of The Year: Partridge Berry, Mitchella Repens, W. John Hayden Jan 2012

2012 Wildflower Of The Year: Partridge Berry, Mitchella Repens, W. John Hayden

Biology Faculty Publications

Although partridge berry is a small and creeping herb, its jewel-like beauty rewards attentive naturalists year-round.