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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Effects Of Pyric Herbivory On Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus Spp) Habitat, Heath D. Starns, Samuel D. Fuhlendorf, Robert D. Elmore, Dirac Twidwell, Eric T. Thacker, Torre J. Hovick, Barney Luttbeg Jun 2020

Effects Of Pyric Herbivory On Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus Spp) Habitat, Heath D. Starns, Samuel D. Fuhlendorf, Robert D. Elmore, Dirac Twidwell, Eric T. Thacker, Torre J. Hovick, Barney Luttbeg

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

The reduction and simplification of grasslands has led to the decline of numerous species of grassland fauna, particularly grassland-obligate birds. Prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus spp.) are an example of obligate grassland birds that have declined throughout most of their distribution and are species of conservation concern. Pyric herbivory has been suggested as a land management strategy for enhancing prairie-chicken habitat and stabilizing declining population trends. We assessed differences in vegetation structure created by pyric herbivory compared to fire-only treatments to determine whether pyric herbivory increased habitat heterogeneity for prairie-chickens, spatially or temporally. Our study was performed at four sites in the southern ...


Production And Selection Of Quality Protein Popcorn Hybrids Using A Novel Ranking System And Combining Ability Estimates, Leandra Parsons, Ying Ren, Abou Yobi, Preston Hurst, Ruthie Angelovici, Oscar Rodriguez, David R. Holding Jun 2020

Production And Selection Of Quality Protein Popcorn Hybrids Using A Novel Ranking System And Combining Ability Estimates, Leandra Parsons, Ying Ren, Abou Yobi, Preston Hurst, Ruthie Angelovici, Oscar Rodriguez, David R. Holding

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Popcorn varieties are agronomically sub-optimal and genetically limited compared to other maize subspecies. To increase genetic diversity and improve popcorn agronomics, dent germplasm has been introduced to popcorn with limited success and generally, major loss of popping. Between 2013 and 2018, 12 Quality Protein Popcorn (QPP) inbreds containing Quality Protein Maize (QPM) and popcorn germplasm were produced that maintained popping while carrying the opaque-2 allele conferring elevated kernel lysine. This is an opportune trait in the growing market for healthier snacks and a model for mining QPM traits into popcorn. We crossed QPP inbreds to explore the effects of heterosis ...


Genomic Prediction Enhanced Sparse Testing For Multi-Environment Trials, Diego Jarquin, Reka Howard, José Crossa, Yoseph Beyene, Manje Gowda, Johannes W.R. Martini, Giovanny Covarrubias Pazaran, Juan Burgueño, Angela Pacheco, Martin Grondona, Valentin Wimmer, Boddupalli M. Prasanna Jun 2020

Genomic Prediction Enhanced Sparse Testing For Multi-Environment Trials, Diego Jarquin, Reka Howard, José Crossa, Yoseph Beyene, Manje Gowda, Johannes W.R. Martini, Giovanny Covarrubias Pazaran, Juan Burgueño, Angela Pacheco, Martin Grondona, Valentin Wimmer, Boddupalli M. Prasanna

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

“Sparse testing” refers to reduced multi-environment breeding trials in which not all genotypes of interest are grown in each environment. Using genomic-enabled prediction and a model embracing genotype · environment interaction (GE), the non-observed genotype-in-environment combinations can be predicted. Consequently, the overall costs can be reduced and the testing capacities can be increased. The accuracy of predicting the unobserved data depends on different factors including (1) how many genotypes overlap between environments, (2) in how many environments each genotype is grown, and (3) which prediction method is used. In this research, we studied the predictive ability obtained when using a fixed ...


Characterizing Variation In Nitrogen Use Efficiency In Wheat Genotypes Using Proximal Canopy Sensing For Sustainable Wheat Production, Mohammed A. Naser, Raj Khosla, Louis Longchamps, Subash Dahal May 2020

Characterizing Variation In Nitrogen Use Efficiency In Wheat Genotypes Using Proximal Canopy Sensing For Sustainable Wheat Production, Mohammed A. Naser, Raj Khosla, Louis Longchamps, Subash Dahal

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Global nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) for cereal production is marginal and is estimated to be about 33%. Remote sensing tools have tremendous potential for improving NUE in crops through efficient nitrogen management as well as the identification of high-NUE genotypes. The objectives of this study were (i) to identify and quantify the variation in NUE across 24 winter wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.) and (ii) to determine if the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) could characterize the variability in NUE across wheat genotypes. This study was conducted in 2010 and 2011 in the semi-arid climate of Northeastern Colorado across dryland ...


Assessing Approaches For Stratifying Producer Fields Based On Biophysical Attributes For Regional Yield-Gap Analysis, Spyridon Mourtzinis, Patricio Grassini, Juan I. Rattalino Edreira, José F. Andrade, Peter M. Kyveryga, Shawn P. Conley May 2020

Assessing Approaches For Stratifying Producer Fields Based On Biophysical Attributes For Regional Yield-Gap Analysis, Spyridon Mourtzinis, Patricio Grassini, Juan I. Rattalino Edreira, José F. Andrade, Peter M. Kyveryga, Shawn P. Conley

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Large databases containing producer field-level yield and management records can be used to identify causes of yield gaps. A relevant question is how to account for the diverse biophysical background (i.e., climate and soil) across fields and years, which can confound the effect of a given management practice on yield. Here we evaluated two approaches to group producer fields based on biophysical attributes: (i) a technology extrapolation domain spatial framework (‘TEDs’) that delineates regions with similar (long-term average) annual weather and soil water storage capacity and (ii) clusters based on field-specific soil properties and weather during each crop phase ...


Resilience To Large, “Catastrophic” Wildfires In North America's Grassland Biome, Victoria M. Donovan, Dirac Twidwell, Daniel R. Uden, Tsegaye Tadesse, Brian D. Wardlow, Christine H. Bielski, Matthew O. Jones, Brady W. Allred, David E. Naugle, Craig R. Allen May 2020

Resilience To Large, “Catastrophic” Wildfires In North America's Grassland Biome, Victoria M. Donovan, Dirac Twidwell, Daniel R. Uden, Tsegaye Tadesse, Brian D. Wardlow, Christine H. Bielski, Matthew O. Jones, Brady W. Allred, David E. Naugle, Craig R. Allen

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Wildfires are ecosystem‐level drivers of structure and function in many vegetated biomes. While numerous studies have emphasized the benefits of fire to ecosystems, large wildfires have also been associated with the loss of ecosystem services and shifts in vegetation abundance. The size and number of wildfires are increasing across a number of regions, and yet the outcomes of large wildfire on vegetation at large‐scales are still largely unknown. We introduce an exhaustive analysis of wildfire‐scale vegetation response to large wildfires across North America's grassland biome. We use 18 years of a newly released vegetation data set ...


Variance Heterogeneity Genome-Wide Mapping For Cadmium In Bread Wheat Reveals Novel Genomic Loci And Epistatic Interactions, Waseem Hussain, Malachy T. Campbell, Diego Jarquin, Harkamal Walia, Gota Morota Apr 2020

Variance Heterogeneity Genome-Wide Mapping For Cadmium In Bread Wheat Reveals Novel Genomic Loci And Epistatic Interactions, Waseem Hussain, Malachy T. Campbell, Diego Jarquin, Harkamal Walia, Gota Morota

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Genome-wide association mapping identifies quantitative trait loci (QTL) that influence the mean differences between the marker genotypes for a given trait. While most loci influence the mean value of a trait, certain loci, known as variance heterogeneity QTL (vQTL) determine the variability of the trait instead of the mean trait value (mQTL). In the present study, we performed a variance heterogeneity genome-wide association study (vGWAS) for grain cadmium (Cd) concentration in bread wheat. We used double generalized linear model and hierarchical generalized linear model to identify vQTL associated with grain Cd. We identified novel vQTL regions on chromosomes 2A and ...


A Global Perspective On Sustainable Intensification Research, Kenneth Cassman, Patricio Grassini Apr 2020

A Global Perspective On Sustainable Intensification Research, Kenneth Cassman, Patricio Grassini

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Despite general agreement that meeting food demand without further loss of natural ecosystems requires sustainable intensification, there is little dialogue about the research agenda needed to achieve it. To that end, we evaluate current trajectories towards sustainable intensification, review published research on the topic, identify missing links, and propose a prioritization framework to fill gaps. Although progress towards sustainable intensification is behind schedule, we are optimistic that current trends can get back on course assuming a well-prioritized and adequately funded research portfolio and appropriate policies and institutions to support it.


Optimum Rates Of Surface-Applied Coal Char Decreased Soil Ammonia Volatilization Loss, Dinesh Panday, Maysoon M. Mikha, Harold P. Collins, Virginia L. Jin, Michael Kaiser, Jennifer Cooper, Arindam Malakar, Bijesh Maharjan Mar 2020

Optimum Rates Of Surface-Applied Coal Char Decreased Soil Ammonia Volatilization Loss, Dinesh Panday, Maysoon M. Mikha, Harold P. Collins, Virginia L. Jin, Michael Kaiser, Jennifer Cooper, Arindam Malakar, Bijesh Maharjan

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Fertilizer N losses from agricultural systems have economic and environmental implications. Soil amendment with high C materials, such as coal char, may mitigate N losses. Char, a coal combustion residue, obtained from a sugar factory in Scottsbluff, NE, contained 29% C by weight. A 30-d laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the effects of char addition on N losses via nitrous oxide (N2O) emission, ammonia (NH3) volatilization, and nitrate (NO3–N) leaching from fertilized loam and sandy loam soils. Char was applied at five different rates (0, 6.7, 10.1, 13.4, and 26.8 ...


The State Of Sustainable Agriculture And Agroecology Research And Impacts: A Survey Of U.S. Scientists, Marcia Delonge, Tali Robbins, Andrea Basche, Lindsey Haynes-Maslow Feb 2020

The State Of Sustainable Agriculture And Agroecology Research And Impacts: A Survey Of U.S. Scientists, Marcia Delonge, Tali Robbins, Andrea Basche, Lindsey Haynes-Maslow

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

A growing body of research suggests that although sustainable agriculture, particularly agroecology, can address challenges such as those related to climate change, ecosystem services, food insecurity, and farmer livelihoods, the transition to such systems remains limited. To gain insight into the state of U.S. sustainable agriculture and agroecology, we developed a 28-question mixed-method survey that was administered to scientists in these fields. Respondents (N=168) represented diverse locations, institutions, and career stages. They offered varied definitions of sustainable agriculture, with 40% considering economic and social well-being to be core components. Respondents identified the amount and duration of public research ...


Enhancing Hybrid Prediction In Pearl Millet Using Genomic And/Or Multi- Environment Phenotypic Information Of Inbreds, Diego Jarquin, Reka Howard, Zhikai Liang, Shashi K. Gupta, James C. Schnable, Jose Crossa Jan 2020

Enhancing Hybrid Prediction In Pearl Millet Using Genomic And/Or Multi- Environment Phenotypic Information Of Inbreds, Diego Jarquin, Reka Howard, Zhikai Liang, Shashi K. Gupta, James C. Schnable, Jose Crossa

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Genomic selection (GS) is an emerging methodology that helps select superior lines among experimental cultivars in plant breeding programs. It offers the opportunity to increase the productivity of cultivars by delivering increased genetic gains and reducing the breeding cycles. This methodology requires inexpensive and sufficiently dense marker information to be successful, and with whole genome sequencing, it has become an important tool in many crops. The recent assembly of the pearl millet genome has made it possible to employ GS models to improve the selection procedure in pearl millet breeding programs. Here, three GS models were implemented and compared using ...


Long-Term Ecological Research In Southern Brazil Grasslands: Effects Of Grazing Exclusion And Deferred Grazing On Plant And Arthropod Communities, Pedro M.A. Ferreira, Bianca O. Andrade, Luciana R. Podgaiski, Amanda C. Dias, Valerio D. Pillar, Gerhard E. Overbeck, Milton De S. Mendonca Jr., Ilsi I. Boldrini Jan 2020

Long-Term Ecological Research In Southern Brazil Grasslands: Effects Of Grazing Exclusion And Deferred Grazing On Plant And Arthropod Communities, Pedro M.A. Ferreira, Bianca O. Andrade, Luciana R. Podgaiski, Amanda C. Dias, Valerio D. Pillar, Gerhard E. Overbeck, Milton De S. Mendonca Jr., Ilsi I. Boldrini

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Grazing exclusion may lead to biodiversity loss and homogenization of naturally heterogeneous and species-rich grassland ecosystems, and these effects may cascade to higher trophic levels and ecosystem properties. Although grazing exclusion has been studied elsewhere, the consequences of alleviating the disturbance regime in grassland ecosystems remain unclear. In this paper, we present results of the first five years of an experiment in native grasslands of southern Brazil. Using a randomized block experimental design, we examined the effects of three grazing treatments on plant and arthropod communities: (i) deferred grazing (i.e., intermittent grazing), (ii) grazing exclusion and (iii) a control ...


Editorial: New Insights Into Mechanisms Of Epigenetic Modifiers In Plant Growth And Development, Ming Luo, Gabino Ríos, Tomasz Jacek Sarnowski, Shoudong Zhang, Nitin Mantri, Jean-Benoit Charron, Marc Libault Jan 2020

Editorial: New Insights Into Mechanisms Of Epigenetic Modifiers In Plant Growth And Development, Ming Luo, Gabino Ríos, Tomasz Jacek Sarnowski, Shoudong Zhang, Nitin Mantri, Jean-Benoit Charron, Marc Libault

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

In eukaryotic cells, chromatin, a highly dynamic nucleoprotein complex, plays a critical role in controlling gene expression notably by regulating the interaction between transcription factors and regulatory elements. The structure of the chromatin is determined by epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and chromatin remodeling. A growing body of evidence indicates that epigenetic regulations are involved in plant adaptation to environmental stresses, and in plant development, including flowering control, fruit and root development, as well as seed maturation and germination. Furthermore, epigenetic mechanisms have the potential to stabilize cell identity and maintain tissue organization. Hence, epigenetic diversity is now ...


Yield And Quality In Purple-Grained Wheat Isogenic Lines, Alexey Morgounov, Yasar Karaduman, Beyhan Akin, Sinan Aydogan, Peter Stephen Baenziger, Madhav Bhatta, Vladimir Chudinov, Susanne Dreisigacker, Velu Govindan, Safure Güler, Carlos Guzman, Ajit Nehe, Rachana Poudel, Devin J. Rose, Elena Gordeeva, Vladimir Shamanin, Kemal Subasi, Yuriy Zelenskiy, Elena Khlestkina Jan 2020

Yield And Quality In Purple-Grained Wheat Isogenic Lines, Alexey Morgounov, Yasar Karaduman, Beyhan Akin, Sinan Aydogan, Peter Stephen Baenziger, Madhav Bhatta, Vladimir Chudinov, Susanne Dreisigacker, Velu Govindan, Safure Güler, Carlos Guzman, Ajit Nehe, Rachana Poudel, Devin J. Rose, Elena Gordeeva, Vladimir Shamanin, Kemal Subasi, Yuriy Zelenskiy, Elena Khlestkina

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Breeding programs for purple wheat are underway in many countries but there is a lack of information on the effects of Pp (purple pericarp) genes on agronomic and quality traits in variable environments and along the product chain (grain-flour-bread). This study was based on unique material: two pairs of isogenic lines in a spring wheat cv. Saratovskaya-29 (S29) background differing only in Pp genes and grain color. In 2017, seven experiments were conducted in Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkey with a focus on genotype and environment interaction and, in 2018, one experiment in Turkey with a focus on grain, flour, and ...


The Land Variational Ensemble Data Assimilation Framework: Lavendar V1.0.0, Ewan Pinnington, Tristan Quaife, Amos Lawless, Karina Williams, Tim Arkebauer, David Scoby Jan 2020

The Land Variational Ensemble Data Assimilation Framework: Lavendar V1.0.0, Ewan Pinnington, Tristan Quaife, Amos Lawless, Karina Williams, Tim Arkebauer, David Scoby

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

The Land Variational Ensemble Data Assimilation Framework (LAVENDAR) implements the method of fourdimensional ensemble variational (4D-En-Var) data assimilation (DA) for land surface models. Four-dimensional ensemble variational data assimilation negates the often costly calculation of a model adjoint required by traditional variational techniques (such as 4D-Var) for optimizing parameters or state variables over a time window of observations. In this paper we present the first application of LAVENDAR, implementing the framework with the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) land surface model. We show that the system can recover seven parameters controlling crop behaviour in a set of twin experiments. We ...


Adaptive Capacity In Ecosystems, David G. Angeler, Hannah Fried-Petersen, Craig R. Allen, Ahjond Garmestani, Dirac L. Twidwell Jr, H.E. Birgé, W. Chuang, V. M. Donovan, T. Eason, C.P. Roberts, S.M. Sundstrom, C.L. Wonkka Jan 2020

Adaptive Capacity In Ecosystems, David G. Angeler, Hannah Fried-Petersen, Craig R. Allen, Ahjond Garmestani, Dirac L. Twidwell Jr, H.E. Birgé, W. Chuang, V. M. Donovan, T. Eason, C.P. Roberts, S.M. Sundstrom, C.L. Wonkka

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Understanding the adaptive capacity of ecosystems to cope with change is crucial to management. However, unclear and often confusing definitions of adaptive capacity make application of this concept difficult. In this paper, we revisit definitions of adaptive capacity and operationalize the concept. We define adaptive capacity as the latent potential of an ecosystem to alter resilience in response to change. We present testable hypotheses to evaluate complementary attributes of adaptive capacity that may help further clarify the components and relevance of the concept. Adaptive sampling, inference and modeling can reduce key uncertainties incrementally over time and increase learning about adaptive ...


Characterization Of The Transcriptional Divergence Between The Subspecies Of Cultivated Rice (Oryza Sativa), Malachy T. Campbell, Qian Du, Kan Li, Sandeep Sharma, Chi Zhang, Harkamal Walia Jan 2020

Characterization Of The Transcriptional Divergence Between The Subspecies Of Cultivated Rice (Oryza Sativa), Malachy T. Campbell, Qian Du, Kan Li, Sandeep Sharma, Chi Zhang, Harkamal Walia

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Background: Cultivated rice consists of two subspecies, Indica and Japonica, that exhibit well-characterized differences at the morphological and genetic levels. However, the differences between these subspecies at the transcriptome level remains largely unexamined. Here, we provide a comprehensive characterization of transcriptome divergence and cis-regulatory variation within rice using transcriptome data from 91 accessions from a rice diversity panel (RDP1).

Results: The transcriptomes of the two subspecies of rice are highly divergent. Japonica have significantly lower expression and genetic diversity relative to Indica, which is likely a consequence of a population bottleneck during Japonica domestication. We leveraged high-density genotypic data and ...


Genome-Wide Identification And Analysis Of Heterotic Loci In Three Maize Hybrids, Hongjun Liu, Qin Wang, Mengjiao Chen, Yahui Ding, Xuerong Yang, Jie Liu, Xiaohan Li, Congcong Zhou, Qilin Tian, Yiqi Lu, Danlin Fan, Junpeng Shi, Lin Zhang, Congbin Kang, Mingfei Mingfei Sun, Fangyuan Li, Yujian Wu, Yongzhong Zhang, Baoshen Liu, Xiang Yu Zhao, Qi Feng, Jinliang Yang, Bin Han, Jinsheng Lai, Xian Sheng Zhang, Xuehui Huang Jan 2020

Genome-Wide Identification And Analysis Of Heterotic Loci In Three Maize Hybrids, Hongjun Liu, Qin Wang, Mengjiao Chen, Yahui Ding, Xuerong Yang, Jie Liu, Xiaohan Li, Congcong Zhou, Qilin Tian, Yiqi Lu, Danlin Fan, Junpeng Shi, Lin Zhang, Congbin Kang, Mingfei Mingfei Sun, Fangyuan Li, Yujian Wu, Yongzhong Zhang, Baoshen Liu, Xiang Yu Zhao, Qi Feng, Jinliang Yang, Bin Han, Jinsheng Lai, Xian Sheng Zhang, Xuehui Huang

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Heterosis, or hybrid vigour, is a predominant phenomenon in plant genetics, serving as the basis of crop hybrid breeding, but the causative loci and genes underlying heterosis remain unclear in many crops. Here, we present a large-scale genetic analysis using 5360 offsprings from three elite maize hybrids, which identifies 628 loci underlying 19 yield-related traits with relatively high mapping resolutions. Heterotic pattern investigations of the 628 loci show that numerous loci, mostly with complete–incomplete dominance (the major one) or overdominance effects (the secondary one) for heterozygous genotypes and nearly equal proportion of advantageous alleles from both parental lines, are ...


Prediction Strategies For Leveraging Information Of Associated Traits Under Single- And Multi-Trait Approaches In Soybeans, Reyna Persa, Arthur Bernardeli, Diego Jarquin Jan 2020

Prediction Strategies For Leveraging Information Of Associated Traits Under Single- And Multi-Trait Approaches In Soybeans, Reyna Persa, Arthur Bernardeli, Diego Jarquin

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

The availability of molecular markers has revolutionized conventional ways to improve genotypes in plant and animal breeding through genome-based predictions. Several models and methods have been developed to leverage the genomic information in the prediction context to allow more efficient ways to screen and select superior genotypes. In plant breeding, usually, grain yield (yield) is the main trait to drive the selection of superior genotypes; however, in many cases, the information of associated traits is also routinely collected and it can potentially be used to enhance the selection. In this research, we considered different prediction strategies to leverage the information ...


Wheat Growth Monitoring And Yield Estimation Based On Multi-Rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, Zhaopeng Fu, Jie Jang, Yang Gao, Brian Krienke, Meng Wang, Kaitai Zhong, Qiang Cao, Yongchao Tian, Yan Zhu, Weixing Cao, Xiaojun Liu Jan 2020

Wheat Growth Monitoring And Yield Estimation Based On Multi-Rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, Zhaopeng Fu, Jie Jang, Yang Gao, Brian Krienke, Meng Wang, Kaitai Zhong, Qiang Cao, Yongchao Tian, Yan Zhu, Weixing Cao, Xiaojun Liu

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Leaf area index (LAI) and leaf dry matter (LDM) are important indices of crop growth. Real-time, nondestructive monitoring of crop growth is instructive for the diagnosis of crop growth and prediction of grain yield. Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based remote sensing is widely used in precision agriculture due to its unique advantages in flexibility and resolution. This study was carried out on wheat trials treated with different nitrogen levels and seeding densities in three regions of Jiangsu Province in 2018–2019. Canopy spectral images were collected by the UAV equipped with a multi-spectral camera during key wheat growth stages. To ...


The State Of Sustainable Agriculture And Agroecology Research And Impacts: A Survey Of U.S. Scientists, Marcia Delonge, Tali Robbins, Andrea D. Basche, Lindsey Haynes-Maslow Jan 2020

The State Of Sustainable Agriculture And Agroecology Research And Impacts: A Survey Of U.S. Scientists, Marcia Delonge, Tali Robbins, Andrea D. Basche, Lindsey Haynes-Maslow

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

A growing body of research suggests that although sustainable agriculture, particularly agroecology, can address challenges such as those related to climate change, ecosystem services, food insecurity, and farmer livelihoods, the transition to such systems remains limited. To gain insight into the state of U.S. sustainable agriculture and agroecology, we developed a 28-question mixed-method survey that was administered to scientists in these fields. Respondents (N=168) represented diverse locations, institutions, and career stages. They offered varied definitions of sustainable agriculture, with 40% considering economic and social well-being to be core components. Respondents identified the amount and duration of public research ...


Rhizosphere Microbiome Of Arid Land Medicinal Plants And Extra Cellular Enzymes Contribute To Their Abundance, Abdul Latif Khan, Sajjad Asaf, Raeid M. M. Abed, Yen Ning Chai, Ahmed N. Al-Rawahi, Tupan Kumar Mohanta, Ahmed Al-Rawahi, Daniel P. Schachtman, Ahmed Al-Harrasi Jan 2020

Rhizosphere Microbiome Of Arid Land Medicinal Plants And Extra Cellular Enzymes Contribute To Their Abundance, Abdul Latif Khan, Sajjad Asaf, Raeid M. M. Abed, Yen Ning Chai, Ahmed N. Al-Rawahi, Tupan Kumar Mohanta, Ahmed Al-Rawahi, Daniel P. Schachtman, Ahmed Al-Harrasi

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Revealing the unexplored rhizosphere microbiome of plants in arid environments can help in understanding their interactions between microbial communities and plants during harsh growth conditions. Here, we report the first investigation of rhizospheric fungal and bacterial communities of Adenium obesum, Aloe dhufarensis and Cleome austroarabica using next-generation sequencing approaches. A. obesum and A. dhufarensis grows in dry tropical and C. austroarabica in arid conditions of Arabian Peninsula. The results indicated the presence of 121 fungal and 3662 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) whilst microbial diversity was significantly high in the rhizosphere of A. obesum and A. dhufarensis and low in ...


Multi-Trait Random Regression Models Increase Genomic Prediction Accuracy For A Temporal Physiological Trait Derived From High-Throughput Phenotyping, Toshimi Baba, Mehdi Momen, Malachy T. Campbell, Harkamal Walia, Gota Morota Jan 2020

Multi-Trait Random Regression Models Increase Genomic Prediction Accuracy For A Temporal Physiological Trait Derived From High-Throughput Phenotyping, Toshimi Baba, Mehdi Momen, Malachy T. Campbell, Harkamal Walia, Gota Morota

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Random regression models (RRM) are used extensively for genomic inference and predic- tion of time-valued traits in animal breeding, but only recently have been used in plant sys- tems. High-throughput phenotyping (HTP) platforms provide a powerful means to collect high-dimensional phenotypes throughout the growing season for large populations. How- ever, to date, selection of an appropriate statistical genomic framework to integrate multiple temporal traits for genomic prediction in plants remains unexplored. Here, we demonstrate the utility of a multi-trait RRM (MT-RRM) for genomic prediction of daily water usage (WU) in rice (Oryza sativa) through joint modeling with shoot biomass (projected ...


Transforming Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (Uav) And Multispectral Sensor Into A Practical Decision Support System For Precision Nitrogen Management In Corn, Laura J. Thompson, Laila A. Puntel Jan 2020

Transforming Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (Uav) And Multispectral Sensor Into A Practical Decision Support System For Precision Nitrogen Management In Corn, Laura J. Thompson, Laila A. Puntel

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Determining the optimal nitrogen (N) rate in corn remains a critical issue, mainly due to unaccounted spatial (e.g., soil properties) and temporal (e.g., weather) variability. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) equipped with multispectral sensors may provide opportunities to improve N management by the timely informing of spatially variable, in-season N applications. Here, we developed a practical decision support system (DSS) to translate spatial field characteristics and normalized difference red edge (NDRE) values into an in-season N application recommendation. On-farm strip-trials were established at three sites over two years to compare farmer’s traditional N management to a split-application N ...


Dicamba Retention In Commercial Sprayers Following Triple Rinse Cleanout Procedures, And Soybean Response To Contamination Concentrations, Frances B. Browne, Xiao Li, Katilyn J. Price, Jianping Wang, Yi Wang, Greg R. Kruger, Jeff Golus, Gabrielle De Castro Macedo, Bruno C. Vieira, Tyler Sandlin Jan 2020

Dicamba Retention In Commercial Sprayers Following Triple Rinse Cleanout Procedures, And Soybean Response To Contamination Concentrations, Frances B. Browne, Xiao Li, Katilyn J. Price, Jianping Wang, Yi Wang, Greg R. Kruger, Jeff Golus, Gabrielle De Castro Macedo, Bruno C. Vieira, Tyler Sandlin

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

The commercial launch of dicamba‐tolerant (DT) crops has resulted in increased dicamba usage and a high number of dicamba off‐target movement complaints on sensitive soybeans (Glycine max L.). Dicamba is a synthetic auxin and low dosages as 0.028 g ae ha−1 can induce injury on sensitive soybean. Tank contamination has been identified as one of the sources for unintended sensitive crop exposure. The labels of new dicamba formulations require a triple rinse cleanout procedure following applications. Cleanout efficacy might vary based on the sprayer type and procedure followed. This study was performed to quantify dicamba retention ...


Overexpression Of Ferulate 5‑Hydroxylase Increases Syringyl Units In Sorghum Bicolor, Hannah M. Tetreault, Tammy Gries, Nathan Palmer, Deanna L. Funnell-Harris, Shirley Sato, Zhengxiang Ge, Gautam Sarath, Scott Sattler Jan 2020

Overexpression Of Ferulate 5‑Hydroxylase Increases Syringyl Units In Sorghum Bicolor, Hannah M. Tetreault, Tammy Gries, Nathan Palmer, Deanna L. Funnell-Harris, Shirley Sato, Zhengxiang Ge, Gautam Sarath, Scott Sattler

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H) of the monolignol pathway catalyzes the hydroxylation of coniferyl alcohol, coniferaldehyde and ferulic acid to produce 5-hydroxyconiferyl moieties, which lead to the formation of sinapic acid and syringyl (S) lignin monomers. In contrast, guaiacyl (G) lignin, the other major type of lignin monomer, is derived from polymerization of coniferyl alcohol. In this study, the effects of manipulating S-lignin biosynthesis in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) were evaluated. Overexpression of sorghum F5H (SbF5H), under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter, increased both S-lignin levels and the ratio of S/G lignin, while plant growth and development remained relatively unaffected ...


The Lateral Root Density Gene Regulates Root Growth During Water Stress In Wheat, Dante F. Placido, Jaspreet Sandhu, Shirley Sato, Natalya Nersesian, Truyen Quach, Thomas E. Clemente, Paul E. Staswick, Harkamal Walia Jan 2020

The Lateral Root Density Gene Regulates Root Growth During Water Stress In Wheat, Dante F. Placido, Jaspreet Sandhu, Shirley Sato, Natalya Nersesian, Truyen Quach, Thomas E. Clemente, Paul E. Staswick, Harkamal Walia

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Drought stress is the major limiting factor in agriculture. Wheat, which is the most widely grown crop in the world, is predominantly cultivated in drought-prone rainfed environments. Since roots play a critical role in water uptake, root response to water limitations is an important component for enhancing wheat adaptation. In an effort to discover novel genetic sources for improving wheat adaptation, we characterized a wheat translocation line with a chromosomal segment from Agropyron elongatum, a wild relative of wheat, which unlike common wheat maintains root growth under limited-water conditions. By exploring the root transcriptome data, we found that reduced transcript ...


Restoring The Fire–Grazing Interaction Promotes Tree–Grass Coexistence By Controlling Woody Encroachment, Jane F. Capozzelli, James R. Miller, Diane M. Debinski, Walter H. Schacht Jan 2020

Restoring The Fire–Grazing Interaction Promotes Tree–Grass Coexistence By Controlling Woody Encroachment, Jane F. Capozzelli, James R. Miller, Diane M. Debinski, Walter H. Schacht

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Woody encroachment can convert grasslands and savannas to shrublands and woodlands, so understanding the processes which regulate woody encroachment is necessary to conserve or restore these ecosystems. We hypothesized that recreating the fire–grazing interaction would limit woody encroachment because focal grazing increases fuel accumulation on unburned areas and increases browsing on emergent woody plants in burned areas. This study was conducted in the Grand River Grasslands of Iowa and Mis- souri (USA) on 11 sites (15.4–35.0 ha). Each site was assigned to one treatment: patch-burn-graze (n = 4), with spatially discrete prescribed fires and free access by ...


Gwas: Fast-Forwarding Gene Identification And Characterization In Temperate Cereals: Lessons From Barley – A Review, Ahmad M. Alqudah, Ahmed Sallam, P. Stephen Baenziger, Andreas Börner Jan 2020

Gwas: Fast-Forwarding Gene Identification And Characterization In Temperate Cereals: Lessons From Barley – A Review, Ahmad M. Alqudah, Ahmed Sallam, P. Stephen Baenziger, Andreas Börner

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Understanding the genetic complexity of traits is an important objective of small grain temperate cereals yield and adaptation improvements. Bi-parental quantitative trait loci (QTL) linkage mapping is a pow- erful method to identify genetic regions that co-segregate in the trait of interest within the research pop- ulation. However, recently, association or linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping using a genome-wide association study (GWAS) became an approach for unraveling the molecular genetic basis underlying the natural phenotypic variation. Many causative allele(s)/loci have been identified using the power of this approach which had not been detected in QTL mapping populations. In barley ...


Soil Carbon Increased By Twice The Amount Of Biochar Carbon Applied After 6 Years: Field Evidence Of Negative Priming, Humberto Blanco-Canqui, David A. Laird, Emily A. Heaton, Samuel Rathke, Bharat Sharma Acharya Jan 2020

Soil Carbon Increased By Twice The Amount Of Biochar Carbon Applied After 6 Years: Field Evidence Of Negative Priming, Humberto Blanco-Canqui, David A. Laird, Emily A. Heaton, Samuel Rathke, Bharat Sharma Acharya

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Applying biochar to agricultural soils has been proposed as a means of sequester-ing carbon (C) while simultaneously enhancing soil health and agricultural sustain-ability. However, our understanding of the long-term effects of biochar and annual versus perennial cropping systems and their interactions on soil properties under field conditions is limited. We quantified changes in soil C concentration and stocks, and other soil properties 6 years after biochar applications to corn (Zea mays L.) and dedicated bioenergy crops on a Midwestern US soil. Treatments were as fol-lows: no-till continuous corn, Liberty switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), and low-diversity prairie grasses, 45% big bluestem ...