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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Molecular Differentiation Of Astragalus Species And Varieties From The Western United States: The Chloroplast Dna Bridge Between Evolution And Molecular Systematics, Marwa Neyaz, Daniel Cook, Rebecca Creamer Mar 2020

Molecular Differentiation Of Astragalus Species And Varieties From The Western United States: The Chloroplast Dna Bridge Between Evolution And Molecular Systematics, Marwa Neyaz, Daniel Cook, Rebecca Creamer

Poisonous Plant Research (PPR)

Locoweeds are the most widespread poisonous plant problem in the world and have been reported in the Western United States since the 1800s, causing tremendous losses in livestock. Consumption of locoweeds by grazing animals stimulates the neurological disease, locoism, characterized by weight loss, ataxia, and lack of muscular coordination. The name locoweed is used for Astragalus and Oxytropis species known to contain swainsonine, the toxic principle produced by the plant endophytic fungus Undifilum. Astragalus includes 2,500-3,000 species and many varieties that have almost identical morphological characteristics that overlap among species, leading to improper identification. Therefore, the aim of ...


Refernment: An R Package For Annotating Rna Editing In Plastid Genomes, Tanner A. Robison, Paul G. Wolf Jan 2019

Refernment: An R Package For Annotating Rna Editing In Plastid Genomes, Tanner A. Robison, Paul G. Wolf

Biology Faculty Publications

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: In the absence of cDNA, the annotation of RNA editing in plastomes must be done manually, representing a significant time cost to those studying the organellar genomes of ferns and hornworts.

METHODS AND RESULTS: We developed an R package to automatically annotate apparent nonsense mutations in plastid genomes. The software successfully annotates such sites and results in no false positives for data with no sequencing or assembly errors.

CONCLUSIONS: Compared to manual annotation, ReFernment offers greater speed and accuracy for annotating RNA editing sites. This software should be especially useful for researchers generating large numbers of ...


Mobile Elements Shape Plastome Evolution In Ferns, Tanner A. Robison, Amanda L. Grusz, Paul G. Wolf, Jeffrey P. Mower, Blake D. Fauskee, Karla Sosa, Eric Schuettpelz Aug 2018

Mobile Elements Shape Plastome Evolution In Ferns, Tanner A. Robison, Amanda L. Grusz, Paul G. Wolf, Jeffrey P. Mower, Blake D. Fauskee, Karla Sosa, Eric Schuettpelz

Biology Faculty Publications

Plastid genomes display remarkable organizational stability over evolutionary time. From green algae to angiosperms, most plastid genomes are largely collinear, with only a few cases of inversion, gene loss, or, in extremely rare cases, gene addition. These plastome insertions are mostly clade-specific and are typically of nuclear or mitochondrial origin. Here, we expand on these findings and present the first family-level survey of plastome evolution in ferns, revealing a novel suite of dynamic mobile elements. Comparative plastome analyses of the Pteridaceae expose several mobile open reading frames that vary in sequence length, insertion site, and configuration among sampled taxa. Even ...


Responses Of Marigold Cultivars To Saline Water Irrigation, Youping Sun, Genhua Niu, Christina Perez, H. Brent Pemberton, James Altland Apr 2018

Responses Of Marigold Cultivars To Saline Water Irrigation, Youping Sun, Genhua Niu, Christina Perez, H. Brent Pemberton, James Altland

Plants, Soils, and Climate Faculty Publications

Marigolds (Tagetes sp.) are ornamental plants with fine-textured, dark green foliage, and yellow, orange, or bicolored flowers. The relative salt tolerance of eight marigolds [‘Discovery Orange’, ‘Discovery Yellow’, ‘Taishan Gold’, ‘Taishan Orange’, and ‘Taishan Yellow’ African marigold (Tagetes erecta); ‘Hot Pak Gold’, ‘Hot Pak Orange’, and ‘Hot Pak Yellow’ French marigold (Tagetes patula)] was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment. Plants were irrigated weekly with nutrient solution at an electrical conductivity (EC) of 1.2 dS·m−1 (control) or saline solutions at an EC of 3.0 or 6.0 dS·m−1 (EC 3 or EC 6). Marigold plants ...


The Three Creeks Allotment Consolidation: Changing Western Federal Grazing Paradigms, Taylor Payne Jan 2018

The Three Creeks Allotment Consolidation: Changing Western Federal Grazing Paradigms, Taylor Payne

Human–Wildlife Interactions

The federal government owns approximately 47% of all land in the western United States. In the state of Utah, about 64% of the land base is managed by the federal Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the U.S. Forest Service (USFS). The government has historically issued permits to owners of private lands to allow the owners to graze their livestock on public lands. The permits (allotments) are generally of 10-year duration and allow for an annual season of use. In some cases, continued and repeated historical annual grazing practices may not be ideal for permit holders and their communities ...


Invasive Species Control And Perennial Plant Establishment In Antelope Pasture, Pocatello, Blm, Kari E. Veblen Feb 2017

Invasive Species Control And Perennial Plant Establishment In Antelope Pasture, Pocatello, Blm, Kari E. Veblen

Funded Research Records

No abstract provided.


Ceratobasidium Root Rot: A New Disease Of Watermelon In Arizona, Claudia Nischwitz Nov 2013

Ceratobasidium Root Rot: A New Disease Of Watermelon In Arizona, Claudia Nischwitz

All Current Publications

No abstract provided.


Botrytis Neck Rot Of Onion, Claudia Nischwitz Nov 2013

Botrytis Neck Rot Of Onion, Claudia Nischwitz

All Current Publications

No abstract provided.


Streptomycin Resistance Of Erwinia Amylovora Isolated From Apple (Malus Domesticus) In Utah, Claudia Nischwitz Oct 2013

Streptomycin Resistance Of Erwinia Amylovora Isolated From Apple (Malus Domesticus) In Utah, Claudia Nischwitz

All Current Publications

No abstract provided.


Streptomycin Resistance Of Erwinia Amylovora, Causal Agent Of Fire Blight, Claudia Nischwitz Nov 2012

Streptomycin Resistance Of Erwinia Amylovora, Causal Agent Of Fire Blight, Claudia Nischwitz

All Current Publications

No abstract provided.


Root-Knot Nematodes In Golf Course Greens Of The Western United States, Claudia Nischwitz May 2012

Root-Knot Nematodes In Golf Course Greens Of The Western United States, Claudia Nischwitz

All Current Publications

No abstract provided.


Phenotypic And Genetic Characterization Of Wildland Collections Of Western And Searls Prairie Clovers For Rangeland Revegetation In The Western Usa, Kishor Bhattarai Dec 2010

Phenotypic And Genetic Characterization Of Wildland Collections Of Western And Searls Prairie Clovers For Rangeland Revegetation In The Western Usa, Kishor Bhattarai

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Western prairie clover [Dalea ornata (Douglas ex Hook.) Eaton & J. Wright] is a perennial legume that occurs in the northern Great Basin, Snake River Basin, and southern Columbia Plateau, whereas Searls prairie clover [Dalea searlsiae (A. Gray) Barneby], also a perennial legume, occurs in the southern Great Basin and surrounding areas. Understanding the genetic and ecotypic variation of these prairie clovers is a prerequisite for developing populations suitable for rangeland revegetation in the western USA. DNA sequences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS/5.8S) and trnK/matK were used to study the phylogeny of these species. The species were distinguished ...


Optimizing The Physical And Nutritional Environment Of Unleached Root-Zones, Curtis B. Adams May 2010

Optimizing The Physical And Nutritional Environment Of Unleached Root-Zones, Curtis B. Adams

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Unleached root-zones represent an environmental ideal by eliminating wasteful leaching of nutrients and water. NASA grows plants in space in unleached root-zones, incorporating polymer-coated fertilizer (PCF) into a ceramic media (Turface or Profile). However, lack of growth productivity in space has led to the need for research to improve the nutritional and physical environment of the root-zone, which is the objective of this research. PCF types are diverse in release characteristics and the effects of temperature and substrate water content have not been well characterized. In spite of widespread use, studies on chemical properties and applied studies to verify soil ...


First Report Of Two Curtoviruses In Spinach And Common Beet In Arizona, Claudia Nischwitz Feb 2010

First Report Of Two Curtoviruses In Spinach And Common Beet In Arizona, Claudia Nischwitz

All Current Publications

No abstract provided.


Ecotypic Variation In Elymus Elymoides Subspecies Brevifolius Race C In The Northern Intermountain West, Matthew C. Parsons Dec 2008

Ecotypic Variation In Elymus Elymoides Subspecies Brevifolius Race C In The Northern Intermountain West, Matthew C. Parsons

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Little information is available on the extent of local adaptation for many native grass species. This is the case for squirreltail (Elymus section Sitanion), despite this group's prevalence and importance in rangeland restoration efforts. I evaluated 32 populations of E. elymoides ssp. brevifolius race C, a phylogenetic subdivision of bottlebrush squirreltail (E. elymoides) centered in the northern Intermountain West, for phenotypic variables and neutral genetic markers to measure their association with geographical origin. Phenotypic traits were measured in common field and greenhouse environments, and genetic diversity was assessed using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism. Three factors were extracted from the ...


Aminoglycosides And Syringomycin E As Fungicides Against Fusarium Graminearum In Head Blight Disease, Yukie Kawasaki Dec 2008

Aminoglycosides And Syringomycin E As Fungicides Against Fusarium Graminearum In Head Blight Disease, Yukie Kawasaki

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Fusarium graminearum is one of the most problematic phytopathogens in US agriculture. This fungus causes head blight, foot rot, and damping off on wheat and barley. The infection lowers the grain yield and causes contamination of the grain product with mycotoxins. Effective control measures are lacking, and new fungicides that kill F. graminearum but remain safe and economical to use are needed. Newly synthesized aminoglycosides (JL22, JL38, JL39, JL40, NEOF004, NEOF005), classic aminoglycosides (amikacin, gentamicin, kanamycin A, kanamycin B, neomycin, and ribostamycin), and a lipopeptide, syringomycin E (SRE), were studied to determine their antifungal potential to control F. graminearum. Aminoglycosides ...


"Effect Of Transplant Age, Tobacco Cultivar, Acibenzolar-S-Methyl, And Imidacloprid On Tomato Spotted Wilt Infection In Flue-Cured Tobacco", Claudia Nischwitz Jul 2008

"Effect Of Transplant Age, Tobacco Cultivar, Acibenzolar-S-Methyl, And Imidacloprid On Tomato Spotted Wilt Infection In Flue-Cured Tobacco", Claudia Nischwitz

All Current Publications

No abstract provided.


Quantitative-Genetic Variation In Morphological And Physiological Traits Within A Quaking Aspen (Populus Tremuloides) Population, Megan K. Kanaga, Ronald J. Ryel, Karen E. Mock, Michael E. Pfrender Jan 2008

Quantitative-Genetic Variation In Morphological And Physiological Traits Within A Quaking Aspen (Populus Tremuloides) Population, Megan K. Kanaga, Ronald J. Ryel, Karen E. Mock, Michael E. Pfrender

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Genetic diversity within populations is an important component of adaptive evolution, and recent research has demonstrated that genetic variation within plant populations can have important ecological effects. In this study, we investigate quantitative-genetic variation in several traits within a quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) population. A common garden experiment was planted with replicates of 13 aspen genotypes collected from wet and dry sites within a population in southern Utah, USA. Ten growth, leaf, physiological, and structural traits were measured. There were significant, heritable phenotypic differences among genotypes in every measured trait and differences in 4 of the 10 traits among ...


Cattle As Grazing Management And Seed Dispersal Tools For Increasing Native Species Diversity On Great Basin Rangelands, Marina K. Whitacre May 2004

Cattle As Grazing Management And Seed Dispersal Tools For Increasing Native Species Diversity On Great Basin Rangelands, Marina K. Whitacre

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A series of experiments evaluated: 1) the influence of seed intake and gut

retention time on seed passage , recovery , and germinability; 2) fecal seeding and

broadcast /trampling as techniques to incorporate seeds into a well-established

Agropyron desertorum (Fisch.) Schult. stand in Skull Valley , Utah; 3) intensive

grazing as a means to reduce Agropyron biomass and increase establishment and

survival of seeded species; and 4) the recovery and germinability of seed extracted

from dung collected from the field. Two shrubs (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp.

wyomingensis Beetle & Young and Atriplex confertifolia Torr. & Frem.), a grass

(Elymus elymoides (Raf.) Swezey) , and a forb (Sphaeralcea grossulariaefolia (H. &

A.) Rydb.) were selected as representative native species. Holstein heifers were fed

15,000 , 30 ,000 , and 60,000 seeds of Artemisia , Sphaeralcea, and Elymus. Elymus

recovery was negatively correlated to seed intake. Sphaeralcea had the highest

percentage of recovered, undamaged seed, followed by Elymus and Artemisia.

Sphaeralcea and Artemisia seed passage was highest on Day 1 then dropped sharply.

Elymus passage and recovery were more consistent through time. Post-passage

germjnability was highest for Elymus and Sphaeralcea on Day 1. Artemisia

germjnation was neghgible.

In the fall seeding, Sphaeralcea emerged in 6% of the subplots (half were

volunteers). Overall seedling mortality was 93%. Elymus emerged in 63% of the

dung pats, with 86% mortality. No Artemisia emerged. Drought and Anabrus

simplex herbivory contributed to low seedling emergence and survival. In April

2003, similar treatments were applied, except Atriplex seed was substituted for

Artemisia, and a third treatment was added (broadcast seeding/raking). No

emergence was observed. Sphaeralcea had the highest seed recovery from dung

collected in the field trials, followed by Elymus, Atriplex, and Artemisia.

Sphaeralcea germinability was similar for seeds collected from both trials (11 %) and

Elymus germination was highest in the fall seeding (13%).

These studies indicate that: 1) physical seed properties (size, shape, density,

seed coat) influence seed passage , recovery, and germination; 2) intensive grazing

can reduce Agropyron biomass by 50% for 2 years; 3) broadcast/trampling ...


Modelling Age- And Density-Related Gas Exchange Of Picea Abies Canopies In The Fichtelgebirge, Germany, Eva Falge, John D. Tennhunen, Ronald J. Ryel, Martina Alsheimer, Barbara Köstner Jan 2000

Modelling Age- And Density-Related Gas Exchange Of Picea Abies Canopies In The Fichtelgebirge, Germany, Eva Falge, John D. Tennhunen, Ronald J. Ryel, Martina Alsheimer, Barbara Köstner

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Differences in canopy exchange of water and carbon dioxide that occur due to changes in tree structure and density in montane Norway spruce stands of Central Germany were analyzed with a three dimensional microclimate and gas exchange model STANDFLUX. The model was used to calculate forest radiation absorption, the net photosynthesis and transpiration of single trees, and gas exchange of tree canopies. Model parameterizations were derived for six stands of Picea abies (L.) Karst. differing in age from 40 to 140 years and in density from 1680 to 320 trees per hectare. Parameterization included information on leaf area distribution from ...


The Basis Of Browsing Tolerance In Shrubs Of The Intermountain West: Growth Rates And Meristematic Potential, Jackson L. Wandera May 1990

The Basis Of Browsing Tolerance In Shrubs Of The Intermountain West: Growth Rates And Meristematic Potential, Jackson L. Wandera

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Relative growth rates (RGRs) and meristematic potential of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata, in some experiments ssp. tridentata Nutt. and in other experiments ssp. vaseyana [Rydb] Beetls), bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata [Pursh] DC), serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.), birchleaf mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus montanus Raf.), curlleaf mountain mahogany (C. ledifolius Nutt.) and big tooth maple (Acer grandidentatum Nutt.) were quantified under both glasshouse and field conditions. The relationships between the RGRs, meristematic potential and regrowth capacity of the shrub species were then determined. Sagebrush exhibited a significantly higher RGR than the other species at both high and low nutrient levels under glasshouse conditions. Four ...


Control Of Iron Chlorosis, Terry A. Tindall Jan 1982

Control Of Iron Chlorosis, Terry A. Tindall

Archived Gardening Publications

Publication discusses the causes of iron deficiency in plants and how to best control it.


Formation And Control Of Chlorophyll, Solanine Alkaloids, And Sprouts Of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Tubers And Carbonyl Compound Of Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill.) Fruits, S. J. Jadhav May 1973

Formation And Control Of Chlorophyll, Solanine Alkaloids, And Sprouts Of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Tubers And Carbonyl Compound Of Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill.) Fruits, S. J. Jadhav

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Part 1. Formation and control of chlorophyll, solanine alkaloids, and sprouts of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers

Incorporation of radioactive carbon from acetic acid-2-14C (sodium salt), β-hydroxy-β-methylglutaric acid (HMG)-3-14C, L-leucine-U-14C, L-alanine-U14C, and D-glucose-U-14C into the predominant glycosidic steroidal alkaloids, &alpha-chaconine of potato sprouts was 4.88, 9.0, 15, 24, and 20 times less than that of mevalonic acid (MVA=2-14C (DBED salt), respectively. The efficiency ratio revealed that β-hydroxy-β-methylglutaric acid (HMG)-3-14 was incorporated via acetate or acetoacetate. The distribution of radioactivity originated from D-glucose-U-14C was nearly nine times higher in the glycoside moiety than that in the aglycone part of the glycoalkaloids. Apparently, Alar( succinic acid 2,2-dimethylhydrazide), Ethrel or Ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid), and Telone (1 ,3-dichloropropene and related chlorinated hydrocarbons) significantly reduced the rate of incorporation of β-hydroxy-β-methylglutaric acid (HMG)-3-14C into the alkaloids.

A catalytic conversion of solanidine and UDP-glucose-U-14C to β-glucoside by the enzymatic system in a suspension of potato slices and the enzyme preparation from sprouts demonstrated the presence of β-glucosyltransferase in Solanum tuberosum L. Stepwise synthesis of α-solanine and α-chaconine from solanidine in potato tubers or sprouts seems possible.

Formation of solanine alkaloids in peeled potato slices was stimulated when stored at 15 and 24 C in dark or light (200 foot-candles). The slices held under light developed nearly three to four times more alkaloids than those held in the dark. Significantly higher concentrations of solanine alkaloids were formed in the late stage (after 24 hours) than in the early stage of the storage period . Hence, it can be concluded that when potatoes are sliced for chips or French fries, they should be processed immediately, before the glycoalkaloids are synthesized in higher concentrations.

Post-harvest application of chemicals, such as Phosfon (tributyl 2,4-dichlorobenzylphosphonium chloride), Phosfon-S (tributyl 2,4-dichlorobenzylammonium chloride), Amchem 72-A42 [2-(p-chlorophenylthio)- triethylamine], Amchem 70-334 or CPTA [2-(p-chlorophenylthio)-triethylamine hydrochloride], Nemagon (1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane), and Telone (1,3-dichloropropene and related chlorinated hydrocarbons) at the concentrations of 250, 500, and 100 parts per million (ppm) in water; glycerin (10, 20, and 30 percent weight by volume [w/v] in water); and mineral oil (1.25, 2. 5, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 100 percent [w/v] in ether or petroleum ether) significantly inhibited the formation of chlorophyll and solanine alkaloids in the peripheral (periderm and outer parenchyma ...


Seed Response Under Snow On A Subalpine Range In Central Utah, Alvin T. Bleak May 1970

Seed Response Under Snow On A Subalpine Range In Central Utah, Alvin T. Bleak

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The response of grass, forb, and shrub seeds to the subalpine environment during the fall and under winter snow and under laboratory conditions at 20/28 C was observed for 3 consecutive years at an elevation of about 3000m on the Wasatch Plateau in central Utah.

Seeds in nylon sleeves were planted under 2 cm of soil before snowfall. Under snow plantings were made directly on the soil surface and under 2 cm of soil. The seeds planted before snowfall were removed each year on four occasions: when under snow plantings were made, after snow depth exceeded 130 cm (deep ...


Morphology, Fertility, And Cytology Of Diploid And Colchicine-Induced Tetraploid Fairway Crested Wheatgrass, William Tai May 1964

Morphology, Fertility, And Cytology Of Diploid And Colchicine-Induced Tetraploid Fairway Crested Wheatgrass, William Tai

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Fairway crested wheatgrass, which is identified taxonomically as Agropyron cristatum (L . ) Gaertn. (45 ), A. cristatiforme (38) , or A. pectiniforme Roem. and Schult (22), is an economically important range grass belonging to the "crested wheatgrass complex" (24, 38). The crested wheatgrass complex includes diploid, 2n = 14, tetraploid, 2n = 28, and hexaploid, 2n = 42, forms (1, 11, 22). The variety Fairway and Fairway-like derivatives are the only known diploid members of the species complex (24, 38). Meiotic chromosome behavior of Fairway diploids appears to be typical of other diploid species; however, the number of plants examined cytologically has been relatively small.

Although ...