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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Development Of Molecular Tools For Identification Of Prairie Terrestrial And Wetland Algae, Esther Mundembo Kapinga Mar 2017

Development Of Molecular Tools For Identification Of Prairie Terrestrial And Wetland Algae, Esther Mundembo Kapinga

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Algae are a diverse group of photosynthetic protists. Green algae are typically unicellular, though some may occur as multicellular colonies, and they are found across a wide range of habitats, including marine, freshwater, and terrestrial environments. As photosynthetic producers and sometimes symbionts, algae can occupy important roles in an ecosystem; in other circumstances they can have negative impacts on environmental quality. Estimations of the number of green algal species range from eight thousand to over fifteen thousand. The identification of individual algal species can be problematic due to their small size and typically simple cell anatomy. For this reason, molecular ...


Small Scale Heterogeneity In Vegetation Structure In A Patch-Burn-Grazing Landscape, Eric G. Behrens Mar 2017

Small Scale Heterogeneity In Vegetation Structure In A Patch-Burn-Grazing Landscape, Eric G. Behrens

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Disturbances are drivers of spatial change in the plant communities of the tallgrass prairie ecosystem. Fire and large herbivore grazing are prevalent disturbances that maintain the vegetation structure and create spatial heterogeneity in vegetation at various scales. The fire-grazing disturbance interaction occurs when areas that have been recently burned are followed by intense grazing due to the high quality of forage regrowth. This interaction has been managed in tallgrass prairies in a homogenous method using uniform burning and grazing and a heterogeneous method using patch-burn-grazing (PBG). Vegetation heterogeneity at a large scale has been studied in PBG and uniformly managed ...


Floristic Diversity In Ten Tallgrass Prairie Remnants Of Eastern Nebraska, Judith F. Boettcher, Thomas B. Bragg, David M. Sutherland Jan 1993

Floristic Diversity In Ten Tallgrass Prairie Remnants Of Eastern Nebraska, Judith F. Boettcher, Thomas B. Bragg, David M. Sutherland

Biology Faculty Publications

Ten eastern Nebraska tallgrass prairie remnants, varying in size from one to 18 ha, were studied or visited during the growing seasons from 1979 to 1993. A total of217 prairie plant species were recorded. Big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii), little bluestem (Andropogon scoparius), smooth brome (Bromus inermis subsp. inermis), New Jersey tea (Ceanothus herbaceus var. pubescens), false sunflower (Heliopsis helianthoides var. scabra), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis), and porcupine-grass (Stipa spartea) were prevalent in all the prairies although the specific floristic composition has been reported to vary depending on past management, topography, season of evaluation, and prairie size. Of the total species ...


Woody Vegetation Of A Disjunct Bur Oak (Quercus Macrocarpa) Forest In East-Central Nebraska, Debra Ann Beightol, Thomas B. Bragg Jan 1993

Woody Vegetation Of A Disjunct Bur Oak (Quercus Macrocarpa) Forest In East-Central Nebraska, Debra Ann Beightol, Thomas B. Bragg

Biology Faculty Publications

Woody plant composition was assessed for three tree-size classes in two ravines of Oak Glen Wildlife Management Area, a disjunct oak forest in Seward County, Nebraska, using Importance Values (IV) obtained by the Point-Quarter method. Bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa Michx.) dominated the large-size class (>30 cm dbh) (IV = 258) but elms (Ulmus americana L. and U. rubra Muhl.) (IV = 130) dominated the forest in one ravine in the medium-size class (10-30cm dbh) and elm and hackberry (Celtis occidentalis L.) (IV = 114 and 27 respectively) dominated the small-size class (


Review Of American Wildflower Florilegium By Jean Andrews, David M. Sutherland Jan 1993

Review Of American Wildflower Florilegium By Jean Andrews, David M. Sutherland

Biology Faculty Publications

This book is a collection of 50 watercolor paintings of American wildflowers ("florilegium" means, literally, "a gathering of flowers"). Accompanying each full-page painting is a summary of general information about the plant, including notes about its botanical classification, the etymology of its name, life history, distribution, description, flowering period, pollination, and propagation.


Review Of The Wild Oat Inflorescence And Seed: Anatomy, Development And Morphology, M. V. S. Raju, David M. Sutherland Aug 1991

Review Of The Wild Oat Inflorescence And Seed: Anatomy, Development And Morphology, M. V. S. Raju, David M. Sutherland

Biology Faculty Publications

This slim volume describes a detailed study of the reproductive parts of Avena fatua, the wild oat plant-a common weed in the northern plains and the probable ancestor of the cultivated oat. The book integrates the author's own work with information from available literature and includes lengthy technical descriptions of the structure and the growth of the inflorescence, the floret, the ovule, the pollen grain, the embryo, the seed, and the young seedling. Throughout the work, the author relates the wild oat's structure and development to other grasses, other monocotyledons, and other seed plants, offering evolutionary interpretations of ...


A Taxonomic Study Of Variation In Leptochloa Fascicularis (Lam.) Gray In The Central Great Plains, Todd A. Templeton Jan 1991

A Taxonomic Study Of Variation In Leptochloa Fascicularis (Lam.) Gray In The Central Great Plains, Todd A. Templeton

Biology Faculty Publications

The morphology of Leptochloa fascicularis (Lam.) Gray (Poaceae) was studied in 25 locations in eastern and central Nebraska to determine if this grass was separable into two distinct taxa as suggested in several recent sources. Field collections were supplemented with herbarium specimens from other parts of the Central Great Plains. Glume and lemma lengths, the characters used in published keys, provided no separations useful in dividing the material into two species or varieties. However, individual local populations exhibited significant differences from each other in these characters. Such local differences appear to be reasonable given the high degree of inbreeding that ...


New And Corrected Floristic Records For Nebraska, Steven B. Rolfsmeier, Robert B. Kaul, David M. Sutherland Jan 1991

New And Corrected Floristic Records For Nebraska, Steven B. Rolfsmeier, Robert B. Kaul, David M. Sutherland

Biology Faculty Publications

Nineteen species (including eight Eurasian ones) are newly recorded for Nebraska: Alopecurus arundinaceus, Amaranthus californicus, Asclepias asperula, A purpurascens, Cardamine {lexuosa*, Centaurea diffusa, Dipsacus laciniatus, Eriochloa villosa, Euclidium syriacum, Gentiana alba, Geranium viscosissimum, Geum vernum, Goodyera oblongifolia, Haplopappus multicaulis, Heterotheca latifolia, Lathyrus tuberosus, Polygonum douglasii, Scirpus saximontanus, Veronica biloba. Twenty-one others are shown to be more widespread in Nebraska than previously known, one has a more restricted range than previously reported, two (Scirpus smithii, S. torreyi) are deleted from the flora based upon corrected identifications, and the status of some rarely-collected species is updated. Thirty-two additions, two deletions, and two ...


Tallgrass Prairie Remnants Of Eastern Nebraska, Judith F. Boettcher, Thomas B. Bragg Jan 1989

Tallgrass Prairie Remnants Of Eastern Nebraska, Judith F. Boettcher, Thomas B. Bragg

Biology Faculty Proceedings & Presentations

Ten eastern Nebraska tallgrass prairie remnants were evaluated up to four times during the 1979 growing season to assess vegetative composition and the effects of mowing, topographic and size differences, and season of evaluation. Frequent mowing resulted in a reduced canopy cover of some species, such as big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman) (21% lower with frequent mowing), but increased cover of others, particularly the introduced species smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss. subsp. inermis) (35% higher cover with frequent mowing). In addition, frequent mowing resulted in a higher proportion of disturbance species. Comparing the time of mowing, canopy cover of warm-season ...


Effect Of Eastern Red Cedar On Seedling Establishment Of Prairie Plants, Dan J. Stipe, Thomas B. Bragg Jan 1989

Effect Of Eastern Red Cedar On Seedling Establishment Of Prairie Plants, Dan J. Stipe, Thomas B. Bragg

Biology Faculty Proceedings & Presentations

To test the hypothesis that eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) is allelopathic, seedling establishment of five herbaceous prairie species was evaluated by growing seeds in soil collected beneath and adjacent to a stand of this tree species. While four species showed no significant effect, the germination of one species, finger coreopsis (Coreopsis palmata Nutt.), was significantly reduced. Since eastern red cedar is an early invader of unburned prairie, such an allelopathic effect, even on only a few species, is of particular concern in that it has the potential to hasten degradation of invaded prairie sites.


Establishing Warm-Season Grasses And Forbs Using Herbicides And Mowing, Thomas B. Bragg, David M. Sutherland Jan 1989

Establishing Warm-Season Grasses And Forbs Using Herbicides And Mowing, Thomas B. Bragg, David M. Sutherland

Biology Faculty Proceedings & Presentations

The objective of this study was to provide a preliminary assessment of the use of selected herbicides in establishing a diverse stand of prairie grasses and forbs. An upland and a lowland site in eastern Nebraska, consisting of well-drained, fine-silty clay, loess-derived soils, were seeded with 23 native prairie grass and forb species and subsequently mowed or treated at rates of 0.6, 1.1, 1.7, and 2.2 kg/ha with atrazine [6-chloro-Nethyl- N' -(l-methylethyl)-l ,3,S-triazine-2,4-diamine] or 2,4-0 (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid). Treatments were applied at one and two-year intervals. Canopy cover in unreplicated treatment ...


Effect Of Burning On Germination Of Tallgrass Prairie Plant Species, Sherry R. Rohn, Thomas B. Bragg Jan 1989

Effect Of Burning On Germination Of Tallgrass Prairie Plant Species, Sherry R. Rohn, Thomas B. Bragg

Biology Faculty Proceedings & Presentations

Seeds from 10 prairie plant species of burned and unburned portions of three tallgrass prairies were collected and tested for germinability. Germination of big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman) consistently averaged higher with burning. Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans L.) and sideoats grama [Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr.] averaged 5% higher with burning on two of the three sites, although for indiangrass average germination for all three sites was 7% lower. Species for which germination declined with burning were false sunflower [Heliopsis helianthoides (L.) Sweet var. scabra (Dun.) Fern.], -13%; whole leaf rosinweed (Silphium integrifolium Michx.), -10%; and white prairieclover (Dalea candida Michx. ex ...


Woody-Plant Succession In An Eastern Nebraska Bluff Forest, Douglas E. Borland, Thomas B. Bragg, David M. Sutherland Jan 1989

Woody-Plant Succession In An Eastern Nebraska Bluff Forest, Douglas E. Borland, Thomas B. Bragg, David M. Sutherland

Biology Faculty Publications

Woody plant composition of ridgetop old-fields abandoned at various times since 1800 suggest a successional pattern for an eastern Nebraska bluff forest. Sites abandoned for 24 years were dominated by elm (Ulmus spp.) and rough-leaved dogwood (Comus drummondii). Other sites, abandoned for76 years, were dominated by bitternut hickory (Cwya cordijormis), American linden (Tilia americana), and hop-hombeam (Ostrya virginiana), and those abandoned for 186 years were predominantly bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa) and hop-hornbeam. Based on species importance values, we conclude that the composition of this forest is still changing.


An Annotated List Of The Vascular Plants Of Keith County, Nebraska, David M. Sutherland, Steven B. Rolfsmeier Jan 1989

An Annotated List Of The Vascular Plants Of Keith County, Nebraska, David M. Sutherland, Steven B. Rolfsmeier

Biology Faculty Publications

This study provides an annotated list of the vascular plants known to exist outside of cultivation in Keith County, Nebraska. Listed are a total of 599 species, subspecies and varieties belonging to 302 genera of 87 families. Notes are included about frequency and habitat for each of the taxa. 264 (44.1 %) of the taxa listed were previously unreported for Keith County. Additionally, the paper discusses vegetation regions in the county and gives information in tabular form about numbers of the flora in different taxa, the ten largest families, numbers of taxa of different growth habits, and numbers of taxa ...


New And Corrected Floristic Records For Nebraska, Steven B. Rolfsmeier, Robert B. Kaul, Marjorie M. Garabrandt, David M. Sutherland Jan 1988

New And Corrected Floristic Records For Nebraska, Steven B. Rolfsmeier, Robert B. Kaul, Marjorie M. Garabrandt, David M. Sutherland

Biology Faculty Publications

New distributional data are given for 54 species of vascular plants in Nebraska. Twenty are newly recorded for the State. 23 are shown to be more widespread than was previously known, seven are shown to have more restricted ranges than previously reported. the records of one species attributed to the State are shown to be based on misidentifications. and the presence in the State of three species collected long ago is confirmed by recent collections.


Historical Notes On Collections And Taxonomy Of Penstemon Haydenii S. Wats. (Blowout Penstemon), Nebraska's Only Endemic Plant Species, David M. Sutherland Jan 1988

Historical Notes On Collections And Taxonomy Of Penstemon Haydenii S. Wats. (Blowout Penstemon), Nebraska's Only Endemic Plant Species, David M. Sutherland

Biology Faculty Publications

Penstemon haydenii was originally described in 1891 by Sereno Watson and was named for its first collector, the geologist and explorer Ferdinand V. Hayden, who probably collected it in the late summer of 1857 in the" Sand Hills of Loup Fork," Nebraska. The Hayden specimen which Watson saw in the Gray Herbarium at Harvard University had evidently been labeled with an incorrect location. Watson did not base his description on that early specimen but upon a more complete specimen, also in the Gray Herbarium, taken by Herbert J. Webber in Thomas County in 1891; so the Webber specimen, not the ...


New And Corrected Records Of The Flora Of Nebraska, Steven B. Rolfsmeier, Robert B. Kaul, David M. Sutherland Jan 1987

New And Corrected Records Of The Flora Of Nebraska, Steven B. Rolfsmeier, Robert B. Kaul, David M. Sutherland

Biology Faculty Publications

New distributional data are provided for 27 species of vascular plants in Nebraska, eight newly recorded as growing wild in the State. The record of one species previously attributed to the State is shown to be based upon misidentified specimens, the range of another is shown to be much more restricted in Nebraska than previously reported, and nomenclature is corrected for two species.


Nebraska Plant Distribution, David M. Sutherland, Robert B. Kaul Jan 1986

Nebraska Plant Distribution, David M. Sutherland, Robert B. Kaul

Biology Faculty Publications

Distribution notes based on recent collections and herbarium work are provided for 46 Nebraska plant taxa, including 43 flowering plants, two ferns, and one liverwort. The list includes several plants that are new to the State and provides range extensions within the State for many others. Several previously- published distribution records believed to be erroneous are also discussed.


Vegetative Key To Grasses Of The Sand Hills Region Of Nebraska, David M. Sutherland Jan 1984

Vegetative Key To Grasses Of The Sand Hills Region Of Nebraska, David M. Sutherland

Biology Faculty Publications

All illustrated key is provided that will facilitate identification of grasses in the vegetative condition in the Sand Hills region of Nebraska. The key separates 97 species, varieties, and species groups and discusses or partially separates 14 additional taxa. It emphasizes characteristics that may be observed in the field with a hand lens and is illustrated with 109 camera lucida drawings.