Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 44

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Root Hair Single Cell Type Specific Profiles Of Gene Expression And Alternative Polyadenylation Under Cadmium Stress, Jingyi Cao, Congting Ye, Guijie Hao, Carole Dabney-Smith, Arthur G. Hunt, Qingshun Q. Li May 2019

Root Hair Single Cell Type Specific Profiles Of Gene Expression And Alternative Polyadenylation Under Cadmium Stress, Jingyi Cao, Congting Ye, Guijie Hao, Carole Dabney-Smith, Arthur G. Hunt, Qingshun Q. Li

Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Publications

Transcriptional networks are tightly controlled in plant development and stress responses. Alternative polyadenylation (APA) has been found to regulate gene expression under abiotic stress by increasing the heterogeneity at mRNA 3′-ends. Heavy metals like cadmium pollute water and soil due to mining and industry applications. Understanding how plants cope with heavy metal stress remains an interesting question. The Arabidopsis root hair was chosen as a single cell model to investigate the functional role of APA in cadmium stress response. Primary root growth inhibition and defective root hair morphotypes were observed. Poly(A) tag (PAT) libraries from single cell types ...


Water Permeability/Impermeability In Seeds Of 15 Species Of Caragana (Fabaceae), Dali Chen, Rui Zhang, Carol C. Baskin, Xiaowen Hu May 2019

Water Permeability/Impermeability In Seeds Of 15 Species Of Caragana (Fabaceae), Dali Chen, Rui Zhang, Carol C. Baskin, Xiaowen Hu

Biology Faculty Publications

Majority legumes in the temperate and arctic zones have water-impermeable seeds (physical dormancy, PY). However, various authors have reported that seeds of some Caragana species are water-permeable and thus non-dormant. We (1) tested seeds of 15 species of Caragana matured in the same site in 2014, 2016 and/or 2017 for presence of PY, (2) determined if dry storage decreased or increased the percentage of seeds with PY and (3) located the site on the seed coat of 11 species where water enters the seed. Sixty-three percent and 45% of the seeds of C. roborovskyi had PY in 2016 and ...


Effects Of Increased Precipitation On The Life History Of Spring- And Autumn-Germinated Plants Of The Cold Desert Annual Erodium Oxyrhynchum (Geraniaceae), Yanfeng Chen, Xiang Shi, Lingwei Zhang, Jerry M. Baskin, Carol C. Baskin, Huiliang Liu, Daoyuan Zhang Apr 2019

Effects Of Increased Precipitation On The Life History Of Spring- And Autumn-Germinated Plants Of The Cold Desert Annual Erodium Oxyrhynchum (Geraniaceae), Yanfeng Chen, Xiang Shi, Lingwei Zhang, Jerry M. Baskin, Carol C. Baskin, Huiliang Liu, Daoyuan Zhang

Biology Faculty Publications

Future increased precipitation in cold desert ecosystems may impact annual/ephemeral plant species that germinate in both spring and autumn. Our primary aim was to compare the life history characteristics of plants from spring-germinating (SG) and autumn-germinating (AG) seeds of Erodium oxyrhynchum. Plants in field plots with simulated increases in precipitation of 0, 30 and 50 % in spring and summer were monitored to determine seedling survival, phenology, plant size, seed production and biomass accumulation and allocation. Germination characteristics were determined in the laboratory for seeds produced by plants in all increased precipitation treatments. Increased precipitation in spring significantly improved survival ...


Modulation Of Auxin And Cytokinin Responses By Early Steps Of The Phenylpropanoid Pathway, Jasmina Kurepa, Timothy E. Shull, Sumudu S. Karunadasa, Jan A. Smalle Nov 2018

Modulation Of Auxin And Cytokinin Responses By Early Steps Of The Phenylpropanoid Pathway, Jasmina Kurepa, Timothy E. Shull, Sumudu S. Karunadasa, Jan A. Smalle

Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: The phenylpropanoid pathway is responsible for the synthesis of numerous compounds important for plant growth and responses to the environment. In the first committed step of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, the enzyme phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) deaminates L-phenylalanine into trans-cinnamic acid that is then converted into p-coumaric acid by cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H). Recent studies showed that the Kelch repeat F-box (KFB) protein family of ubiquitin ligases control phenylpropanoid biosynthesis by promoting the proteolysis of PAL. However, this ubiquitin ligase family, alternatively named Kiss Me Deadly (KMD), was also implicated in cytokinin signaling as it was shown to promote the degradation of ...


Japanese Beetles’ Feeding On Milkweed Flowers May Compromise Efforts To Restore Monarch Butterfly Habitat, Adam M. Baker, Daniel A. Potter Aug 2018

Japanese Beetles’ Feeding On Milkweed Flowers May Compromise Efforts To Restore Monarch Butterfly Habitat, Adam M. Baker, Daniel A. Potter

Entomology Faculty Publications

The eastern North American migratory population of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) is in serious decline. Habitat restoration, including adding millions of host plants to compensate for loss of milkweed in US cropland, is a key part of the international conservation strategy to return this iconic butterfly to sustainable status. We report here that Popillia japonica, a polyphagous, invasive beetle, aggregates and feeds on flowers of Asclepias syriaca, the monarch’s most important larval food plant, reducing fruiting and seed set by >90% and extensively damaging milkweed umbels in the field. The beetle’s ongoing incursion into the monarch’s key ...


Plant And Microbial Responses To Repeated Cu(Oh)2 Nanopesticide Exposures Under Different Fertilization Levels In An Agro-Ecosystem, Marie Simonin, Benjamin P. Colman, Weiyi Tang, Jonathan D. Judy, Steven M. Anderson, Christina M. Bergemann, Jennifer D. Rocca, Jason M. Unrine, Nicolas Cassar, Emily S. Bernhardt Jul 2018

Plant And Microbial Responses To Repeated Cu(Oh)2 Nanopesticide Exposures Under Different Fertilization Levels In An Agro-Ecosystem, Marie Simonin, Benjamin P. Colman, Weiyi Tang, Jonathan D. Judy, Steven M. Anderson, Christina M. Bergemann, Jennifer D. Rocca, Jason M. Unrine, Nicolas Cassar, Emily S. Bernhardt

Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Publications

The environmental fate and potential impacts of nanopesticides on agroecosystems under realistic agricultural conditions are poorly understood. As a result, the benefits and risks of these novel formulations compared to the conventional products are currently unclear. Here, we examined the effects of repeated realistic exposures of the Cu(OH)2 nanopesticide, Kocide 3000, on simulated agricultural pastureland in an outdoor mesocosm experiment over 1 year. The Kocide applications were performed alongside three different mineral fertilization levels (Ambient, Low, and High) to assess the environmental impacts of this nanopesticide under low-input or conventional farming scenarios. The effects of Kocide over time ...


A Shared Cis-Regulatory Module Activates Transcription In The Suspensor Of Plant Embryos, Kelli F. Henry, Anhthu Q. Bui, Tomokazu Kawashima, Robert B. Goldberg Jun 2018

A Shared Cis-Regulatory Module Activates Transcription In The Suspensor Of Plant Embryos, Kelli F. Henry, Anhthu Q. Bui, Tomokazu Kawashima, Robert B. Goldberg

Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Publications

The mechanisms controlling the transcription of gene sets in specific regions of a plant embryo shortly after fertilization remain unknown. Previously, we showed that G564 mRNA, encoding a protein of unknown function, accumulates to high levels in the giant suspensor of both Scarlet Runner Bean (SRB) and Common Bean embryos, and a cis-regulatory module containing three unique DNA sequences, designated as the 10-bp, Region 2, and Fifth motifs, is required for G564 suspensor-specific transcription [Henry KF, et al. (2015) Plant Mol Biol 88:207–217; Kawashima T, et al. (2009) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:3627–3632]. We ...


Pipecolic Acid Confers Systemic Immunity By Regulating Free Radicals, Caixia Wang, Ruiying Liu, Gah-Hyun Lim, Laura De Lorenzo, Keshun Yu, Kai Zhang, Arthur G. Hunt, Aardra Kachroo, Pradeep Kachroo May 2018

Pipecolic Acid Confers Systemic Immunity By Regulating Free Radicals, Caixia Wang, Ruiying Liu, Gah-Hyun Lim, Laura De Lorenzo, Keshun Yu, Kai Zhang, Arthur G. Hunt, Aardra Kachroo, Pradeep Kachroo

Plant Pathology Faculty Publications

Pipecolic acid (Pip), a non-proteinaceous product of lysine catabolism, is an important regulator of immunity in plants and humans alike. In plants, Pip accumulates upon pathogen infection and has been associated with systemic acquired resistance (SAR). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying Pip-mediated signaling and its relationship to other known SAR inducers remain unknown. We show that in plants, Pip confers SAR by increasing levels of the free radicals, nitric oxide (NO), and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which act upstream of glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P). Plants defective in NO, ROS, G3P, or salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis accumulate reduced Pip in their distal uninfected ...


Optimizing The Use Of A Liquid Handling Robot To Conduct A High Throughput Forward Chemical Genetics Screen Of Arabidopsis Thaliana, B. Kirtley Amos, Victoria G. Pook, Seth Debolt Apr 2018

Optimizing The Use Of A Liquid Handling Robot To Conduct A High Throughput Forward Chemical Genetics Screen Of Arabidopsis Thaliana, B. Kirtley Amos, Victoria G. Pook, Seth Debolt

Horticulture Faculty Publications

Chemical genetics is increasingly being employed to decode traits in plants that may be recalcitrant to traditional genetics due to gene redundancy or lethality. However, the probability of a synthetic small molecule being bioactive is low; therefore, thousands of molecules must be tested in order to find those of interest. Liquid handling robotics systems are designed to handle large numbers of samples, increasing the speed with which a chemical library can be screened in addition to minimizing/standardizing error. To achieve a high-throughput forward chemical genetics screen of a library of 50,000 small molecules on Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), protocols ...


Mobilization And Role Of Starch, Protein, And Fat Reserves During Seed Germination Of Six Wild Grassland Species, Ming Zhao, Hongxiang Zhang, Hong Yan, Lu Qiu, Carol C. Baskin Feb 2018

Mobilization And Role Of Starch, Protein, And Fat Reserves During Seed Germination Of Six Wild Grassland Species, Ming Zhao, Hongxiang Zhang, Hong Yan, Lu Qiu, Carol C. Baskin

Biology Faculty Publications

Since seed reserves can influence seed germination, the quantitative and qualitative differences in seed reserves may relate to the germination characteristics of species. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the correlation between germination and seed reserves, as well as their mobilization during germination of six grassland species (Chloris virgata, Kochia scoparia, Lespedeza hedysaroides, Astragalus adsurgens, Leonurus artemisia, and Dracocephalum moldavica) and compare the results with domesticated species. We measured starch, protein, and fat content in dry seeds and the initial absorption of water during imbibition. Starch, soluble protein, fat, and soluble sugar content also were determined at five ...


Phaeophleospora Vochysiae Savi & Glienke Sp. Nov. Isolated From Vochysia Divergens Found In The Pantanal, Brazil, Produces Bioactive Secondary Metabolites, Daiani C. Savi, Khaled A. Shaaban, Francielly M. W. Gos, Larissa V. Ponomareva, Jon S. Thorson, Chirlei Glienke, Jürgen Rohr Feb 2018

Phaeophleospora Vochysiae Savi & Glienke Sp. Nov. Isolated From Vochysia Divergens Found In The Pantanal, Brazil, Produces Bioactive Secondary Metabolites, Daiani C. Savi, Khaled A. Shaaban, Francielly M. W. Gos, Larissa V. Ponomareva, Jon S. Thorson, Chirlei Glienke, Jürgen Rohr

Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Publications

Microorganisms associated with plants are highly diverse and can produce a large number of secondary metabolites, with antimicrobial, anti-parasitic and cytotoxic activities. We are particularly interested in exploring endophytes from medicinal plants found in the Pantanal, a unique and widely unexplored wetland in Brazil. In a bio-prospecting study, strains LGMF1213 and LGMF1215 were isolated as endophytes from Vochysia divergens, and by morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses were characterized as Phaeophleospora vochysiae sp. nov. The chemical assessment of this species reveals three major compounds with high biological activity, cercoscosporin (1), isocercosporin (2) and the new compound 3-(sec-butyl)-6-ethyl-4,5-dihydroxy-2-methoxy-6-methylcyclohex-2-enone ...


Bacterial Inoculants, Endophytic Bacteria And Their Influence On Nicotiana Physiology, Development And Microbiome, Andrea Marisa Sanchez Barrios Jan 2018

Bacterial Inoculants, Endophytic Bacteria And Their Influence On Nicotiana Physiology, Development And Microbiome, Andrea Marisa Sanchez Barrios

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

Soil and root microbial communities have been studied for decades, and the incorporation of high-throughput techniques and analysis has allowed the identification of endophytic/non-culturable organisms. This has helped characterize and establish the core microbiome of many model plant species which include underground and aboveground organs. Unfortunately, the information obtained from some of these model plants is not always transferable to other agronomic species. In this project, we decided to study the microbiome of the Nicotiana genus because of its importance in plant physiological and plant-microbe interactions studies. The data obtained was used as baseline information that allowed us to ...


Microbial Interactions In The Phyllosphere Increase Plant Performance Under Herbivore Biotic Stress, Muhammad Saleem, Nicole Meckes, Zahida H. Pervaiz, Milton B. Traw Jan 2017

Microbial Interactions In The Phyllosphere Increase Plant Performance Under Herbivore Biotic Stress, Muhammad Saleem, Nicole Meckes, Zahida H. Pervaiz, Milton B. Traw

Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Publications

The phyllosphere supports a tremendous diversity of microbes and other organisms. However, little is known about the colonization and survival of pathogenic and beneficial bacteria alone or together in the phyllosphere across the whole plant life-cycle under herbivory, which hinders our ability to understand the role of phyllosphere bacteria on plant performance. We addressed these questions in experiments using four genetically and biogeographically diverse accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana, three ecologically important bacterial strains (Pseudomonas syringae DC3000, Xanthomonas campestris, both pathogens, and Bacillus cereus, plant beneficial) under common garden conditions that included fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.). Plants supported greater abundance of ...


Increasing Renewable Oil Content And Utility, William Richard Serson Jan 2017

Increasing Renewable Oil Content And Utility, William Richard Serson

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

Since the dawn of agriculture man has been genetically modifying crop plants to increase yield, quality and utility. In addition to selective breeding and hybridization we can utilize mutant populations and biotechnology to have greater control over crop plant modification than ever before. Increasing the production of plant oils such as soybean oil as a renewable resource for food and fuel is valuable. Successful breeding for higher oil levels in soybean, however, usually results in reduced protein, a second valuable seed component. We show that by manipulating a highly active acyl-CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) the hydrocarbon flux to oil in ...


Transcriptional And Post-Translational Regulation Of Terpenoid Indole Alkaloid Biosynthesis In Catharanthus Roseus, Priyanka Paul Jan 2017

Transcriptional And Post-Translational Regulation Of Terpenoid Indole Alkaloid Biosynthesis In Catharanthus Roseus, Priyanka Paul

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle) is the exclusive source of an array of terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs) that are used in the treatments of hypertension and certain types of cancer. TIA biosynthesis is under stringent spatiotemporal control and is induced by jasmonate (JA) and fungal elicitors. Tryptamine, derived from the indole branch, and secologanin from the iridoid branch are condensed to form the first TIA, strictosidine. Biosynthesis of TIA is regulated at the transcriptional level and several transcription factors (TFs) regulating the expression of genes encoding key enzymes in the pathway have been isolated and characterized. The JA-responsive APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE ...


Invasion Dynamics Of The Exotic Liana Euonymus Fortunei (Turcz.) Hand.-Mazz. (Wintercreeper), Todd J. Rounsaville Jan 2017

Invasion Dynamics Of The Exotic Liana Euonymus Fortunei (Turcz.) Hand.-Mazz. (Wintercreeper), Todd J. Rounsaville

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

Elevated atmospheric CO2 has been implicated as a driver of increased liana abundance worldwide. Known as disturbance creators and beneficiaries, lianas possess the potential to significantly influence forest ecosystems. I investigated the early-invasion dynamics of Euonymus fortunei (wintercreeper), an evergreen liana that is invading forests in eastern North America, disrupting native plant communities and ecosystem functions.

Wintercreeper is widely cultivated as an ornamental groundcover, frequently invading natural areas via asexual stem growth. Invasion of remote natural areas is dependent upon seed transport and may occur less frequently. I examined the mechanisms of seed dormancy by conducting a ‘move-along’ experiment ...


Sexual Dimorphism In The Moss Bryum Argenteum And Its Implications For Sex Ratio Bias, Jonathan David Moore Iii Jan 2017

Sexual Dimorphism In The Moss Bryum Argenteum And Its Implications For Sex Ratio Bias, Jonathan David Moore Iii

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

In dioecious plants, selection due to sex function differences has produced sex-specific life histories, morphologies, and physiologies. In many dioecious seed plants, dimorphisms and population sex ratios have been plausibly linked, but similar links are not yet apparent in dioecious bryophytes. Population sex ratio bias is often expected to favor the sex with lower investment in sexual reproduction, especially in resource-poor environments. Unlike in seed plants, bryophyte males may have higher average reproductive investment than females, which typically have low offspring production rates due to sperm limitation. However, traits aside from reproductive investment such as shoot and leaf arrangement may ...


Expression Of A Constitutively Active Nitrate Reductase Variant In Tobacco Reduces Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamine Accumulation In Cured Leaves And Cigarette Smoke, Jianli Lu, Leichen Zhang, Ramsey S. Lewis, Lucien Bovet, Simon Goepfert, Anne M. Jack, James D. Crutchfield, Huihua Ji, Ralph E. Dewey Jun 2016

Expression Of A Constitutively Active Nitrate Reductase Variant In Tobacco Reduces Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamine Accumulation In Cured Leaves And Cigarette Smoke, Jianli Lu, Leichen Zhang, Ramsey S. Lewis, Lucien Bovet, Simon Goepfert, Anne M. Jack, James D. Crutchfield, Huihua Ji, Ralph E. Dewey

Kentucky Tobacco Research and Development Center Faculty Publications

Burley tobaccos (Nicotiana tabacum) display a nitrogen-use-deficiency phenotype that is associated with the accumulation of high levels of nitrate within the leaf, a trait correlated with production of a class of compounds referred to as tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). Two TSNA species, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), have been shown to be strong carcinogens in numerous animal studies. We investigated the potential of molecular genetic strategies to lower nitrate levels in burley tobaccos by overexpressing genes encoding key enzymes of the nitrogen-assimilation pathway. Of the various constructs tested, only the expression of a constitutively active nitrate ...


Changes In Oxidative Patterns During Dormancy Break By Warm And Cold Stratification In Seeds Of An Edible Fruit Tree, Dilinuer Shalimu, Jia Sun, Carol C. Baskin, Jerry M. Baskin, Liwei Sun, Yujun Liu May 2016

Changes In Oxidative Patterns During Dormancy Break By Warm And Cold Stratification In Seeds Of An Edible Fruit Tree, Dilinuer Shalimu, Jia Sun, Carol C. Baskin, Jerry M. Baskin, Liwei Sun, Yujun Liu

Biology Faculty Publications

The transition from seed dormancy to germination is triggered by environmental factors, and in pomegranate (Punica granatum) seeds higher germination percentages are achieved by warm + cold stratification rather than by cold stratification alone. Our objective was to define the pattern of internal oxidative changes in pomegranate seeds as dormancy was being broken by warm + cold stratification and by cold stratification alone. Embryos isolated from seeds after 1–42 days of warm stratification, after 56 days of warm stratification + 7, 28 or 56 days of cold stratification, and after 1–84 days of cold stratification alone, were used in biochemical tests ...


Transcriptional Regulation Of Specialized Metabolites In Arabidopsis Thaliana And Catharanthus Roseus, Craig M. Schluttenhofer Jan 2016

Transcriptional Regulation Of Specialized Metabolites In Arabidopsis Thaliana And Catharanthus Roseus, Craig M. Schluttenhofer

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

For millennia humans have utilized plant specialized metabolites for health benefits, fragrances, poisons, spices, and medicine. Valued metabolites are often produced in small quantities and may command high prices. Understanding when and how the plant synthesizes these compounds is important for improving their production. Phytohormone signaling cascades, such as jasmonate (JA) activate or repress transcription factors (TF) controlling expression of metabolite biosynthetic genes. TFs regulating specialized metabolite biosynthetic genes can be manipulated to engineer plants with increased metabolite production.

WRKY transcription factor are known components of both JA signaling cascades and regulation of specialized metabolism. The presence of WRKY binding ...


Insights Into Triterpene Metabolism In Model Monocotyledonous And Oilseed Plants Genetically Engineered With Genes From Botryococcus Braunii, Chase F. Kempinski Jan 2016

Insights Into Triterpene Metabolism In Model Monocotyledonous And Oilseed Plants Genetically Engineered With Genes From Botryococcus Braunii, Chase F. Kempinski

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

Isoprenoids are one of the most diverse classes of natural products and are all derived from universal five carbon, prenyl precursors. Squalene and botryococcene are linear, hydrocarbon triterpenes (thirty carbon compounds with six prenyl units) that have industrial and medicinal values. Squalene is produced by all eukaryotes as it is the first committed precursor to sterols, while botryococcene is uniquely produced by the green algae, Botryococcus braunii (race B). Natural sources for these compounds exist, but there is a desire for more renewable production platforms. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana was engineered to accumulate botryococcene and squalene in its oil ...


Probing The Plant Cell Wall With Herbicides: A Chemical Genetics Approach, Chad B. Brabham Jan 2016

Probing The Plant Cell Wall With Herbicides: A Chemical Genetics Approach, Chad B. Brabham

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

The primary cell wall is a highly organized multi-layered matrix of polysaccharides (cellulose, hemi-cellulose, and pectin). The ability of the rigid cell wall to sufficiently loosen to allow growth is a complex process that differs considerably between grasses monocots and dicots. Cellulose is the major structural component required for anisotropic cell expansion and is synthesized by CELLULOSE SYNTHASE A (CesA) proteins. Here, our objectives were two-fold: 1) dissect cell walls and cellulose biosynthesis in dicots and grasses using chemical biology and reverse genetic approaches 2) characterize and classify the inhibitory mechanisms of cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors (CBIs). A reverse genetics TILLING ...


Investigation Into The Cell Wall And Cellulose Biosynthesis In Model Species And In The C4 Model Plant Setaria Viridis, Mizuki Tateno Jan 2016

Investigation Into The Cell Wall And Cellulose Biosynthesis In Model Species And In The C4 Model Plant Setaria Viridis, Mizuki Tateno

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

A uniform feature of all plant cells is the presence of a cell wall. The cell wall functions in facilitating directional expansion and is therefore important for cell shape and morphogenesis. All plant cell walls contain cellulose microfibrils embedded in a network of polysaccharides, lignin and protein. Cellulose is evolutionarily conserved and is made by all plants as well as other members of various taxonomic kingdoms. From a human perspective, the field of renewable energy has had an ever increasing interest in using the cell wall for production of renewable platform chemicals and fuels. However, the biosynthesis of these components ...


Engineering Triterpene Metabolism In Tobacco, Zuodong Jiang Jan 2015

Engineering Triterpene Metabolism In Tobacco, Zuodong Jiang

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

Terpenes comprise a large diverse class of natural products and many of them attract interest because of their physiological function, therapeutic and industrial values. Triterpene oils including squalene (C30), botrycococcene (C30) and their methylated derivatives (C31-C37) generated by the green algae Botryococcus braunii race B, which have recently received significant attention because of their utility for advanced biofuels. However, the slow growth habit of B. braunii makes it impractical as a robust biofuel production system. In this thesis, we firstly evaluated the potential of generating high levels of triterpene (C30) production in tobacco plants by diverting carbon flux from cytosolic ...


Unveiling Novel Aspects Of D-Amino Acid Metabolism In The Model Bacterium Pseudomonas Putida Kt2440, Atanas D. Radkov Jan 2015

Unveiling Novel Aspects Of D-Amino Acid Metabolism In The Model Bacterium Pseudomonas Putida Kt2440, Atanas D. Radkov

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

D-amino acids (D-AAs) are the α-carbon enantiomers of L-amino acids (L- AAs), the building blocks of proteins in known organisms. It was largely believed that D-AAs are unnatural and must be toxic to most organisms, as they would compete with the L-counterparts for protein synthesis. Recently, new methods have been developed that allow scientists to chromatographically separate the two AA stereoisomers. Since that time, it has been discovered that D-AAs are vital molecules and they have been detected in many organisms. The work of this dissertation focuses on their place in bacterial metabolism. This specific area was selected due to ...


Up Regulation Of Heat Shock Protein 70b (Hsp70b) And Ssa1 In Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii Via Hsp70a-Rbcs2 And Psad Promoter, B. Kirtley Amos Jan 2015

Up Regulation Of Heat Shock Protein 70b (Hsp70b) And Ssa1 In Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii Via Hsp70a-Rbcs2 And Psad Promoter, B. Kirtley Amos

Theses and Dissertations--Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering

Fabrication of effective algae cultivation systems adjacent to coal-fired power plants to fixate waste CO2 would represent a sizable step towards achieving a carbon neutral energy cycle. However, emission gas would elevate the algal cultivation system temperature and decreases its pH without expensive preprocessing. Increased temperature and acidity constitutes a profound stress on the algae. Although stressed algae produce heat shock proteins (HSPs) that promote protein folding and protect against stress, the ordinary biological response is insufficient to protect against coal flue gas. Experimental upregulation of HSPs could make algae respond to the stress caused by high temperatures and ...


Understanding The Role Of Membrane Localized Ugt80b1 Encoding For Udp-Glucose: Sterol Glucosyltransferase In Plant Development, Meera Nair Jan 2014

Understanding The Role Of Membrane Localized Ugt80b1 Encoding For Udp-Glucose: Sterol Glucosyltransferase In Plant Development, Meera Nair

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

Sterols have been identified as major components of membrane lipids that are part of specialized membrane domains necessary for organizing events such as polar protein targeting and signal transduction in plants, fungi and animals. However a common modification of sterols is the addition of sugar moieties via glycosylation abundantly found in plants. An exact physiological role for such diversification of sterols in plants is still unknown. Using reverse genetics and transcriptomics we show that UDP-glucose: sterol glucosyltransferase encoded by UGT80B1 is necessary for correct epidermal patterning in Arabidopsis root. Patterning of hair cells (trichoblasts) and non-hair cells (atrichoblasts) in the ...


Boron Nutrition Of Burley And Dark Tobacco, Laura Ann Frakes Mitchell Jan 2014

Boron Nutrition Of Burley And Dark Tobacco, Laura Ann Frakes Mitchell

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

The incidences of suspected Boron (B) deficiency have increased recently in Kentucky tobacco fields, potentially due to recent changes in management practices. The symptoms observed in the field include; hollow stalk, stunted growth, deformed or no bud formation, small slits on the lower leaf midrib and uncontrollable breaking of the midrib approximately two inches from the stalk. B is a micronutrient tobacco needs in minute amounts, however excessive additions of B could cause toxicity. The objectives of this work were to 1) establish critical points for B sufficiency, 2) describe and define B deficiency and toxicity symptoms and 3) develop ...


A Plant Trait-Based Approach To Evaluate The Ability Of Native C3 And C4 Grasses To Restore Functionality To A Remnant Bluegrass Savanna-Woodland In Kentucky, Usa., Jann E. Fry Jan 2014

A Plant Trait-Based Approach To Evaluate The Ability Of Native C3 And C4 Grasses To Restore Functionality To A Remnant Bluegrass Savanna-Woodland In Kentucky, Usa., Jann E. Fry

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

Temperate Midwestern oak savannas are considered imperiled ecosystems with < 1 % remaining since the time of European settlement and are identified as critical areas for preservation. Restoration of Midwestern oak savannas is challenging due to the lack of accurate historical data, few intact remnants remaining to study, and lack of restoration ecology studies. A plant trait-based approach was used to evaluate the ability of six C3 and three C4 native bunchgrasses to restore functionality to a remnant savanna–woodland of the Bluegrass Region of Kentucky. The response and effect framework was used to assess the response of the nine native grasses according to the habitat filters of interannual precipitation, inter- vs. intra-specific competition, and simulated grazing. The effect traits associated with plant-soil nitrogen and carbon cycling were also assessed. The response traits of interannual competition and inter- vs. intra-specific competition along with the effect traits plant-soil nitrogen and carbon cycling were measured in a monoculture ...


The Role Of Polyadenylation In Seed Germination, Liuyin Ma Jan 2013

The Role Of Polyadenylation In Seed Germination, Liuyin Ma

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

Seed germination has many impacts on the uses of seeds, and is an important subject for study. Seed germination is regulated at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Therefore, it is important to study how polyadenylation regulates gene expression during seed germination. To this end, a modified Illumina GAIIx sequencing protocol (described in Chapter Two) was developed that allows deep coverage of poly(A) site position and distribution.

Alternative polyadenylation (APA) regulates gene expression by choosing one potential poly(A) site on a precursor RNA consequentially shortening/lengthening the mRNA relative to other possible sites. To further explore this phenomenon, genes ...