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Summaries Of Arkansas Cotton Research 2019, Fred Bourland Sep 2020

Summaries Of Arkansas Cotton Research 2019, Fred Bourland

Research Series

Statewide, temperatures and precipitation were mostly above average (https://www.weather.gov/lzk/cli2019atxt.htm). The 2019 season was the wettest since 2015, and the 7th wettest on record. The wettest month was May, and the driest month was September. By average temperature, the coldest month was January, and the warmest month was August. Considering departures from normal, the most significant warmth occurred in September, which was 7.0 degrees above average. Many fields were muddy or underwater, given a lot of rain early in the year, and extensive river flooding (including the historic Arkansas River flood). It was far ...


Introducing An Indigenous Non-Toxigenic Aspergillus Flavus Strain Isolated From Iraqi Corn Grains As A Bio-Control Agent To Reduce Aflatoxin Contamination In Corn Grains, Ali Almatakeez Jul 2020

Introducing An Indigenous Non-Toxigenic Aspergillus Flavus Strain Isolated From Iraqi Corn Grains As A Bio-Control Agent To Reduce Aflatoxin Contamination In Corn Grains, Ali Almatakeez

Theses and Dissertations

Mycotoxin contamination of cereal crops, such as maize and sorghum, is a global concern because of the potential health effects on humans and animals. Although substantial research has been conducting regarding mycotoxin prevention and mitigation, little information is available about the association of mycotoxin-producing fungi with corn and sorghum grain in Iraq. Identifying and refining indigenous atoxigenic strains to reduce mycotoxin contamination of maize and sorghum has the potential to enhance the nutritional value of these grains while reducing economic losses. However, to our knowledge, this tactic has not yet been adopted by agricultural authorities and farmers in Iraq. To ...


Wayne E. Sabbe Arkansas Soil Fertility Studies 2019, Nathan A. Slaton May 2020

Wayne E. Sabbe Arkansas Soil Fertility Studies 2019, Nathan A. Slaton

Research Series

Rapid technological changes in crop management and production require that the research efforts be presented in an expeditious manner. The contributions of soil fertility and fertilizers are major production factors in all Arkansas crops. The studies described within will allow producers to compare their practices with the university’s research efforts. Additionally, soil-test data and fertilizer sales are presented to allow comparisons among years, crops, and other areas within Arkansas.


Arkansas Cotton Variety Test 2019, F. Bourland, A. Beach, E. Brown, C. Kennedy, L. Martin, B. Robertson Mar 2020

Arkansas Cotton Variety Test 2019, F. Bourland, A. Beach, E. Brown, C. Kennedy, L. Martin, B. Robertson

Research Series

The primary goal of the Arkansas Cotton Variety Test is to provide unbiased data regarding the agronomic performance of cotton varieties and advanced breeding lines in the major cotton-growing areas of Arkansas. This information helps seed companies establish marketing strategies and assists producers in choosing varieties to plant. These annual evaluations will then facilitate the inclusion of new, improved genetic material in Arkansas cotton production. Adaptation of varieties is determined by evaluating the lines at five University of Arkansas System Division of Agriculture research sites (Manila, Keiser, Judd Hill, Marianna, and Rohwer). Entries in the 2019 Arkansas Cotton Variety Test ...


Use Of Aerial Imagery And Novel Experimental Design To Determine The Distribution Of Foliar Diseases On Soybean And Improve Efficiency Of Product Testing, Mckayla Patterson Dec 2019

Use Of Aerial Imagery And Novel Experimental Design To Determine The Distribution Of Foliar Diseases On Soybean And Improve Efficiency Of Product Testing, Mckayla Patterson

Theses and Dissertations

Soybeans are grown on approximately 1.3 million ha in Arkansas generating an estimated $1.7 billion annually. Foliar diseases on soybean can result in economic losses. Growers spend significant time and money on disease scouting via crop consultants and often (subsequent) fungicide applications. Fungicide trials are often arranged in small plots designs. In these scenarios, spatial variability of foliar disease is minimized. While it is advantageous to minimize variance outside of treatment differences, another limitation with many small plot trials is ample disease pressure or having only lower severity. Within a commercial production field, soil types and disease severities ...


Observable Persistent Effects Of Habitat Management Efforts In The Ozark Highlands After 10 Years, Maxwell Carnes-Mason Dec 2019

Observable Persistent Effects Of Habitat Management Efforts In The Ozark Highlands After 10 Years, Maxwell Carnes-Mason

Theses and Dissertations

I investigated the lasting impacts of a management plan designed to improve oak regeneration and benefit wildlife in the Ozark Highlands in Madison, Co., AR. To assess the efficacy of the management plan, I used variables relevant to the success and establishment of oak trees. Controlled burns and selective logging were used to thin the canopy, increase ground level productivity, and increase the abundance of small mammals. I used measurements of overstory and understory densities, light availability, and the density of mice in the genus Peromyscus across time to look at the lasting impacts of management. Different treatment plots were ...


An Evaluation Of Hybrid Traits, Yield, And Major Qtl Effect On Heterosis In Hybrid Soft Red Winter Wheat, Zachary James Winn Dec 2019

An Evaluation Of Hybrid Traits, Yield, And Major Qtl Effect On Heterosis In Hybrid Soft Red Winter Wheat, Zachary James Winn

Theses and Dissertations

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a self-pollinating species that is most often bred as a recombinant inbred line. When two inbred individuals are crossed, they produce progeny which experience heterosis; heterosis is the increased robustness experienced due to the reintroduction of heterozygosity. Hybrid wheat may be produced through the use of chemical hybridization agents, yet the structure of wheat flowers decreases the efficiency of outcrossing. The objectives of this study were to: assess the amount of heterosis experienced by a population of hybrid wheat and observe the effect of major gene loci on yield and yield components, phenotype anthers extruded ...


Arkansas Wheat Cultivar Performance Tests 2018-2019, R. E. Mason, R. G. Miller, D. E. Moon, J. P. Kelley Sep 2019

Arkansas Wheat Cultivar Performance Tests 2018-2019, R. E. Mason, R. G. Miller, D. E. Moon, J. P. Kelley

Research Series

Wheat cultivar performance tests are conducted each year in Ark- ansas by the University of Arkansas System Division of Agriculture’s Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station, Department of Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences. The tests provide information to companies developing cultivars and marketing seed within the state and aid the Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service in formulating cultivar recommendations for small-grain producers. The tests are conducted at the Northeast Research and Extension Center at Keiser, the Vegetable Substation near Kibler, the Lon Mann Cotton Research Station near Marianna, the Newport Extension Center near Newport, the Rohwer Research Station near Rohwer, the Pine ...


The Effect Of Prescribed Burning On Wood-Decay Fungi In The Forests Of Northwest Arkansas, Nawaf Ibrahim Alshammari Aug 2019

The Effect Of Prescribed Burning On Wood-Decay Fungi In The Forests Of Northwest Arkansas, Nawaf Ibrahim Alshammari

Theses and Dissertations

Prescribed burning is defined as the process of the planned application of fire to a predetermined area under specific environmental conditions in order to achieve a desired outcome such as land management. This project used both morphological and molecular methods to identify and characterize the wood-decay fungi associated with the forests of northwest Arkansas—Pea Ridge National Military Park, Devil’s Den State Park, and the Buffalo National River—through frequent visits made between February 2018 and February 2019. In addition, in order to assess the effects of prescribed burning, incubation chambers were used to compare the growth of fungi ...


Economic Contribution Of The Agricultural Sector To The Arkansas Economy In 2017, Leah English, Jennie Popp, Wayne Miller Jul 2019

Economic Contribution Of The Agricultural Sector To The Arkansas Economy In 2017, Leah English, Jennie Popp, Wayne Miller

Research Reports and Research Bulletins

Agriculture and associated agricultural activities are major contributors to the Arkansas economy. Agriculture is defined as the sum of agricultural production and processing activities, unless otherwise specified, and includes crop and animal production and processing, agricultural support industries, forestry and forest products, and textile goods. Agriculture contributes to the economy through direct agricultural production and value-added processing, and also leads to economic activity in other parts of the economy. This report is the eleventh in a series of reports examining agriculture’s economic contribution to the Arkansas economy. The total economic contribution of agriculture (direct, indirect, and induced effects) on ...


Mining For Biological Control Agents Against B. Glumae, The Causal Agent Of Bacterial Panicle Blight Of Rice., Katherine Anne Wilkinson May 2019

Mining For Biological Control Agents Against B. Glumae, The Causal Agent Of Bacterial Panicle Blight Of Rice., Katherine Anne Wilkinson

Theses and Dissertations

Burkholderia glumae is the causal agent of the emerging disease, Bacterial Panicle Blight of rice, a serious disease that can significantly decrease yield and poses a threat to rice production worldwide. This thesis is concerned with searching for a biological control agent to control this disease. Plant associated microbes are a good source of beneficial bacteria which can be exploited for use as a biological control agent. It is possible that the microbiomes of cultivars which are known to be more resistant to plant pathogens may contain more microbes which inhibit those pathogens and therefore could be used as biological ...


Investigating The Connection Between Light, A Circadian Clock, And Pathogenesis In Cercospora Zeae-Maydis, John Byron Ridenour May 2019

Investigating The Connection Between Light, A Circadian Clock, And Pathogenesis In Cercospora Zeae-Maydis, John Byron Ridenour

Theses and Dissertations

Gray leaf spot is a globally important foliar disease of maize caused by the fungus Cercospora zeae-maydis. In C. zeae-maydis, light is a critical environmental signal linked to pathogenesis and secondary metabolism. However, the mechanisms by which the fungus senses and responds to light are not fully understood. Thus, the overarching goal of this project was to unravel the connection between light and pathogenesis in C. zeae-maydis. The conserved fungal protein White Collar-1 (WC-1), designated Crp1 in C. zeae-maydis, senses light and initiates physiological responses. In fungi, WC-1 functions in the White Collar Complex via interaction with White Collar-2 (WC-2 ...


Evaluation Of Rice Stink Bug, Oebalus Pugnax (F.), Damage And Monitoring Techniques In Rice, Oryza Sativa L., And Grain Sorghum, Sorghum Bicolor (L.), Aaron Joseph Cato Dec 2018

Evaluation Of Rice Stink Bug, Oebalus Pugnax (F.), Damage And Monitoring Techniques In Rice, Oryza Sativa L., And Grain Sorghum, Sorghum Bicolor (L.), Aaron Joseph Cato

Theses and Dissertations

Rice stink bug, Oebalus pugnax (F.), is a serious pest of headed rice, Oryza sativa L. and an occasional pest of heading grain sorghum in the Mid-south. Work from this dissertation focuses on resolving gaps in and knowledge of rice stink bug sampling and management, and attempts to create a basis for rice stink bug damage assessment in future studies.

Field experiments were conducted from 2016-2018 to asses variation in sweep net sampling by observing producers, researchers, extension personnel, consultants and their workers. Large levels of variation were found in sweep lengths between observed sweepers and reliability of smaller sweep ...


Influence Of Loss Of Function Of The Fatty Acid Desaturase 7 Gene On Photosynthetic Activity And Foliar Redox Status, Janithri Savindya Wickramanayake Dec 2018

Influence Of Loss Of Function Of The Fatty Acid Desaturase 7 Gene On Photosynthetic Activity And Foliar Redox Status, Janithri Savindya Wickramanayake

Theses and Dissertations

Fatty Acid Desaturase7 (FAD7) is a chloroplast-localized enzyme that converts 16 and 18 carbon dienoic fatty acids to trienoic fatty acids. The suppressor of prosystemin-mediated response2 (spr2) mutant in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and the fad7-1 mutant in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) result in the loss of function of FAD7, which alter the fatty acid profiles of chloroplast membranes and enhance resistance against aphids. This research contributes toward the long-term goal of identifying factors that determine aphid resistance in FAD7 mutants. Previous data suggested constitutive differences between spr2 and WT including increased expression of genes associated with photosynthesis and differences in redox ...


Where Are All Of Arkansas' Chinquapins? An Ecological Assessment Of Castanea Throughout The State, Logan Pierce Estes Dec 2018

Where Are All Of Arkansas' Chinquapins? An Ecological Assessment Of Castanea Throughout The State, Logan Pierce Estes

Theses and Dissertations

Around the turn of the twentieth-century, the chestnut blight fungus (Cryphonectria parasitica) was accidentally introduced into North America. This strong pathogen, which specializes on trees of the genus Castanea, spread rapidly and within half a century had nearly extirpated North America’s Castanea natives from their ranges. During this catastrophe, the American chestnut (Castanea dentata) garnered much of the scientific attention, pushing the other Castanea natives – the chinquapins – to the wayside. More than a century following the spread of the blight, little research into the ecology of North America’s chinquapins had been performed, leaving these trees significantly underrepresented. The ...


Physiological Characterization Of The Soynam Parental Lines Under Field Conditions, Akshita Mishra Dec 2018

Physiological Characterization Of The Soynam Parental Lines Under Field Conditions, Akshita Mishra

Theses and Dissertations

The narrow genetic pool of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) in North America can limit its future yield gains. Among the worldwide germplasm collection of 45,000 unique landraces, only 80 contribute 99% to the collective parentage of North American soybean cultivars. Among these 80 landraces, just 17 contribute to 86% of the collective parentage of the modern cultivars. The Soybean Nested Association Mapping population (SoyNAM) was therefore developed with the objective of diversifying the soybean gene pool. Forty diverse soybean genotypes from maturity groups (MG) 1 through 5 were crossed with a common MG 3 parent to develop 40 ...


Association Mapping And Genomic Selection For Yield And Agronomic Traits In Soft Winter Wheat, Dennis Bulusan Lozada Aug 2018

Association Mapping And Genomic Selection For Yield And Agronomic Traits In Soft Winter Wheat, Dennis Bulusan Lozada

Theses and Dissertations

Tools such as genome-wide association study (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS) have expedited the development of crops with improved genetic potential. While GWAS aims to identify significant markers associated with a trait of interest, the goal of GS is to utilize all marker effects to predict the performance of new breeding lines prior to testing. A GWAS for grain yield (GY), yield components, and agronomic traits was conducted using a diverse panel of 239 soft winter wheat (SWW) lines evaluated in eight site-years in Arkansas and Oklahoma. Broad sense heritability of GY (H2=0.48) was moderate compared to other ...


Identification And Characterization Of Salinity Tolerance Genes By Activation Tagging In Arabidopsis, Jawaher Alkahtani Aug 2018

Identification And Characterization Of Salinity Tolerance Genes By Activation Tagging In Arabidopsis, Jawaher Alkahtani

Theses and Dissertations

Salinity often affects irrigated areas in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. The existence and accumulation of soluble salts in the soil layers limit the growth of crops essential for our food. Salt stress dramatically affects plant growth, plant development, as well as crop yield. Arabidopsis thaliana is the plant model that provides a comprehensive knowledge of plant development, genetics and physiology, and response to abiotic stresses such as salinity. The redundancy of genes due to duplication, even in the simple model genome of Arabidopsis, limits the value of knockout (KO) mutagenesis to provide complete information on gene function ...


Effect Of Allelic Variation In Rht Loci On Plant Height And Grain Yield Of Soft Red Winter Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.), Habib Hayat Aug 2018

Effect Of Allelic Variation In Rht Loci On Plant Height And Grain Yield Of Soft Red Winter Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.), Habib Hayat

Theses and Dissertations

Plant height in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is controlled in large part by two major Rht genes, Rht-B1 and Rht-D1, which pleiotropically impact lodging and grain yield. Prior to the Green Revolution, wheat varieties contained only ‘wild-type’ Rht alleles (Rht-B1a and Rht-D1a) and were tall and prone to lodging. Introgression of a semi-dominant mutation at either of these two loci (Rht-B1b or Rht-D1b) results in a semi-dwarf phenotype and reduced plant height. When combined (Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b) an extremely short double-dwarf phenotype is observed. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of allelic variation in Rht-B1 and ...


Dissection Of Soil Waterlogging Tolerance In Soft Red Winter Wheat Using Genomic Approaches, Marlovi Andrea Acuna-Galindo Aug 2018

Dissection Of Soil Waterlogging Tolerance In Soft Red Winter Wheat Using Genomic Approaches, Marlovi Andrea Acuna-Galindo

Theses and Dissertations

Genomic methods including genome wide association analysis (GWAS), genomic selection (GS) and RNA-seq allow for faster selection of superior breeding lines and for identification and resolution of candidate genes. A panel of 240 soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars and breeding lines were subjected to soil waterlogging stress over two seasons at Stuttgart, AR and St. Joseph, LA, US. Total concentrations of P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Al, B, Cu, Na, S and Zn were determined in wheat shoots post-waterlogging using inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy. Yield components kernel number per spike (KNPS), kernel weight per spike (KWS ...


Combining Translational And Functional Genomic Approaches To Augment Management Strategies Of Plant Parasitic Nematodes, Sandeep Sharma Khatiwada May 2018

Combining Translational And Functional Genomic Approaches To Augment Management Strategies Of Plant Parasitic Nematodes, Sandeep Sharma Khatiwada

Theses and Dissertations

Plant-parasitic nematodes pose a major threat to crop yield worldwide. Discontinued use of harmful chemicals has prompted the search for alternative management strategies that are effective yet environmentally friendly. Harpin proteins, which are derived from bacteria, and nematophagous fungi, natural predators of nematodes, are ideal for biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes. However, research on the efficacy of harpin proteins on nematodes, and biology of nematophagous fungi is minimal. Previously, a taxonomically uncharacterized nematophagous fungus designated ARF18 effectively suppressed nematode populations in soil. The overarching goal of this dissertation is to utilize applied and functional genomic approaches to augment management of ...


Non-Target-Site Based Tolerance To Herbicides In Amaranthus Palmeri, Reiofeli Algodon Salas-Perez May 2018

Non-Target-Site Based Tolerance To Herbicides In Amaranthus Palmeri, Reiofeli Algodon Salas-Perez

Theses and Dissertations

Palmer amaranth, one of the most aggressive and damaging broadleaf weeds in the USA, has evolved resistance to multiple herbicide modes of action. The overall objective of this research was to elucidate the mechanisms by which Palmer amaranth adapt to herbicide selection stress. This research aimed (1) to evaluate the efficacy of fomesafen, glufosinate, glyphosate and trifloxysulfuron to Amaranthus populations; (2) identify candidate genes for endowing tolerance to glufosinate; (3) investigate the involvement of non-target-site resistance (NTSR) mechanism in an ALS-resistant population; and (4) to examine the molecular basis of resistance to PPO inhibitors in Palmer amaranth populations from Arkansas ...


The Effect Of Preflood Nitrogen And Flood Establishment Timing On Rice Development, Nitrogen Uptake And Grain Yield, Tyler Richmond Dec 2017

The Effect Of Preflood Nitrogen And Flood Establishment Timing On Rice Development, Nitrogen Uptake And Grain Yield, Tyler Richmond

Theses and Dissertations

Urea-N fertilizer is typically applied at the 5-leaf stage to rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown in a dry-seeded, delayed-flood production system. How long the preflood-N can be delayed without adverse effects on yield potential is poorly understood. The research objective was to determine the effects of preflood-N application and flood establishment timing on aboveground-N content, 50% heading, yield components, and grain yield. Trials were established on silt loam soils at the Pine Tree Research Station (PTRS) and Rice Research and Extension Center (RREC) during 2015 and 2016. Urea-N was applied at 0, 45, 90, 135, and 180 kg N ha-1 ...


Mushroom Inoculation On Switchgrass Feedstock During Storage: Effects Of Subsequent Pre-Processing For Intended Biofuels Production, Amandeep Singh Turay Aug 2017

Mushroom Inoculation On Switchgrass Feedstock During Storage: Effects Of Subsequent Pre-Processing For Intended Biofuels Production, Amandeep Singh Turay

Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this project was to examine the effect of fungal treatment and liquid hot water pretreatment of switchgrass combine in view of increasing glucose release. The fungal treatment consisted of incubating Pleurotus ostreatus in square switchgrass bales, at 50% moisture content for 25 days, 54 days, and 82 days. The digestibility of the switchgrass biomass was subsequently evaluated using Accelerase 1500 enzyme. Lignin is an important barrier to enzymatic hydrolysis, and it was stipulated that incubation with P. ostreatus would disrupt plant cell walls, resulting in enhanced saccharification. Three different concentrations of P. ostreatus were evaluated: 0%, 2 ...


Evaluation And Association Analysis Of Cowpea Salt Tolerance, Waltram Second Ravelombola May 2017

Evaluation And Association Analysis Of Cowpea Salt Tolerance, Waltram Second Ravelombola

Theses and Dissertations

Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] (2n=2x=22) is a leguminous crop providing inexpensive protein for human consumption that can be grown worldwide. Salinity is one of the major threats to cowpea production, particularly in semi-arid regions of Africa. Salinity significantly affects seed germination and decreases pod yield in cowpea. However, little has been done to provide farmers salt-tolerant cowpea cultivars. Knowledge on the genetics of cowpea salt tolerance is very limited. This study aimed to:(1) evaluate cowpea salt tolerance at germination stage, (2) evaluate cowpea salt tolerance at seedling stage, (3) conduct an association study for cowpea salt ...


Phenotypic Variation And Genetic Purity Of The Original 'Prime-Jim®' X 'Arapaho' Population, Loren M. Luther May 2017

Phenotypic Variation And Genetic Purity Of The Original 'Prime-Jim®' X 'Arapaho' Population, Loren M. Luther

Horticulture Undergraduate Honors Theses

In 2013, Castro et al., produced the first linkage map for primocane-fruiting blackberries using the cross ‘Prime-Jim®’ x ‘Arapaho.’ This mapping population has been maintained since the original experiment with the hopes of conducting future studies. Further research was determined to be needed on the population to better characterize additional phenotypic traits, and since nine years had passed since the seedlings were established, there was a need to assess the continued genetic purity of the population using molecular methods. Phenotypic data was collected to analyze the variation of the population including soluble solids content, titratable acidity, average weight, shape, and ...


The Effect Of Insects On Seed Set Of Ozark Chinquapin, Castanea Ozarkensis, Colton Zirkle May 2017

The Effect Of Insects On Seed Set Of Ozark Chinquapin, Castanea Ozarkensis, Colton Zirkle

Theses and Dissertations

Ozark chinquapin (Castanea ozarkensis), once found throughout the Interior Highlands of the United States, has been decimated across much of its range due to accidental introduction of chestnut blight, Cryphonectria parasitica. Efforts have been made to conserve and restore C. ozarkensis, but success requires thorough knowledge of the reproductive biology of the species. Other Castanea species are reported to have characteristics of both wind and insect pollination, but pollination strategies of Ozark chinquapin are unknown. Experiments were conducted to determine the influence of insects on successful pollination of C. ozarkensis, as measured by production of burs and seeds. Exclosure treatments ...


Letter From The Dean, Lona Robertson Jan 2017

Letter From The Dean, Lona Robertson

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


Association Mapping Of Seed Weight, Protein, And Sucrose Content; And Kinetics Of Edamame Under Infrared Treatment, Laura Melissa Lara Santisteban Dec 2016

Association Mapping Of Seed Weight, Protein, And Sucrose Content; And Kinetics Of Edamame Under Infrared Treatment, Laura Melissa Lara Santisteban

Theses and Dissertations

Edamame is a specialty large-seeded soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) harvested at an immature stage (R6) that has become the second largest consumed soyfood. Although United States is the largest soybean producer, majority of edamame is imported from Asia, highlighting the importance of developing new edamame varieties. Association mapping (AM) provides an alternative to bi-parental linkage mapping method to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) adding higher resolution and broader germplasm information. Seed weight, sucrose, and protein are quantitative traits of value when selecting edamame lines. However molecular mechanisms controlling each of these traits are still inconclusive and have not been ...


Dissecting Salt Tolerance In Soybean By Profiling Differential Physiological Responses Under Salt Stress, Jade Amber Newsome Dec 2016

Dissecting Salt Tolerance In Soybean By Profiling Differential Physiological Responses Under Salt Stress, Jade Amber Newsome

Theses and Dissertations

Saline soils are common worldwide and limit the yield potential of many crops. Plants respond in a variety of ways to the stress imposed by saline soils. Plants under salt stress must first sense their surroundings and transmit a signal alerting the rest of the plant to the saline conditions. Salt tolerance in soybeans is typically defined by exclusion of chloride ions from foliar tissues. Though differences in ion uptake among soybean genotypes is well documented, the key mechanisms employed by tolerant cultivars to cope with salt stress on the whole-plant level are still largely unknown. Objectives of the current ...