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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Functional Analysis Of Squamosa-Promoter Binding Protein Like 13 In Controlling Flowering Time, Plant Architecture, Grain Size, And Grain Number In Wheat, Ajay Gupta Jan 2020

Functional Analysis Of Squamosa-Promoter Binding Protein Like 13 In Controlling Flowering Time, Plant Architecture, Grain Size, And Grain Number In Wheat, Ajay Gupta

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Higher and stable yield is always a major objective of wheat genetic improvement programs. The SQUAMOSA-promoter binding protein-like (SPL) genes constitute a small family of plant-specific transcription factors with diverse functions in plant development and growth and have great potential in improving yield and other major agronomic traits. However, the functional characterization of the SPL gene family in wheat is far behind other cereal crops such as rice. Using phylogenetic analysis, we identified 56 wheat orthologues of rice SPL genes belonging to 19 homoeologous groups. Among these 19 orthologous TaSPL genes, nine harbor the micro RNA 156 recognition element (MRE ...


Using Drones For Precision Agriculture, Jiyul Chang, Madhav P. Nepal Mar 2019

Using Drones For Precision Agriculture, Jiyul Chang, Madhav P. Nepal

iLEARN Teaching Resources

In this teaching module, students will learn what Precision Agriculture is and how to apply drone into Precision Agriculture practices. To use data (images) taken by drone, students will learn the basic theory of Remote Sensing. Using images, students learn how to make NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) maps and how to apply drone (remote sensing technique) in agriculture.


Transcriptomic Response Is More Sensitive To Water Deficit In Shoots Than Roots Of Vitis Riparia (Michx.), Vedbar Singh Khada, Kimberly Vaughn, Juan Xie, Padmapriya Swaminathan, Qin Ma, Grant Cramer, Anne Y. Fennell Dr Feb 2019

Transcriptomic Response Is More Sensitive To Water Deficit In Shoots Than Roots Of Vitis Riparia (Michx.), Vedbar Singh Khada, Kimberly Vaughn, Juan Xie, Padmapriya Swaminathan, Qin Ma, Grant Cramer, Anne Y. Fennell Dr

Agronomy, Horticulture and Plant Science Faculty Publications

Background: Drought is an important constraint on grapevine sustainability. Vitis riparia, widely used in rootstock and scion breeding, has been studied in isolated leaf drying response studies; however, it is essential to identify key root and shoot water deficit signaling traits in intact plants. This information will aid improved scion and rootstock selection and management practices in grapevine. RNAseq data were generated from V. riparia roots and shoots under water deficit and well-watered conditions to determine root signaling and shoot responses to water deficit.
Results: Shoot elongation, photosynthetic rate, and stomatal conductance were significantly reduced in water deficit (WD) treated ...


Identification And Characterization Of Stress Responsive Genes In Soybean And Sunflower, Surendra Neupane Jan 2019

Identification And Characterization Of Stress Responsive Genes In Soybean And Sunflower, Surendra Neupane

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Stress responsive genes encode proteins involved in plants’ response to abiotic and biotic stresses. Among such stress responsive proteins, proteins encoded by resistance genes (R genes) or nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeats (NBS-LRRs) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are the major groups of proteins regulating biotic and abiotic stresses, respectively. Previous studies in Nepal’s lab at SDSU identified and characterized coiled coil (CC)-NBS-LRRs (CNLs), resistance to powdery mildew8 (RPW8)-NBS-LRRs (RNLs), NBS-LRR (NLs), and MAPK proteins in soybean. This study focuses on R and MAPK genes in the recently sequenced genome of sunflower as well as the toll-interleukin-1 receptor-like ...


Increasing Accumulation Of Glyceollins In Soybeans Via Optimization Of The Fungal Incubation Process, Stephanie Wootton Jan 2019

Increasing Accumulation Of Glyceollins In Soybeans Via Optimization Of The Fungal Incubation Process, Stephanie Wootton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Continual use of antibiotics in the feed of food animals was viewed a solution to the problem of disease outbreaks in livestock produced in confinement operations. This practice also improved animal performance, likely due to the reduction in sub-clinical infections. Unfortunately, this practice led to a new problem, the development of antibiotic resistant microbes. This increase in antibiotic resistance reduced the direct benefits of antibiotics in animal production. Moreover, as antibiotic resistance spread from animal to human pathogens, this practice created a major public health concern. This led the FDA to enact the Veterinary Feed Directive in 2017 that greatly ...


Development And Characterization Of Wheat-Thinopyrum Junceiforme Chromosome Addition Lines, Dilkaran Singh Jan 2019

Development And Characterization Of Wheat-Thinopyrum Junceiforme Chromosome Addition Lines, Dilkaran Singh

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Production of wheat is challenged by dynamic biotic and abiotic stresses. Genetic improvement via alien gene transfer is an effective approach to tackle such challenges. Alien gene transfer played an important role in the history of wheat crop improvement. Sea wheatgrass (SWG; Thinopyrum junceiforme, 2n = 28, genomes J1J1J2J2) is a wild relative of wheat. In our previous work, we have developed a complete amphiploid between cultivated emmer and SWG and shown that SWG is resistant to wheat streak mosaic virus, Fusarium head blight and wheat stem sawflies (due to the solid stem) and tolerant to waterlogging, salinity, heat, and low ...


Interactions Of Arbuscular Mychorrhizal Fungi And Bacterial Endophytes On Disease Resistance Of Common Root Pathogens In Wheat, Janice L. Eibensteiner Jan 2019

Interactions Of Arbuscular Mychorrhizal Fungi And Bacterial Endophytes On Disease Resistance Of Common Root Pathogens In Wheat, Janice L. Eibensteiner

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Arbuscular mycorrhiza, a symbiosis between plants and fungi, help plants to capture nutrients such as phosphorus (P), nitrogen (N) and other micronutrients from the aggre in exchange for up to 20% of the fixed carbon (C) from the plant. In addition, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can improve the resistance against abiotic (drought, salinity), and also biotic (pathogen) stresses. Bacterial endophytes promote plant growth and yield by fixing N2 from the atmosphere, assimilating N and transfer it to the plant. Bacterial endophytes can also solubilize phosphate and stimulate plant defense responses, suppressing pathogens. The host plant provides sucrose and a favorable ...


Isolation And Identification Of Potential Bioinoculants Based On Phosphate Solubilizing And Plant Growth Promoting Benefits, Rachel Raths Jan 2019

Isolation And Identification Of Potential Bioinoculants Based On Phosphate Solubilizing And Plant Growth Promoting Benefits, Rachel Raths

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Conservative models have shown that as populations rise, food production needs to double by 2050. Population increase and the green revolution have caused fertilizer inputs to increase since the 1960’s, increasing environmental issues and production costs. These intensive practices have led to degraded arable land and there has been an increase in urbanization meaning we need to make best use of the farming land that is available and ensure it is sustainable for future food production. Due to this, there has been a higher demand for research on more environmentally and economically friendly approaches to food production. Plant growth ...


Validation Of Candidate Loci For Maize Regrowability And Selection Of Near Isogenic Lines For The Loci, Tajbir Raihan Jan 2019

Validation Of Candidate Loci For Maize Regrowability And Selection Of Near Isogenic Lines For The Loci, Tajbir Raihan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Developing perennial grain crops is an effective way for sustainable agriculture and it can be a tool for the betterment of the overall ecosystem. To understand how perenniality works in perennial species, we made a cross between Zea diploperennis and maize (Z. mays) inbred line B73. F1 hybrids produced from this cross were selfed to get the F2 population and later the F2 population underwent Genotyping-By- Sequencing (GBS) analysis. Based on the candidate loci identified on chromosome 2 and chromosome 7 from GBS, SNP-specific markers were developed from the candidate locus interval and used to genotype the F2 population. X2 ...


Disease Resistance In Wheat And Its Relatives, Ethan James Andersen Jan 2019

Disease Resistance In Wheat And Its Relatives, Ethan James Andersen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Plants have evolved a complex defense system against pests and pathogens utilizing many types of receptors, signaling factors, and defense compounds to detect pathogen presence and respond effectively. Since many pathogens have evolved immunesuppressing effectors used to reduce plant resistance, plants have evolved a family of receptors that detect pathogenic effectors as a result of an evolutionary arms race. These receptors contain Nucleotide-Binding Site and Leucine-Rich Repeat domains and are called NBS-LRR or NLR proteins. Many grasses possess huge genomes with hundreds of NLR-encoding genes, often found in clusters at the extra-pericentromeric regions of chromosomes, where unequal crossing over causes ...


Tripartite Interactions Of Legumes With Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi And Rhizobial Bacteria: Insight Into Plant Growth, Seed Yield, And Resource Exchange, Arjun Kafle Jan 2018

Tripartite Interactions Of Legumes With Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi And Rhizobial Bacteria: Insight Into Plant Growth, Seed Yield, And Resource Exchange, Arjun Kafle

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Under natural conditions, legumes, such as alfalfa (Medicago) and soybean (Glycine max) are colonized with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and rhizobial bacteria forming tripartite interactions. Legumes are important crop species due to their high nutritional and economic values. Most of the previous literatures focused on experiments with an individual symbiont: either AM fungi or rhizobial bacteria, but not with both symbionts at the same time, thus our current understanding of resource exchange in tripartite interactions is limited. It has been reported that AM fungi primarily provide phosphate (P), nitrogen (N), and other nutritional and non-nutritional benefits while rhizobial bacteria solely ...


Identification Of Qtl Modifying The Activity Of The Tcb1-S Locus And Characterization And Sequencing Of Two Plutonium-Beryllium Induced Reduced Gametophyte Transmission Mutants In Maize, Merritt Bryer Burch Jan 2018

Identification Of Qtl Modifying The Activity Of The Tcb1-S Locus And Characterization And Sequencing Of Two Plutonium-Beryllium Induced Reduced Gametophyte Transmission Mutants In Maize, Merritt Bryer Burch

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis is split into two independent projects both involving the male gametophyte generation of maize. The first project looks at how pollen interacts with the female gametophyte to reduce its transmission in cross-incompatible reactions controlled by the unilateral cross-incompatibility system, teosinte crossing barrier 1. The second project explores two plutonium-beryllium induced male gametophyte mutants and attempts to uncover their genetic basis.

Identification of QTL Modifying the Activity of the Tcb1-s Locus
Teosinte crossing barrier 1 (Tcb1) is a unilateral cross-incompatibility system present in maize that provides a pre-zygotic pistil barrier to plants carrying Tcb1-s (strong allele) from pollen not ...


Regulation Of Local Auxin Metabolism During Soybean Nodule Development, Suresh Damodaran Jan 2018

Regulation Of Local Auxin Metabolism During Soybean Nodule Development, Suresh Damodaran

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Legume-rhizobia symbiosis leads to the development of secondary root organs called nodules. Rhizobia bacteria housed inside nodules assimilate atmospheric nitrogen and convert them into plant usable forms thereby reducing the need for fertilizer application in crop legumes like soybean. Nodule development is a coordinated process orchestrated by multiple plant hormones. In soybean, the auxin responsive gene expression was detected in nodule primordia and in the periphery of mature nodules, primarily in nodule vasculature. Auxin hypersensitivity reduces nodule formation in soybean and also polar auxin transport inhibition at the site of nodule development is not crucial for determinate nodule formation. Therefore ...


Investigation Of Candidate Loci Associated With Maize Perennialism, Anjun Ma Jan 2017

Investigation Of Candidate Loci Associated With Maize Perennialism, Anjun Ma

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Developing perennial grain crops is an effective and crucial way to prevent soil erosion caused by conventional agriculture of using annual crops while meeting the increasing need of global food demand. We hypothesized that the regrowth in Zea might be controlled by two dominant complementary genes. F1 hybrids were created by crossing Zea diploperennis Iltis, Doebley & R. Guzman with annual Zea mays L. ssp. mays inbred line B73. A Total of 134 F2 plants derived from nine F1 were planted and phenotyped. A subpopulation of 94 F2 plants were genotyped with Genotype-by- Sequencing (GBS) and called 10,431 SNPs after ...


Evaluation And Identification Of Soybean Aphid Resistance Sources And Mapping Of Soybean Aphid Resistance Loci In Early Maturing Soybean Germplasm Accessions, Siddhi Jeewan Bhusal Jan 2016

Evaluation And Identification Of Soybean Aphid Resistance Sources And Mapping Of Soybean Aphid Resistance Loci In Early Maturing Soybean Germplasm Accessions, Siddhi Jeewan Bhusal

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) has been a major pest of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in North America particularly in the northern United States and three Canadian provinces. At least four biotypes of soybean aphid have been confirmed in the United States. Identification of soybean aphid resistance sources in early-maturing soybeans and genetic characterization of new sources of resistance will facilitate to expand the gene pool of soybean aphid resistance and thus will help to develop soybean aphid resistant cultivars. To identify new sources of resistance in early maturing soybeans, 330 soybean germplasm accessions from Maturity Group (MG) I ...


Cooperation And Punishment In The Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis: Implications For Resource Exchange & Biological Market Dynamics, Jerry A. Mensah Jan 2016

Cooperation And Punishment In The Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis: Implications For Resource Exchange & Biological Market Dynamics, Jerry A. Mensah

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is arguably the world’s most abundant and important mutualism, and brings together the roots of the majority of land plants and AM fungi to great mutual advantage. The AM symbiosis can increase the uptake of nutrients, such as phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N), and improves the abiotic and biotic stress resistance of the host plant. AM fungi have the potential to act as biofertilizers and bioprotectors in sustainable agriculture. However, despite its significance, the mechanisms that control the resource exchange between both partners in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis are largely unknown. The main aim ...


Role Of Silencing Rna Fgsir34 In Fusarium Graminearum's Pathogenicity To Wheat, Subha Dahal Jan 2016

Role Of Silencing Rna Fgsir34 In Fusarium Graminearum's Pathogenicity To Wheat, Subha Dahal

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Fusarium graminearum is an ascomycetous fungal pathogen that causes Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease in wheat and other cereal grains. Mycotoxin produced by the fungus, predominantly deoxynivalenol (DON), is considered as an important virulence factor for the spread of disease. Our previous study of a Dicer-like 2 knockdown mutant has led to our hypothesis that a silencing RNA, fgsiR34, might play a key role in regulating DON biosynthesis and some other virulent factors. To test this hypothesis, we generated an fgsiR34 over-expressing mutant (ΔfgsiR34+) using Inverse Repeat Transgene method and studied the pathogenicity of the mutant in wheat. Though no ...


Effects Of Seed Applied Fungicide On Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Colonization Of South Dakota Cultivars Of Oat, Soybean, And Corn, Jesse Cameron Jan 2016

Effects Of Seed Applied Fungicide On Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Colonization Of South Dakota Cultivars Of Oat, Soybean, And Corn, Jesse Cameron

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are obligate symbionts that form a mutualistic relationship with approximately 80% of terrestrial plant species. These obligate symbionts have a generally beneficial effect on their host such as increased nutrient acquisition, better tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, and the improvement of soil qualities. Due to the recent, widespread use of seed applied fungicides on row crops in the U.S. Midwest, there are concerns that the fungicides will inhibit these beneficial mycorrhizae. This study was conducted to evaluate what effect different commonly used seed applied fungicides have on AMF in the presence of different varieties ...


A Molecular Genetic And Physiological Comparison Of The Hybrid Necrosis Response In Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) To Biotic And Abiotic Stress Responses, Devi R. Kandel Jan 2016

A Molecular Genetic And Physiological Comparison Of The Hybrid Necrosis Response In Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) To Biotic And Abiotic Stress Responses, Devi R. Kandel

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Expression of hybrid necrosis in plants can lead to a significant reduction in productivity, or even lethality. Epistatic interactions between divergent loci that have evolved through evolution are proposed as being responsible for the genetic incompatability that is expressed as hybrid necrosis. Hybrid necrosis can also represent an obstacle to the transfer of desirable traits from wild, related species to domesticated bread wheat. In wheat, expression of dominant complementary genes Ne1 and Ne2, located to chromosomes 5B and 2B in a hybrid results the production of necrotic leaf tissue, stunted plant growth, and reduced grain yield, which are similar plant ...


Effects Of Stratification, Warm Treatment, And Mechanical And Acid Scarification On The Emergence Of Yellow-Flowered Alfalfa (Medicago Sativa Subsp. Falcata) Seeds, Diane Narem Jan 2009

Effects Of Stratification, Warm Treatment, And Mechanical And Acid Scarification On The Emergence Of Yellow-Flowered Alfalfa (Medicago Sativa Subsp. Falcata) Seeds, Diane Narem

The Journal of Undergraduate Research

Yellow-flowered alfalfa (YFA) has great potential to improve rangelands in the Northern Plains. Greater than 99% of YFA seeds from soil were viable but less than 4% germinated under standard laboratory conditions. The objective was to determine if low germination was due to physical or physiological seed dormancy. The experiment utilized a random complete block design with two trials, eight replications per trial. Each replication consisted of ten treatments plus a control, four stratification treatments consisting of a combination of two temperatures (-5°C, -20°C) and two durations (48 hr, 72 hr), one warm treatment (4 min, 60°C ...


Detecting Shifts In Soil Microbial Community Structure And Function Post Landspread Of Manure Or Biosolids Containing Antimicrobial Chemicals, Kelly Lehnert, Sharon A. Clay, Susan Gibson, Volker Brozel Nov 2007

Detecting Shifts In Soil Microbial Community Structure And Function Post Landspread Of Manure Or Biosolids Containing Antimicrobial Chemicals, Kelly Lehnert, Sharon A. Clay, Susan Gibson, Volker Brozel

Agronomy, Horticulture and Plant Science Faculty Publications

Soil microbial diversity and community interaction play an indispensable role in 2,4-dichorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) herbicide degradation. The addition of manure or municipal waste biosolids through landspreading may alter soil community structure and function if these materials contain antimicrobial chemicals like chlortetracycline (CTC), administered in livestock feed to promote animal growth and health or tetracycline (TET) utilized in human health. In this study, soil applied with manure collected from pigs fed standard CTC levels was compared to soil containing manure from control pigs fed no CTC, and a comparison of soil applied with biosolids containing TET or without TET ...


Engineering For Expression Of The Cold Regulated Barley Protein Hvcr21 In E. Coli, Kathleen Graupman Jan 2003

Engineering For Expression Of The Cold Regulated Barley Protein Hvcr21 In E. Coli, Kathleen Graupman

The Journal of Undergraduate Research

HVCR21 is a barley protein known to be cold regulated at the mRNA level. However, its function as well as the affect of low temperature on its translation are unknown. The purpose of this project was to engineer E. coli to express recombinant HVCR21. PGR primers were designed for the 5' and 3' ends of the HVCR21 coding region. The primers were also designed with a 5' SacI restriction site and a 3' Pst I restriction site. After ligation of the PCR product into the pCR4-TOPO vector, bacteria were transformed and plated and the successful transformant verified by PCR. The ...