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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Another Route For Amino Acid Production?: Reverse Genetic Probing For A Functional Cytosolic Shikimate Pathway In Plants, Gabrielle C. Buck, Joseph Lynch, Natalia Dudareva Aug 2017

Another Route For Amino Acid Production?: Reverse Genetic Probing For A Functional Cytosolic Shikimate Pathway In Plants, Gabrielle C. Buck, Joseph Lynch, Natalia Dudareva

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The shikimate pathway is a metabolic pathway that produces the three aromatic amino acids—phenylalanine, tryptophan, and tyrosine—which are essential to human diets and necessary for many plant functions. Consequently, the shikimate pathway is commonly targeted for antibiotic and herbicide strategies as well as genetic engineering in several fields. This pathway is known to be localized in the plastids, or double membrane-bound organelles, of plant cells; however, there is enzymatic evidence of another shikimate pathway in the cell fluid, or cytosol. To determine whether a complete cytosolic shikimate pathway exists, we used a modified gene for the first enzyme ...


The Biology And Management Of Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus Palmeri S. Wats) In Indiana, Douglas J. Spaunhorst Dec 2016

The Biology And Management Of Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus Palmeri S. Wats) In Indiana, Douglas J. Spaunhorst

Open Access Dissertations

Palmer amaranth is a pernicious summer annual weed that has evolved resistance to six herbicide sites of action in the U.S. and threatens agriculture production. In 2011, Palmer amaranth was identified in flood plains in two southern Indiana counties (Posey and Vanderburgh). Determining if Palmer amaranth can survive and reproduce in northern Indiana may provide insight if this weed will be problematic for northern row crop producers. The objectives of our research were to identify fields containing Palmer amaranth and determine the distribution of herbicide resistance traits in Indiana; determine the influence of tillage frequency and tillage intervals on ...


In Vitro Motility Of Actin Filaments Powered By Plant Myosins Xi, Cesar A. Quintana-Cataño, Christopher J. Staiger, Weiwei Zhang Aug 2016

In Vitro Motility Of Actin Filaments Powered By Plant Myosins Xi, Cesar A. Quintana-Cataño, Christopher J. Staiger, Weiwei Zhang

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The actomyosin network is thought to support fundamental processes of plant development and cell expansion such as polarized elongation of root hairs and the diffuse growth of epidermal and mesophyll cells. Inhibition of myosins via pharmacological treatments represents one of the key approaches for understanding of their roles in different cellular processes. However, the use of the standard plant myosin inhibitor, 2,3-butanedionemonoxime (BDM), is questioned as it requires a high concentration and may not be as specific as desired. By testing drugs that inhibit animal and yeast myosins V, the Staiger laboratory previously found pentabromopseudilin (PBP) as a potential ...


The Biology And Management Of Waterhemp In Indiana, Joseph M. Heneghan Aug 2016

The Biology And Management Of Waterhemp In Indiana, Joseph M. Heneghan

Open Access Theses

Waterhemp is a dioecious weed species indigenous to the Midwestern United states yet it has only recently become problematic in agronomic crop production in Indiana. Waterhemp is a small-seeded broadleaf which has increased in prevalence in conjunction with an increase in conservation tillage practices. Waterhemp germinates and emerges from the top 3 cm of soil and is known to exhibit extended periods of continual emergence, longer than most other summer annual weed species that are typically present in agronomic production settings. As a C4 species, waterhemp then grows rapidly and is capable of producing thousands of seeds, while effectively competing ...


Thermodynamic Analysis Of Phenylpropanoid Pathway In Arabidopsis Thanliana, Patrick J. Ioerger, Rohit Jaini, John A. Morgan Aug 2015

Thermodynamic Analysis Of Phenylpropanoid Pathway In Arabidopsis Thanliana, Patrick J. Ioerger, Rohit Jaini, John A. Morgan

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Biofuels represent a renewable alternative to traditional fossil fuels. As dependence on fossil fuels rise so does the importance of improving the production of alternative fuels. Lignin poses one obstacle in the development of such alternative fuels. Its presence strengthens cell walls and hinders degradation of polysaccharides into monosaccharides, increasing cost and time while decreasing efficiency of the process. Lignin is composed of three monolignols, each of which is produced through the Phenylpropanoid pathway; a series of chemical reactions. This work aims to determine which reactions in the pathway are least thermodynamically favorable and thus most limiting. From metabolic mapping ...


Detecting Genomic Regions Responsible For Resistance In Arabidopsis, Valeria Cancino, Anjali Iyer-Pascuzzi, Rucha Karve Aug 2015

Detecting Genomic Regions Responsible For Resistance In Arabidopsis, Valeria Cancino, Anjali Iyer-Pascuzzi, Rucha Karve

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Ralstonia solanacearum is a soil-borne plant root colonizing pathogen and the casual agent of bacterial wilt (BW) disease. BW leads to severe yield loss in a wide variety of agricultural commodity crops, such as tomato, banana, and pepper. In this study, we look at the plant-pathogen interaction between Ralstonia solanacearum and various ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana with the goal of finding resistant ecotypes. To identify resistant ecotypes, seeds are first sterilized and left to soak in the dark. Then the seeds are plated on agar media, transferred to a growth chamber, and allowed to grow for 5 days. On day ...


Using Energy-Efficient Technologies To Produce Bedding Plants And Microgreens In Protected And Controlled Environments, Joshua R. Gerovac Oct 2014

Using Energy-Efficient Technologies To Produce Bedding Plants And Microgreens In Protected And Controlled Environments, Joshua R. Gerovac

Open Access Theses

Gerovac, Joshua R. M.S., Purdue University, December 2014. Using Energy-Efficient Technologies to Produce Bedding Plants and Microgreens in Protected and Controlled Environments. Major Professor: Roberto G. Lopez. Production of bedding plants in commercial greenhouses (GHs) located in northern latitudes begins in late winter and continues through late spring when low outdoor temperatures generally necessitate active heating to maintain temperatures suitable for growth and development. Meanwhile, year-round production of microgreens using multi-layer systems requires sole-source (SS) photosynthetic lighting for production. Energy used to provide active heating in commercial GHs or SS lighting in multi-layer systems is second only to labor ...


Invasive Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys Moltrix) Protein Hydrolysates And Their Efficacy In Increasing Seedling Vigor And Reducing Seed Borne Pathogen Growth, Shanleigh Pauline Thomson Oct 2014

Invasive Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys Moltrix) Protein Hydrolysates And Their Efficacy In Increasing Seedling Vigor And Reducing Seed Borne Pathogen Growth, Shanleigh Pauline Thomson

Open Access Theses

Silver carp are an invasive fish species introduced into the United States within the last forty years. Unable to be effectively eradicated or commercialized as a source of food, other methods must be developed to control and/or use these fish. Fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) are products derived from the proteins inherent within fish. Development of FPH from Silver carp for a variety of uses could aid in controlling their expanding population and provide organic produces with a seed treatment option which is not available to them currently.

In the first study, FPH were used as a seed vigor treatment ...


Regulation Of Mor By Different Abiotic Stresses In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Luke Stepan, Rucha Karve, Anjali Iyer-Pascuzzi Aug 2014

Regulation Of Mor By Different Abiotic Stresses In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Luke Stepan, Rucha Karve, Anjali Iyer-Pascuzzi

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The climate is changing and as a consequence the environment is becoming hotter and drier. How different plants will react to these changes is unknown. Identification of genes involved in stress tolerance can help predict plant-environment interactions and lead to stress tolerant plants. The MOR gene (Modulator Of Root ROS, ROS = Reactive Oxygen Species) in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana encodes a transcription factor that may regulate stress responses, as mor mutants are drought tolerant. We hypothesized that MOR expression changes in response to different abiotic stress stimuli. We tested MOR expression in response to salt (NaCl), abscisic acid (ABA ...


Spatial And Temporal Distribution Of Fungicides Applied To Creeping Bentgrass, Kurt Ronald Hockemeyer Jul 2014

Spatial And Temporal Distribution Of Fungicides Applied To Creeping Bentgrass, Kurt Ronald Hockemeyer

Open Access Theses

Turf managers often rely on fungicides to limit damage caused by root diseases. Since fungicides do not move basipetally, they are effective only when fungitoxic concentrations are delivered to the rhizosphere. This research focused on the distribution of modern fungicides in verdure, thatch, sand, and roots of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L. var. palustris (Huds.) Farw.) maintained as a putting green. Fungicides (azoxystrobin (methyl (E)-2-[2-[6-(2-cyanophenoxy)pyrimidin-4-yloxy]phenyl]-3-methoxyacrylate), propiconazole (1,2,4-Triazole, 1-((2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-propyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-yl)methyl), pyraclostrobin (carbamic acid, [2-[[[1-(4-chlorophenyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]oxy]methyl]phenyl]methoxy-,methyl ester), and thiophanate-methyl (dimethyl 4 ...


Forward Genetic Screen Of Trichomes For Discovery Of Cytoskeleton-Based Mutants, Adam M. Fessenden, Samuel Belteton, Daniel B. Szymanski Oct 2013

Forward Genetic Screen Of Trichomes For Discovery Of Cytoskeleton-Based Mutants, Adam M. Fessenden, Samuel Belteton, Daniel B. Szymanski

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Understanding plant cell development and what genes influence cell growth can lead to breakthroughs in beneficial areas such as bioremediation, agricultural production, and biofuels. However, information on many of the genes that control plant cell growth is either unknown or severely limited. Further research to fully comprehend the genetic pathways within the cells will enable the genetic engineering of plants to further benefit society. One approach is the combined use of a forward genetic screen, sophisticated growth analysis, and gene identification. Using Arabidopsis thaliana trichomes, leaf hairs, as a model system, the mutagenized population of thousands of plants was screened ...


Genetic Engineering Of Black Cherry (Prunus Serotina) For Reproductive Sterility And Insect Pest Resistance, Ying Wang Oct 2013

Genetic Engineering Of Black Cherry (Prunus Serotina) For Reproductive Sterility And Insect Pest Resistance, Ying Wang

Open Access Dissertations

Black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) is one of the most valuable hardwoods for high- end cabinetry, furniture, architectural millwork, paneling, and veneer. However, the damage caused by cambial-mining insect pests triggers gummosis in black cherry, a non-specific defense response in which resinous gum is deposited at the site of injury. The gum defects dramatically decrease the yield of high-quality black cherry lumber, and the value can be reduced by as much as 90%. The goal of this project was to optimize the transformation and in vitro rooting system, and to develop transgenic black cherry for reproductive sterility and insect pest ...


Functional Characterization Of Metallothioneins In Arabidopsis And Barley, Nimnara Yookongkaew Oct 2013

Functional Characterization Of Metallothioneins In Arabidopsis And Barley, Nimnara Yookongkaew

Open Access Dissertations

Metalothioneins (MTs) are metal binding proteins that can bind metals such as Cu, Zn, and Cd but the functions of MTs in plants are largely unknown. To understand the function of MTs in Arabidopsis, T-DNA insertion mutants lacking 4 MT genes including MT1a, MT2a, MT2b and MT3 were developed. The quadruple mutant (mt1a/mt2a/mt2b/mt3) showed no visible phenotype under standard growth conditions. However, it accumulated higher Cu in leaves compared to wild type but lower Cu in seeds. Further analysis showed that triple mutants lacking both MT1a and MT2b, which are highly expressed in vascular tissues, had similar ...


Developing White Ash With Resistance To The Emerald Ash Borer, Kaitlin Joy Palla Jan 2013

Developing White Ash With Resistance To The Emerald Ash Borer, Kaitlin Joy Palla

Open Access Theses

Hypocotyls isolated from mature embryos germinated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 22.2 µM 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 0.5 µM thidiazuron (TDZ) were transformed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring the pBI121-8D2 vector containing the neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene and a full length, codon-optimized Bacillus thuringiensis Cry8Da protoxin gene (cry8D2). Explants were transformed in a bacterial suspension with 100 µM acetosyringone using 90 s sonication and 10 min vacuum-infiltration. Four independent lines of transformed shoots were selectively regenerated on MS medium with 22.2 µM BA, 0.5 µM TDZ, 50 mg L-1 adenine sulfate, 10 ...