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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Semi-Supervised Adversarial Domain Adaptation For Seagrass Detection Using Multispectral Images In Coastal Areas, Kazi Aminul Islam, Victoria Hill, Blake Schaeffer, Richard Zimmerman, Jiang Li Jan 2020

Semi-Supervised Adversarial Domain Adaptation For Seagrass Detection Using Multispectral Images In Coastal Areas, Kazi Aminul Islam, Victoria Hill, Blake Schaeffer, Richard Zimmerman, Jiang Li

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

Seagrass form the basis for critically important marine ecosystems. Previously, we implemented a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) model to detect seagrass in multispectral satellite images of three coastal habitats in northern Florida. However, a deep CNN model trained at one location usually does not generalize to other locations due to data distribution shifts. In this paper, we developed a semi-supervised domain adaptation method to generalize a trained deep CNN model to other locations for seagrass detection. First, we utilized a generative adversarial network loss to align marginal data distribution between source domain and target domain using unlabeled data from ...


Molecular Systematics Of Isoëtes (Isoëtaceae) In Eastern North America, Peter William Schafran Oct 2019

Molecular Systematics Of Isoëtes (Isoëtaceae) In Eastern North America, Peter William Schafran

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Isoëtes (Isoëtaceae, Isoetales, Lycopodiophyta) is a cosmopolitan genus of aquatic lycophytes, occurring on every continent except Antarctica. Of approximately 200 total taxa, about half are in a clade of species mostly occurring in North and South America. Eastern North America accounts for 22% of global taxonomic diversity, containing 32 fertile taxa and 16 named hybrids. This taxonomic diversity is built upon relatively little morphological difference, and even combined with phylogenetic analysis using several nuclear and chloroplast DNA markers, no well-resolved systematic treatment within this clade exists.

This study aims to clarify the relationships between all species and subspecies of Isoëtes ...


Pollinator Visitation Frequency Associated With Native And Non-Native Plants In A Mid-Atlantic Piedmont (Usa) Urban Garden, Nicholas J. Ruppel, Saunders M. Riley, Ellis D. Mumford, Barbara L. Swedo Jul 2019

Pollinator Visitation Frequency Associated With Native And Non-Native Plants In A Mid-Atlantic Piedmont (Usa) Urban Garden, Nicholas J. Ruppel, Saunders M. Riley, Ellis D. Mumford, Barbara L. Swedo

Virginia Journal of Science

The recent focus on the importance of native plants and their pollinators has highlighted the critical role of local species in their natural environment. As urban encroachment, climate change, and invasive species continues to threaten native habitats, it is increasingly important to promote the use of local green spaces as refugia for native plants and their pollinators. The aim of this project, therefore, was to identify and assess the visitation frequency of insect pollinators associated with an urban setting within the Piedmont region of Virginia, and compare their association with native versus closely-related but non-native summer-flowering plants. Several modes of ...


Does Channel Island Acmispon (Fabaceae) Form Cohesive Evolutionary Groups?, Mitchell E. Mcglaughlin, Lynn Riley, Kaius Helenurm, Lisa A. Wallace Jan 2018

Does Channel Island Acmispon (Fabaceae) Form Cohesive Evolutionary Groups?, Mitchell E. Mcglaughlin, Lynn Riley, Kaius Helenurm, Lisa A. Wallace

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The California Channel Islands are unique relative to other island chains due to their close proximity to the California mainland and the fact that individual islands, or groups of islands, vary in their distance to the mainland and other islands. This orientation raises questions about whether island taxa with widespread distributions form cohesive evolutionary units, or if they are actually composed of several distinct evolutionary entities, either derived from independent mainland-to-island colonization events or divergence due to prolonged allopatric isolation. The 4 northern islands are clustered in a line (6-8 km separation among islands), while the 4 southern islands are ...


Low- Copy Nuclear Markers In Isoëtes (Isoëtaceae) Identified With Transcriptomes, Peter W. Schafran, Gabriel Johnson, W. Carl Taylor, Elizabeth A. Zimmer, Lytton J. Musselman Jan 2018

Low- Copy Nuclear Markers In Isoëtes (Isoëtaceae) Identified With Transcriptomes, Peter W. Schafran, Gabriel Johnson, W. Carl Taylor, Elizabeth A. Zimmer, Lytton J. Musselman

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Few genetic markers provide phylogenetic information in closely related species of Isoëtes (Isoëtaceae). We describe the development of primers for several putative low- copy nuclear markers to resolve the phylogeny of Isoëtes, particularly in the southeastern United States.

METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified regions of interest in Isoëtes transcriptomes based on low- copy genes in other plants. Primers were designed for these regions and tested with 16 taxa of Isoëtes and one species of Lycopodium. Parts of the pgiC, gapC, and IBR3 gene regions show phylogenetic signal within the North American and Mediterranean clades of Isoëtes ...


Population-Level Coordination Of Pigment Response In Individual Cyanobacterial Cells Under Altered Nitrogen Levels, Jaclyn Murton, Aparna Nagarajan, Amelia Y. Nguyen, Michelle Liberton, Harmony A. Hancock, Himadri B. Pakrasi, Jerilyn A. Timlin Jul 2017

Population-Level Coordination Of Pigment Response In Individual Cyanobacterial Cells Under Altered Nitrogen Levels, Jaclyn Murton, Aparna Nagarajan, Amelia Y. Nguyen, Michelle Liberton, Harmony A. Hancock, Himadri B. Pakrasi, Jerilyn A. Timlin

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Cyanobacterial phycobilisome (PBS) pigment-protein complexes harvest light and transfer the energy to reaction centers. Previous ensemble studies have shown that cyanobacteria respond to changes in nutrient availability by modifying the structure of PBS complexes, but this process has not been visualized for individual pigments at the single-cell level due to spectral overlap. We characterized the response of four key photosynthetic pigments to nitrogen depletion and repletion at the subcellular level in individual, live Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 cells using hyperspectral confocal fluorescence microscopy and multivariate image analysis. Our results revealed that PBS degradation and re-synthesis comprise a rapid response to ...


Isoetes Mississippiensis: A New Quillwort From Mississippi, Usa, Peter W. Schafran, Steven W. Leonard, Rebecca D. Bray, W. Carl Taylor, Lytton John Musselman Jan 2016

Isoetes Mississippiensis: A New Quillwort From Mississippi, Usa, Peter W. Schafran, Steven W. Leonard, Rebecca D. Bray, W. Carl Taylor, Lytton John Musselman

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Isoetes mississippiensis S.W. Leonard, W.C. Taylor, L.J. Musselman and R.D. Bray (Isoetaceae, Lycopodiophyta) is a new species known from two sites along tributaries of the Pearl River in southern Mississippi. This species is distinguished from other species in the southeastern United States by a combination of character states including a basic diploid (2n=22) chromosome count, laevigate megaspores, and a narrow velum covering less than one-third of the adaxial sporangium wall.


Molecular Phylogenetics And Historical Biogeography Of The Tribe Chiococceae (Rubiaceae), Sushil Kumar Paudyal Apr 2015

Molecular Phylogenetics And Historical Biogeography Of The Tribe Chiococceae (Rubiaceae), Sushil Kumar Paudyal

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Chiococceae are a monophyletic assemblage of morphologically very diverse groups of plants ranging in habit from subshrubs to shrubs to tall trees exhibiting an astonishing variation in shapes and sizes of corolla, and kinds of fruits and seeds. They are primarily distributed in the Neotropics but also occur in the West Pacific islands; thus exhibiting amphi-Pacific tropical disjunction. This study addresses the phylogenetic relationships and biogeography of the Chiococceae using molecular DNA sequence data, and presents novel data on the tribal and generic delimitations, intergeneric relationships, and the origin and dispersal of this group.

In the most recent tribal delimitations ...


Cumulative Response Of Ecosystem Carbon And Nitrogen Stocks To Chronic Co2 Exposure In A Subtropical Oak Woodland, Bruce A. Hungate, Paul Dijkstra, Zhuoting Wu, Benjamin D. Duval, Frank P. Day, Alisha L.P. Brown Jan 2013

Cumulative Response Of Ecosystem Carbon And Nitrogen Stocks To Chronic Co2 Exposure In A Subtropical Oak Woodland, Bruce A. Hungate, Paul Dijkstra, Zhuoting Wu, Benjamin D. Duval, Frank P. Day, Alisha L.P. Brown

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

·Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) could alter the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content of ecosystems, yet the magnitude of these effects are not well known. We examined C and N budgets of a subtropical woodland after 11 yr of exposure to elevated CO2.

·We used open-top chambers to manipulate CO2 during regrowth after fire, and measured C, N and tracer 15N in ecosystem components throughout the experiment.

·Elevated CO2 increased plant C and tended to increase plant N but did not significantly increase whole-system C or N. Elevated CO2 increased soil microbial activity ...


A New Species Of Diploid Quillwort (Isoetes, Isoetaceae, Lycophyta) From Lebanon, Jay F. Bolin, Rebecca D. Bray, Lytton John Musselman Sep 2011

A New Species Of Diploid Quillwort (Isoetes, Isoetaceae, Lycophyta) From Lebanon, Jay F. Bolin, Rebecca D. Bray, Lytton John Musselman

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

A new species, Isoetes libanotica Musselman, Bolin & B. D. Bray (Isoetaceae, Lycophyta), is described from Akkar District of northern Lebanon. It is a seasonal terrestrial species of basaltic soils, diploid (2n = 22), with complete velum coverage. Megaspore diameter ranges from 338 to 477 mu m with remote, low tuberculate ornamentation and a low to obsolete equatorial girdle; microspore length ranges from 25 to 30 mu m, with echinate ornamentation. At the type locality of I. libanotica, two other Isoetes L. species occur sympatrically. These superficially similar Isoetes species can be differentiated from I. libanotica using megaspore characters; I. duriei Bory has larger alveolate megaspores and I. olympica A. Braun has a prominent equatorial girdle.


Distributions And Abundances Of Microstegium Vimineum Along Forest Roadsides At The Grassy Hill Natural Area, Franklin County, Virginia, Gregory D. Turner Jan 2011

Distributions And Abundances Of Microstegium Vimineum Along Forest Roadsides At The Grassy Hill Natural Area, Franklin County, Virginia, Gregory D. Turner

Virginia Journal of Science

In summer 2005, plots were surveyed along roads passing through forest habitats at the Grassy Hill Natural Area Preserve in Franklin County, Virginia to assess the distributions and abundances of Microstegium vimineum in transects located at increasing distances away from roadsides into forest interiors. Across plots, Microstegium was encountered almost exclusively in roadside transects, where abundances were relatively high. While forest composition and topographic features were similar across plots, percent canopy cover and leaf litter depth were greater in interior compared to roadside transects due to undisturbed tree canopies and ground cover located in interior plot areas. Results imply that ...


The Loss Of Species: Mangrove Extinction Risk And Geographic Areas Of Global Concern, Beth A. Polidoro, Kent E. Carpenter, Lorna Collins, Norman C. Duke, Aaron M. Ellison, Joanna C. Ellison, Elizabeth J. Farnsworth, Edwino S. Fernando, Kandasamy Kathiresan, Nico E. Koedam, Suzanne R. Livingstone, Toyohiko Miyagi, Gregg E. Moore, Vien Ngoc Nam, Jin Eong Ong, Jurgenne H. Primavera, Serverino G. Salmo, Jonnell C. Sanciango, Sukristijono Sukardjo, Yamin Wang, Jean Wan Hong Yong Apr 2010

The Loss Of Species: Mangrove Extinction Risk And Geographic Areas Of Global Concern, Beth A. Polidoro, Kent E. Carpenter, Lorna Collins, Norman C. Duke, Aaron M. Ellison, Joanna C. Ellison, Elizabeth J. Farnsworth, Edwino S. Fernando, Kandasamy Kathiresan, Nico E. Koedam, Suzanne R. Livingstone, Toyohiko Miyagi, Gregg E. Moore, Vien Ngoc Nam, Jin Eong Ong, Jurgenne H. Primavera, Serverino G. Salmo, Jonnell C. Sanciango, Sukristijono Sukardjo, Yamin Wang, Jean Wan Hong Yong

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Mangrove species are uniquely adapted to tropical and subtropical coasts, and although relatively low in number of species, mangrove forests provide at least US $1.6 billion each year in ecosystem services and support coastal livelihoods worldwide. Globally, mangrove areas are declining rapidly as they are cleared for coastal development and aquaculture and logged for timber and fuel production. Little is known about the effects of mangrove area loss on individual mangrove species and local or regional populations. To address this gap, species-specific information on global distribution, population status, life history traits, and major threats were compiled for each of ...


Ecological And Genetic Status Of The Purple Pitcher Plant, Sarracenia Purpurea L., In Maryland And Virginia, Philip M. Sheridan Apr 2010

Ecological And Genetic Status Of The Purple Pitcher Plant, Sarracenia Purpurea L., In Maryland And Virginia, Philip M. Sheridan

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Sarracenia purpurea is a rare wetland plant in Virginia and a threatened species in Maryland, with two potential subspecies in the region. I utilized restriction fragments from the intron of the chalcone synthase gene to compare S. purpurea populations and determine whether the subspecies concept was supported. I performed a census of existing populations, compiled all known historical data on the species, and investigated the reasons for the species demise and predicted dates of extinction. Bloom phenology was examined to see if climate change may have influenced bloom period. Soil, vegetation, and climatic information was obtained to determine if taxonomic ...


Ecology And Molecular Phylogenetics Of Hydnora (Hydnoraceae) In Southern Africa, Jay Francis Bolin Jan 2009

Ecology And Molecular Phylogenetics Of Hydnora (Hydnoraceae) In Southern Africa, Jay Francis Bolin

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

The Hydnoraceae are a clade of root holoparasitic angiosperms that contain two small genera, Hydnora and Prosopanche. This study, focused on Hydnora, presents novel data regarding the pollination biology, germination ecology, parasite-host nutritional relationships, and the molecular systematics of this group. Experimental addition of the primary pollinator, Dermestes maculatus to Hydnora africana chamber flowers demonstrated beetle imprisonment during the carpellate stage. Changes in the inner surfaces of the androecial chamber allowed beetle escape after pollen release. Most beetles escaped, dusted with viable pollen, three days after pollen release. To investigate germination ecology, aqueous root extracts of host and non-host Euphorbia ...


Anther Appendages Of Incarvillea Trigger A Pollen-Dispensing Mechanism, Yi Han, Can Dai, Chun-Feng Yang, Qing-Feng Wang, Timothy J. Motley Jan 2008

Anther Appendages Of Incarvillea Trigger A Pollen-Dispensing Mechanism, Yi Han, Can Dai, Chun-Feng Yang, Qing-Feng Wang, Timothy J. Motley

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Background and Aims Anther appendages play diverse roles in anther dehiscence and pollen dispersal. This study aims to explore the pollen-dispensing mechanism triggered by special anther appendages in Incarvillea arguta.

Methods Field studies were conducted to record floral characteristics, pollinator visitations, and flower-pollinator interactions. Measurements of flowers and pollinators were analysed statistically. Pollen counts following a series of floral manipulations were used to evaluate pollen dispensing efficiency and function of the anther appendages.

Key Results Field observations determined that two species of Bombus (bumble-bees) were the primary pollinators of I. arguta with a mean visiting frequency of 1.42 visitations ...


Microspore Wall Morphogenesis And Orbicule Ultrastructure Of Isoetes, Khalid Alarid Jan 2008

Microspore Wall Morphogenesis And Orbicule Ultrastructure Of Isoetes, Khalid Alarid

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

The microspore wall morphogenesis and orbicule ultrastructure of Isoetes were studied using electron microscopy. Microspore wall morphogenesis in five species of Isoetes (I. appalachiana, I. engelmannii, I. hyemalis, I. piedmontana, and an undescribed species from York Co., VA, USA) was studied using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Results show that they generally have the same developmental stages in terms of microspore wall morphogenesis. The mature microspore wall consisted of four layers: perispore, paraexospore, exospore and endospore. Paraexospore formation began during the tetrad stage. The exospore was then formed between the paraexospore and the plasma membrane. During the free spore stage ...


Isoetes Toximontana (Isoetaceae), A New Quillwort With Green Megaspores From The Northern Cape Of South Africa, Lytton John Musselman, J. P. Roux Jan 2002

Isoetes Toximontana (Isoetaceae), A New Quillwort With Green Megaspores From The Northern Cape Of South Africa, Lytton John Musselman, J. P. Roux

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Isoetes toximontana is only the second quillwort reported from the Northern Cape region in South Africa. It occurs in shallow water on the Gifberg. Megaspores are uniformly tuberculate on the proximal surface; their distal surfaces may have occasional rugi along with bullae. They are olive green when dry. Microspores are brown and aculeate. Preliminary field studies suggest that an unexpected diversity of quillworts is found in this region.


Isoetes Mattaponica (Isoetaceae), A New Diploid Quillwort From Freshwater Tidal Marshes Of Virginia, Lytton John Musselman, W. Carl Taylor, Rebecca D. Bray Jul 2001

Isoetes Mattaponica (Isoetaceae), A New Diploid Quillwort From Freshwater Tidal Marshes Of Virginia, Lytton John Musselman, W. Carl Taylor, Rebecca D. Bray

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Isoetes mattaponica is a rare quillwort of freshwater tidal rivers of eastern Virginia with a somatic chromosome number of 2n = 22. Megaspores have low rugulate muri on both the proximal and distal surfaces; the girdle is broad. Microspores are echinate-spinose with ornamented spines. Isoetes mattaponica may be one of the parents of several polyploids in the Southeastern United States.


The Genus Striga (Scrophulariaceae) In Africa, Kamal I. Mohamed, Lytton John Musselman, Charles R. Riches Jan 2001

The Genus Striga (Scrophulariaceae) In Africa, Kamal I. Mohamed, Lytton John Musselman, Charles R. Riches

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Twenty-eight species and six subspecies of the hemiparasitic genus Striga Lour., witchweed, occur in Africa. Twenty-two species are endemic. Witchweeds occur throughout the continent with greatest diversity in the grasslands and savannas north of the equator. Striga gesnerioides (Willd.) Vatke and S. hermonthica (Del.) Benth. have developed host-specific strains that may have distinct morphotypes. me accord these no formal taxonomic status. Striga hermonthica and S. asiatica (L.) Kuntze, limited to agroecosystems, may be recently derived from non-ruderal species. Striga hirsuta Benth. and S. lutea Lour., sometimes treated as conspecific with S. asiatica, are recognized as distinct species restricted to natural ...


Studies On The Biology Of Striga Aspera (Scrophulariaceae) In Nigeria, Emmanuel Izaka Aigbokhan Apr 1998

Studies On The Biology Of Striga Aspera (Scrophulariaceae) In Nigeria, Emmanuel Izaka Aigbokhan

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Studies on Striga aspera are few and little information exists on its relationship with the morphologically similar and much studied S. hermonthica. Both species are sympatric in West Africa and if they hybridize, may serve as virulent gene reservoirs for each other.

The primary focus of this study was on the biology of S. aspera in Nigeria. The research focussed on its distribution, phenology, cytology, hybridization, seed dormancy, viability and germination in relation to S. hermonthica. Related studies involving the hybrids include genetic and morphological variability, pathogenicity and the simultaneous dual infection of a maize plant by both species.

In ...


Toxin Producing Phytoplankton In Chesapeake Bay, Harold G. Marshall Jan 1996

Toxin Producing Phytoplankton In Chesapeake Bay, Harold G. Marshall

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Three diatoms and nine dinoflagellates, known to be associated with toxin production, have been identified within Chesapeake Bay. Over the past several decades this number has increased to its present level so that they now represent approximately 1.7% the total number of phytoplankton species reported for the Bay.


Seasonal Relationships Between Phytoplankton Composition, Abundance, And Primary Productivity In Three Tidal Rivers Of The Lower Chesapeake Bay, Harold G. Marshall, Kneeland K. Nesius Jan 1993

Seasonal Relationships Between Phytoplankton Composition, Abundance, And Primary Productivity In Three Tidal Rivers Of The Lower Chesapeake Bay, Harold G. Marshall, Kneeland K. Nesius

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The seasonal abundance and successional patterns of phytoplankton, including autotrophic picoplankton, are compared to spring, summer, and fall primary production maxima that occurred in three tidal rivers. The tidal freshwaters were dominated by diatoms, chlorophytes, and cyanobacteria during a late spring through early fall period of maximum growth. In contrast, downstream assemblages were dominated by estuarine diatoms, dinoflagellates, and cryptomonads which developed spring pulses and a protracted summer-fall maximum. Autotrophic picoplankton produced a major summer pulse at all river stations with reduced abundance during other seasons. The mean annual productivity rates for the tidal James, Rappahannock, and York rivers were ...