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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Effects Of Inulin And Galactooligosaccharides On The Production Of Reuterin By Lactobacillus Reuteri, Micah Dwight Forshee Dec 2018

The Effects Of Inulin And Galactooligosaccharides On The Production Of Reuterin By Lactobacillus Reuteri, Micah Dwight Forshee

ELAIA

The microbiome is a dynamic community that can positively and negatively influence host health. Lactobacillus reuteri is a probiotic that has received much attention for its ability to inhibit pathogens such as Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium difficile. It does so by its unique ability to metabolize glycerol into the antimicrobial compound 3-HPA, which is commonly referred to as reuterin. The ability to secrete reuterin is dependent not only on glycerol availability but also the concentration of glucose. In fact, there appears to be a “goldilocks” ratio between glucose and glycerol as either too much or too little glucose ...


Antibiotic Resistance Coming Soon To A Pathogen Near You, Mckenzie Altman, Tamia Mills, Lindsey Layman, Catherine Stone Dec 2018

Antibiotic Resistance Coming Soon To A Pathogen Near You, Mckenzie Altman, Tamia Mills, Lindsey Layman, Catherine Stone

Undergraduate Research Symposium (URS)

The phenomena of antibiotic resistant bacteria has increased worldwide and can frequently be found on everyday surfaces. Here, we characterize a bacterial isolate from a woman’s restroom door handle at Marian. Preliminary results comprised of morphological and biochemical tests, including growth characteristics on blood agar medium, as well as usage of the Kirby Bauer agar diffusion test to determine antibiotic susceptibility, identifies this isolate to be a multidrug resistant Neisseria species. However, additional detailed analysis is needed to confirm its identity.


Virulence Regulation In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Via The Alginate Regulators, Algu And Algr, The Posttranscriptional Regulator, Rsma, And The Two-Component System, Algz/R, Sean Stacey Dec 2018

Virulence Regulation In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Via The Alginate Regulators, Algu And Algr, The Posttranscriptional Regulator, Rsma, And The Two-Component System, Algz/R, Sean Stacey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacillus able to colonize a wide variety of environments. In the human host, P. aeruginosa can establish an acute infection or persist and create a chronic infection. P. aeruginosa is able to establish a niche and persist in human hosts by using a wide array of virulence factors used for: movement, killing host cells, and evading immune cells and antibiotics. Understanding virulence factors and their regulation has proved to be an important means of combating the morbidity and mortality of P. aeruginosa as well as the ever-increasing threat of drug resistance. By targeting virulence factors ...


Methanogens, Plausible Extraterrestrial Life Forms On Mars, And Their Tolerance To Increasing Concentrations Of Illite Clay, Chandler Kern Dec 2018

Methanogens, Plausible Extraterrestrial Life Forms On Mars, And Their Tolerance To Increasing Concentrations Of Illite Clay, Chandler Kern

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Methanogens, some of Earth’s most primitive prokaryotic organisms, are candidates for possible life forms capable of inhabiting Mars. Specifically, four different species (Methanobacterium formicicum, Methanococcus maripaludis, Methanosarcina barkeri, Methanothermobacter wolfeii) were analyzed for their tolerance to the presence of illite clay. Illite is a crystalline mineral that has been identified from regions of Mars’s surface. Results indicated that all four species grew with some success in the illite at different concentrations. This experimentation with methanogens’ abilities to survive and reproduce in the presence of illite allows for a more accurate understanding of the potential capability of microbial growth ...


The Gut Microbiota Of Cornu Aspersum, Parker Neal Smith, Sarah M. Boomer, Michael Baltzley Nov 2018

The Gut Microbiota Of Cornu Aspersum, Parker Neal Smith, Sarah M. Boomer, Michael Baltzley

PURE Insights

The “Brown Garden Snail,” Cornu aspersum is a widely distributed land snail, whose consumption of soil to acquire calcium results in soil microbes colonizing their gut. While previous work has utilized culture-based approaches to analyze the gut microbiota of C. aspersum, no previous studies have used high throughput DNA sequencing, or examined the changes in the gut microbiota over time in response to antibiotics exposure. In this study, we use 16S amplicon sequencing and fecal plating to characterize the gut microbiota of C. aspersum, and to monitor changes in their microbiota over time after a short penicillin treatment. We found ...


Bacterial Abundance And Resistance In Ground Beef Varieties, Savannah Kumar, Sarah M. Boomer Nov 2018

Bacterial Abundance And Resistance In Ground Beef Varieties, Savannah Kumar, Sarah M. Boomer

PURE Insights

Raw ground beef purchased at supermarkets across America have one thing in common: they harbor bacteria, some of which are drug resistant and can be detrimental to public health. To understand the impact of farming and processing practices on the quantity of bacteria and drug resistance, organic and regular beef were assessed using MacConkey media. Bacterial colonies were sorted according to lactose utilization, with positive colonies representing fecal E. coli. Lactose negative colonies were further characterized into one of two groups (fecal Hafnia-like or soil Pseudomonas) using a variety of metabolic tests (oxidase, sulfur, indole). Advanced metabolic testing showed that ...


Novel Inactivation Of The Causative Fungus Of White Nose Syndrome With Methoxsalen And Ultraviolet A Light, Colin J. Hartman, Joseph Mester Phd, Alan Cohen Md Nov 2018

Novel Inactivation Of The Causative Fungus Of White Nose Syndrome With Methoxsalen And Ultraviolet A Light, Colin J. Hartman, Joseph Mester Phd, Alan Cohen Md

Posters-at-the-Capitol

White Nose Syndrome (WNS) is a newly recognized disease responsible for the rapid mass destruction of the North American bat populations. This study addressed the novel inactivation of fungal spores from Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of WNS, using ultraviolet A (UVA) light at 365nm and methoxsalen, a photosensitizer from a family of compounds known as furanocoumarins. Penicillium crustosum, an environmental fungus, was studied as a comparator.

Spore suspensions were soaked in specific concentrations of methoxsalen and subsequently exposed to UVA light. The plates were examined for both spore inactivation and resultant inhibition of colony growth. The results demonstrated that ...


21 - Antibiotic-Producing Bacteria Associated With Sharks Of St. Helena And Port Royal Sound, Daniel Conrad Nov 2018

21 - Antibiotic-Producing Bacteria Associated With Sharks Of St. Helena And Port Royal Sound, Daniel Conrad

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Antibiotic-Producing Bacteria Associated with Sharks of St. Helena and Port Royal Sound

Daniel Conrad1, Diego L. GilAgudelo1,2, Kim B. Ritchie1

1. University of South Carolina at Beaufort, Beaufort South Carolina

2. Texas A&M University at Galveston, Galveston Texas

Elasmobranchs possess the ability to heal quickly from wounds yet, limited research has been done to explore the roll of beneficial bacterial associations in this healing process (Ritchie et al., 2017). Our objectives were to identify antibiotic producing bacteria associated with sharks as a measure of potential beneficial roles. Three Tiger Sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier), two Bull ...


16 - Assessment Of Efficacy And Effectiveness Of Antiseptic Mouthwash Products Against Oral Microbiota, Angel Shue, Elizabeth G. Miranda-Ayala, Davison T. Sangweme Nov 2018

16 - Assessment Of Efficacy And Effectiveness Of Antiseptic Mouthwash Products Against Oral Microbiota, Angel Shue, Elizabeth G. Miranda-Ayala, Davison T. Sangweme

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Mouthwashes help prevent dental caries, gum disease (such as gingivitis), slow down the buildup of plaque (biofilms formed by buccal microbiota) and help fight bad breath (halitosis). These antibacterial products kill bacteria, or hinder their reproduction. Some antiseptic products inhibit growth and reproduction of many microorganisms, including bacteria, as well as fungi, protozoa, and viruses. Mouthwashes that kill or reduce bacterial load in the buccal cavity can reduce the production of sulfur compounds that can cause bad breath. Common ingredients in mouthwashes include cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), zinc chloride, alcohol and chlorhexidine which can neutralize sulfur compounds as well as kill ...


Alternative Genes For Exploring Ranavirus Phylogenetics: Four Core Genes Compared To The Major Capsid Protein And The Whole Genome., Abigale Garner Nov 2018

Alternative Genes For Exploring Ranavirus Phylogenetics: Four Core Genes Compared To The Major Capsid Protein And The Whole Genome., Abigale Garner

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

The Iridoviridae is a family of virus that infects invertebrates and poikilothermic vertebrates such as amphibians, reptiles, and fish. Ranavirus is one of the five genera within the Iridoviridae. Ranavirus infections have been seen on every continent. The ranaviruses have 26 core genes, but our study focuses on the utility of: an immediate early protein ICP-46 [open reading frame (ORF) 91R in Frog virus 3 (FV3)]; a transcription elongation factor TIIS (ORF 81R in FV3); Evrl/Air family protein (ORF 88R in FV3); and a hypothetical/putative protein of unknown function (ORF 94R in FV3) as alternative genes for phylogenetic ...


Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia Coli From Retail Poultry Meat With Different Antibiotic Use Claims, Gregg S. Davis, Kara Waits, Lora Nordstrom, Heidi Grande, Brett Weaver, Katerina Papp, Joseph Horwinski, Benjamin Koch, Bruce A. Hungate, Cindy M. Liu, Lance B. Price Nov 2018

Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia Coli From Retail Poultry Meat With Different Antibiotic Use Claims, Gregg S. Davis, Kara Waits, Lora Nordstrom, Heidi Grande, Brett Weaver, Katerina Papp, Joseph Horwinski, Benjamin Koch, Bruce A. Hungate, Cindy M. Liu, Lance B. Price

Civil & Environmental Engineering and Construction Faculty Publications

Background We sought to determine if the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli differed across retail poultry products and among major production categories, including organic, “raised without antibiotics”, and conventional. Results We collected all available brands of retail chicken and turkey—including conventional, “raised without antibiotic”, and organic products—every two weeks from January to December 2012. In total, E. coli was recovered from 91% of 546 turkey products tested and 88% of 1367 chicken products tested. The proportion of samples contaminated with E. coli was similar across all three production categories. Resistance prevalence varied by meat type and was highest ...


Characterization Of Tick Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides (Oatps) Upon Bacterial And Viral Infections, Vikas Taank, Wenshou Zhou, Xuran Zhuang, John F. Anderson, Utpal Pal, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta Nov 2018

Characterization Of Tick Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides (Oatps) Upon Bacterial And Viral Infections, Vikas Taank, Wenshou Zhou, Xuran Zhuang, John F. Anderson, Utpal Pal, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: Ixodes scapularis organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) play important roles in tickrickettsial pathogen interactions. In this report, we characterized the role of these conserved molecules in ticks infected with either Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi or tick-borne Langat virus (LGTV), a pathogen closely related to tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV).

Results: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed no significant changes in oatps gene expression upon infection with B. burgdorferi in unfed ticks. Synchronous infection of unfed nymphal ticks with LGTV in vitro revealed no significant changes in oatps gene expression. However, expression of specific oatps was significantly downregulated upon ...


Expression Analysis Of Cyclooxygenase-2 In Patients Suffering From Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Shahida Tasneem, , Muhammad Tahir Sarwa, Muhammad Rizwan Bashi, Hamid Hussain, Jawad Ahmed, Shahid Pervez Oct 2018

Expression Analysis Of Cyclooxygenase-2 In Patients Suffering From Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Shahida Tasneem, , Muhammad Tahir Sarwa, Muhammad Rizwan Bashi, Hamid Hussain, Jawad Ahmed, Shahid Pervez

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the aggressive malignancies and mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis remain unclear. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme system plays a crucial role in many gastrointestinal malignancies and is an important regulator of cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation and transformation. More precise outcome of COX-2 in ESCC is less investigated. In this study we investigated the risk factors of ESCC and expression of COX-2 in Carcinoma in situ (CIS) and ESCC compared to normal esophageal mucosa. ESCC relationship to clinico-pathological parameters using immunohistochemistry was also part of this investigation. Current study was conducted in the Institute of ...


Effects Of Evolution On Laboratory Sublines Of Myxococcus Xanthus Dk1622, Mackenzie Ryan, Francesca Scribano, Kimberly Murphy Oct 2018

Effects Of Evolution On Laboratory Sublines Of Myxococcus Xanthus Dk1622, Mackenzie Ryan, Francesca Scribano, Kimberly Murphy

Celebration of Learning

Microbes have served as effective models for studying evolution because of their ability to be easily replicated, stored, and manipulated. Myxococcus xanthus is a soil bacterium that has served as a model organism in many laboratories. The unique social and motile behaviors exhibited by this bacterium make it ideal for phenotypic assays. A wild-type strain of M. xanthus, DK1622, has been distributed to laboratories across the United States and therefore we now have DK1622 sublines. The genomes of a number of these sublines have been sequenced and their social and motile phenotypes have been analyzed. When nine of these sublines ...


Politically Unhealthy: Flint’S Fight Against Poverty, Environmental Racism, And Dirty Water, Tomeka M. Robinson, Garrett Shum, Sabrina Singh Oct 2018

Politically Unhealthy: Flint’S Fight Against Poverty, Environmental Racism, And Dirty Water, Tomeka M. Robinson, Garrett Shum, Sabrina Singh

Journal of International Crisis and Risk Communication Research

The social force of race in relation to natural resources plays a prominent role in which communities are disproportionately affected by pollution. Scholars have described how people of color are disproportionately victims of environmental discrimination and disparities because they lack the necessary social capital to bring attention to their plight, as demonstrated by the case of the Flint, Michigan, Water Crisis. In this article, we use a critical race theory lens to explore how the Flint Water Crisis constitutes a case study of environmental racism. More specifically, we discuss the public health implications of environmental racism on the residents of ...


Vancomycin Delays Clindamycin-Induced Fatality In The Hamster Model Of Clostridioides [Clostridium] Difficile Infection, Amelia E. Fox-King, Chrisabelle Mefferd, Jacqueline R. Phan, Nancy O. Nou, Ernesto Abel-Santos, Brian P. Hedlund Oct 2018

Vancomycin Delays Clindamycin-Induced Fatality In The Hamster Model Of Clostridioides [Clostridium] Difficile Infection, Amelia E. Fox-King, Chrisabelle Mefferd, Jacqueline R. Phan, Nancy O. Nou, Ernesto Abel-Santos, Brian P. Hedlund

LSAMP Poster Presentations

Antibiotics can leave the host gut microbiome susceptible to Clostridioides [Clostridium] difficile colonization and lethal toxin production. For instance, clindamycin-induced susceptibility to C. difficile infection (CDI) results in rapid fatality in hamster models, yet vancomycin has been shown to offer increased survival in hamsters challenged with C. difficile. We aim to develop an antibiotic treatment that will facilitate CDI susceptibility without prompt fatality in hamster models. An antibiotic regimen starting with a continuous vancomycin treatment along with a single clindamycin dosage is thought to reduce the major disruption in the indigenous gut microbiome and prevent clindamycin-induced death. Quantitative polymerase chain ...


Theory On Thermodynamic Constraints To Biogeochemical And Metabolic Diversity, Jordan Okie, Everett Shock Oct 2018

Theory On Thermodynamic Constraints To Biogeochemical And Metabolic Diversity, Jordan Okie, Everett Shock

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Simulating Antibiotic Resistance In The Computer Lab And Biology Lab: Ideas For Undergraduate Projects, Anne E. Yust Oct 2018

Simulating Antibiotic Resistance In The Computer Lab And Biology Lab: Ideas For Undergraduate Projects, Anne E. Yust

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Use Of Structural Equation Models To Predict Dengue Illness Phenotype, Sangshin Park, Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Siripen Kalayanarooj, Louis Macareo, Sharone Green, Jennifer F. Friedman, Alan L. Rothman Oct 2018

Use Of Structural Equation Models To Predict Dengue Illness Phenotype, Sangshin Park, Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Siripen Kalayanarooj, Louis Macareo, Sharone Green, Jennifer F. Friedman, Alan L. Rothman

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Early recognition of dengue, particularly patients at risk for plasma leakage, is important to clinical management. The objective of this study was to build predictive models for dengue, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) using structural equation modelling (SEM), a statistical method that evaluates mechanistic pathways.

METHODS/FINDINGS: We performed SEM using data from 257 Thai children enrolled within 72 h of febrile illness onset, 156 with dengue and 101 with non-dengue febrile illnesses. Models for dengue, DHF, and DSS were developed based on data obtained three and one day(s) prior to fever resolution (fever ...


Identification Of Microbiota Associated With The Ectosymbiotic Community Structure Of The Appalachian Brook Crayfish (Cambarus Bartonii), Matthew M. Cooke 6268927, Luke T. Fischer, Taylor Griffin, Sherrie Jeffers Sep 2018

Identification Of Microbiota Associated With The Ectosymbiotic Community Structure Of The Appalachian Brook Crayfish (Cambarus Bartonii), Matthew M. Cooke 6268927, Luke T. Fischer, Taylor Griffin, Sherrie Jeffers

Montview Liberty University Journal of Undergraduate Research

Microbes play a significant role in ecosystems, effecting the vital functions of other organisms, interspecies relationships, and population sizes. Based upon previous research (Skelton et al., 2016), it has been hypothesized that crayfish symbionts (branchiobdellidans) play a significant role in regulating the amount of microbiota associated with the host. A growing body of knowledge is known regarding both the condition of gill fouling and the annelid worm’s symbiotic relationship with the crayfish (Skelton et al., 2016; Skelton et al., 2016). However, there is little to no evidence available concerning the bacteria’s role in the process (Skelton et al ...


Characterization Of The Protective Role Of Th17 Cells In An Fc Receptor-Targeted Vaccine Strategy Against Fracisella Tularensis Infection, Kyle Devenney Sep 2018

Characterization Of The Protective Role Of Th17 Cells In An Fc Receptor-Targeted Vaccine Strategy Against Fracisella Tularensis Infection, Kyle Devenney

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Using a murine model, we have previously showed that targeting an inactivated form of F.tularensis (iFt) bacteria to Fcg receptors by utilizing an IgG2a, anti-LPS monoclonal antibody (mAb) provides 100% protection against a lethal dose with the live vaccine strain (LVS). The binding of anti-LPS monoclonal antibodies and iFt create an immune complex (mAb-iFt) allowing the Fc-region of the antibody to target Fc receptors expressed on antigen presenting cells, leading to a more robust and effective processing and presentation of the bacterial antigens. Although the resulting protective response generated relies on both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, in our study ...


Identification And Characterization Of Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria Associated With Kudzu Root Nodules, Chasity Lawless, Michelle Zedonek, Debbie Curtis, Jonda Scharringhausen, Jared Bryant, Wendy A. Dustman, Alexandra M. Kurtz, Bekah Ward Dr. Sep 2018

Identification And Characterization Of Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria Associated With Kudzu Root Nodules, Chasity Lawless, Michelle Zedonek, Debbie Curtis, Jonda Scharringhausen, Jared Bryant, Wendy A. Dustman, Alexandra M. Kurtz, Bekah Ward Dr.

Georgia Journal of Science

Pueraria montana, better known as kudzu, is an invasive species rapidly spreading throughout the southeastern United States. This plant can form root nodules which house nitrogen-fixing bacteria, allowing atmospheric nitrogen to be converted into biologically available forms of nitrogen for use by the plant host. Given the centrality of these bacteria to the spread of kudzu, isolates from nodules were characterized after collection from seven different locations across the metropolitan Atlanta area. Twenty-five isolates were grown on two different variants of nitrogen free media. Four different carbon sources were evaluated as well. Finally, growth under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions ...


Microbiological And Clinical Profile Of Infective Endocarditis Patients: An Observational Study Experience From Tertiary Care Center Karachi Pakistan, Uzma Shahid, Hasanat Sharif, Joveria Farooqi, Bushra Jamil, E. Khan Sep 2018

Microbiological And Clinical Profile Of Infective Endocarditis Patients: An Observational Study Experience From Tertiary Care Center Karachi Pakistan, Uzma Shahid, Hasanat Sharif, Joveria Farooqi, Bushra Jamil, E. Khan

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Background:
The study analyzed microbiological and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of organisms isolated from patients with infective endocarditis (2015–17) and compared disease outcomes in cohorts of endocarditis patient with history of prior invasive vascular intervention (high risk group) vs those without (native valve group). We hypothesized that high risk group would be more likely to have severe disease outcomes.
Methods:
This was a prospective cohort study (2015–17). All blood and cardiac tissue samples of enrolled patients suspected of endocarditis according to modified Duke’s criteria were followed for microbiological and antimicrobial susceptibility profile. The high risk group was compared ...


Select Gp120 V2 Domain Specific Antibodies Derived From Hiv And Siv Infection And Vaccination Inhibit Gp120 Binding To Alpha4beta7, Sakaorat Lertjuthaporn, Shan Lu, Yang Lou, Shixia Wang, James Arthos Aug 2018

Select Gp120 V2 Domain Specific Antibodies Derived From Hiv And Siv Infection And Vaccination Inhibit Gp120 Binding To Alpha4beta7, Sakaorat Lertjuthaporn, Shan Lu, Yang Lou, Shixia Wang, James Arthos

Open Access Articles

The GI tract is preferentially targeted during acute/early HIV-1 infection. Consequent damage to the gut plays a central role in HIV pathogenesis. The basis for preferential targeting of gut tissues is not well defined. Recombinant proteins and synthetic peptides derived from HIV and SIV gp120 bind directly to integrin alpha4beta7, a gut-homing receptor. Using both cell-surface expressed alpha4beta7 and a soluble alpha4beta7 heterodimer we demonstrate that its specific affinity for gp120 is similar to its affinity for MAdCAM (its natural ligand). The gp120 V2 domain preferentially engages extended forms of alpha4beta7 in a cation -sensitive manner and is inhibited ...


Host And Viral Molecular Patterns Relevant To Pathogenicity And Immunity, Alexander Christian Stabell Aug 2018

Host And Viral Molecular Patterns Relevant To Pathogenicity And Immunity, Alexander Christian Stabell

Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Patterns in nature, many going unnoticed, are a defining characteristic of life. In this thesis, I will describe four studies that I have completed during my doctoral work. These will highlight how both host immune system and viral pathogens harness non-random biological patterns to aid in immunity or increase pathogenicity, respectively. Chapter 2 will describe the evolutionary history of a component of the primate innate immune system, Schlafen11, and its involvement in the defense against viruses. I attempt to show that Schlafen11 takes advantage of the pattern of non-optimal codon usage of HIV-1 transcripts in order to inhibit viral replication ...


Transcriptional Regulation Of Icaadbc By Icar And Tcar In Staphylococcus Epidermidis, Tramy Hoang Aug 2018

Transcriptional Regulation Of Icaadbc By Icar And Tcar In Staphylococcus Epidermidis, Tramy Hoang

Theses & Dissertations

Biofilm formation is the primary virulence factor in Staphylococcus epidermidis. Polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) is an adhesive molecule and a significant component of the biofilm matrix. It is synthesized by the products of the icaADBC operon whose regulation has been shown to involve environmental factors as well as many transcriptional regulators. Of these regulators, we explored the function of the repressors IcaR and TcaR and their roles in directly influencing icaADBC transcription and PIA synthesis. Based on previous observations that icaADBC positive clinical isolates of S. epidermidis are highly variable in PIA synthesis and biofilm formation, our goal was to ...


Identification Of Bhlhe40 And Irg1 As Essential Regulators Of The Inflammatory Response To Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, Jeremy Peter Huynh Aug 2018

Identification Of Bhlhe40 And Irg1 As Essential Regulators Of The Inflammatory Response To Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, Jeremy Peter Huynh

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Protective immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) must induce bactericidal functions while minimizing damage to the lung. Such responses require precise control of pro- and anti-inflammatory factors to regulate the recruitment and function of protective immune cells but the mechanisms by which this control is exerted remain incompletely defined. Basic helix-loop-helix family, member e40 (Bhlhe40) is a transcription factor known to regulate production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines that affect protective immunity to Mtb. Immune-responsive Gene 1 (Irg1) is an enzyme that generates itaconate, a metabolite with potential anti-inflammatory and antibacterial roles during Mtb infection. The impact of Bhlhe40 and ...


Lack Of Evidence For Erm(B) Infiltration Into Erythromycin-Resistant Campylobacter Coli And Campylobacter Jejuni From Commercial Turkey Production In Eastern North Carolina: A Major Turkey-Growing Region In The United States, Hannah K. Bolinger, Qijing Zhang, William G. Miller, Sophia Kathariou Aug 2018

Lack Of Evidence For Erm(B) Infiltration Into Erythromycin-Resistant Campylobacter Coli And Campylobacter Jejuni From Commercial Turkey Production In Eastern North Carolina: A Major Turkey-Growing Region In The United States, Hannah K. Bolinger, Qijing Zhang, William G. Miller, Sophia Kathariou

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

In Campylobacter spp., resistance to erythromycin and other macrolides has typically implicated ribosomal mutations, especially substitutions in the 23S rRNA genes. However, in 2014, the macrolide resistance gene erm(B) was reported for the first time in Campylobacter and shown to be harbored by a multidrug resistance island in the chromosome of the swine-derived strain Campylobacter coli ZC113. erm(B)-positive C. coli and Campylobacter jejuni strains from the food supply have been mostly reported from China. However, erm(B)-positive C. coli isolates were also detected recently in fecal samples from turkeys in Spain. To determine whether erm(B ...


Next Generation Sequencing Methods For Coastal Zone Water Quality Monitoring, Catherine Iskrenko Aug 2018

Next Generation Sequencing Methods For Coastal Zone Water Quality Monitoring, Catherine Iskrenko

HCNSO Student Capstones

When analyzing the water quality of the coastal zone, culture-based techniques have been utilized most often to identify Fecal Indicator Bacteria in samples. Since the advent of the Sanger Method for DNA sequencing, other techniques have arisen that provide significantly more information on the microorganisms in sample, but they are still not the mainstream for water quality analysis. This capstone reviews and compares culture-based techniques, DNA sequencing, RNA sequencing, qPCR for biomarker, and 16S rDNA sequencing to highlight their merits and shortcomings for analyzing environmental water samples. The technique presented that provides the broadest range of information (including the identification ...


Congenital Zika Virus Infection In Immunocompetent Mice Causes Postnatal Growth Impediment And Neurobehavioral Deficits, Fengwei Bai, Amber Paul, Dhiraj Acharya, Biswas Neupane, E.A. Thompson, Gabriel Gonzalez-Fernandez, Katherine Copeland, Melanae Garrett, Haibei Liu, Mariper Lopez, Matthew De Cruz, Alex S. Flynt, Jun Liao, Yan-Lin Guo, Federico Gonzalez-Fernandez, Parminder Vig Aug 2018

Congenital Zika Virus Infection In Immunocompetent Mice Causes Postnatal Growth Impediment And Neurobehavioral Deficits, Fengwei Bai, Amber Paul, Dhiraj Acharya, Biswas Neupane, E.A. Thompson, Gabriel Gonzalez-Fernandez, Katherine Copeland, Melanae Garrett, Haibei Liu, Mariper Lopez, Matthew De Cruz, Alex S. Flynt, Jun Liao, Yan-Lin Guo, Federico Gonzalez-Fernandez, Parminder Vig

Faculty Publications

A small percentage of babies born to Zika virus (ZIKV)-infected mothers manifest severe defects at birth, including microcephaly. Among those who appeared healthy at birth, there are increasing reports of postnatal growth or developmental defects. However, the impact of congenital ZIKV infection in postnatal development is poorly understood. Here, we report that a mild congenital ZIKV-infection in pups born to immunocompetent pregnant mice did not display apparent defects at birth, but manifested postnatal growth impediments and neurobehavioral deficits, which include reduced locomotor and cognitive deficits that persisted into adulthood. We found that the brains of these pups were smaller ...