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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Cyanobacterial And Algal Abundance And Biomass In Cave Biofilms And Relation To Environmental And Biofilm Parameters, Slađana Popović, Nataša Nikolić, Jelena Jovanović, Dragana Predojević, Ivana Trbojević, Ljiljana Manić, Gordana Subakov Simić Feb 2019

Cyanobacterial And Algal Abundance And Biomass In Cave Biofilms And Relation To Environmental And Biofilm Parameters, Slađana Popović, Nataša Nikolić, Jelena Jovanović, Dragana Predojević, Ivana Trbojević, Ljiljana Manić, Gordana Subakov Simić

International Journal of Speleology

Due to life in extreme environments, cyanobacteria and algae from cave biofilms that form at the entrances or deep inside the cave around artificial lights are of increasing interest to many scientists. It is well-known that many phototrophic microorganisms are first to colonize exposed substrata and produce the organic matter on which other biofilm constituents relly. Many studies dealing with phototrophic microorganisms from biofilms focus on the diversity and community composition of cyanobacteria and algae, while quantitative assessments are rarely implemented. Biofilm sampling was conducted in Degurić and Vernjikica Cave located in Western and Eastern Serbia, respectively. Ecological parameters (temperature ...


Comparison Of Microbial Communities In The Sediments And Water Columns Of Frozen Cryoconite Holes In The Mcmurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, Pacifica Sommers, John Lawrence Darcy, Dorota L. Porazinska, Eli M.S. Gendron, Andrew G. Fountain, Felix Zamora, Kim Vincent, Kaelin M. Cawley, Adam J. Solon, Lara Vimercati, Jenna Ryder, Steven K. Schmidt Feb 2019

Comparison Of Microbial Communities In The Sediments And Water Columns Of Frozen Cryoconite Holes In The Mcmurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, Pacifica Sommers, John Lawrence Darcy, Dorota L. Porazinska, Eli M.S. Gendron, Andrew G. Fountain, Felix Zamora, Kim Vincent, Kaelin M. Cawley, Adam J. Solon, Lara Vimercati, Jenna Ryder, Steven K. Schmidt

University Libraries Open Access Fund Supported Publications

Although cryoconite holes, sediment-filled melt holes on glacier surfaces, appear small and homogenous, their microbial inhabitants may be spatially partitioned. This partitioning could be particularly important for maintaining biodiversity in holes that remain isolated for many years, such as in Antarctica. We hypothesized that cryoconite holes with greater species richness and biomass should exhibit greater partitioning between the sediments and water, promoting greater biodiversity through spatial niche partitioning. We tested this hypothesis by sampling frozen cryoconite holes along a gradient of biomass and biodiversity in the Taylor Valley, Antarctica, where ice-lidded cryoconite holes are a ubiquitous feature of glaciers. We ...


Data Evidencing Slow Anaerobic Digestion In Emergency Treatment And Disposal Of Infectious Animal Carcasses, Jacek A. Koziel, Heekwon Ahn, Thomas D. Glanville, Timothy S. Frana, J. (Hans) Van Leeuwen, Lam T. Nguyen Feb 2019

Data Evidencing Slow Anaerobic Digestion In Emergency Treatment And Disposal Of Infectious Animal Carcasses, Jacek A. Koziel, Heekwon Ahn, Thomas D. Glanville, Timothy S. Frana, J. (Hans) Van Leeuwen, Lam T. Nguyen

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Burial of infectious and potentially infectious livestock and poultry animals is the most common response to an emergency situation. The data set summarizes 22-week-long experiment that simulates the environment found within conventional burial trenches for emergency disposal of animal carcasses, worldwide, sometimes with a topical application of quicklime as it is required in the Republic of Korea. This data set shows the rarely presented evidence of the extremely slow decay of animal carcasses. Besides visual evidence of no visible breakdown of carcass material, i.e., carcass (or carcass quarters and coarse cuts) still resembled the initial material at the end ...


Principles For Enhancing Virus Capsid Capacity And Stability From A Thermophilic Virus Capsid Structure, Nicholas P. Stone, Gabriel Demo, Emily Agnello, Brian A. Kelch Jan 2019

Principles For Enhancing Virus Capsid Capacity And Stability From A Thermophilic Virus Capsid Structure, Nicholas P. Stone, Gabriel Demo, Emily Agnello, Brian A. Kelch

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The capsids of double-stranded DNA viruses protect the viral genome from the harsh extracellular environment, while maintaining stability against the high internal pressure of packaged DNA. To elucidate how capsids maintain stability in an extreme environment, we used cryoelectron microscopy to determine the capsid structure of the thermostable phage P74-26. We find the P74-26 capsid exhibits an overall architecture that is very similar to those of other tailed bacteriophages, allowing us to directly compare structures to derive the structural basis for enhanced stability. Our structure reveals lasso-like interactions that appear to function like catch bonds. This architecture allows the capsid ...


Metabolic Engineering For Biocatalyst Robustness To Organic Inhibitors, Liam Royce, Laura R. Jarboe Jan 2019

Metabolic Engineering For Biocatalyst Robustness To Organic Inhibitors, Liam Royce, Laura R. Jarboe

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Microbial production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals is often limited by inhibition of the biocatalyst, either by increasing concentrations of the product compound or by contaminant compounds in the biomass‐derived sugars. This inhibition can interfere with economically viable production. Here we discuss typical mechanisms of inhibition and methods for improving biocatalyst robustness. Inhibition often takes the form of inhibition of enzyme activity, depletion of cofactor pools, and membrane damage; methods are discussed for mitigating each of these types of inhibition. Various evolutionary schemes have been developed and implemented on a variety of inhibitory compounds, including butanol, acetic acid, furfural ...


Strain-Specific Protein Interaction And Localization Of Two Strains Of Potato Yellow Dwarf Virus And Functional Domains Of Their Matrix Protein, Chanyong Jang Jan 2019

Strain-Specific Protein Interaction And Localization Of Two Strains Of Potato Yellow Dwarf Virus And Functional Domains Of Their Matrix Protein, Chanyong Jang

Theses and Dissertations--Plant Pathology

Potato yellow dwarf virus (PYDV) is the type species of the genus nucleorhabdovirus which is typified by its nucleotropic characters of the members. The virus accomplishes its replication and morphogenesis in the nuclei of infected cells. Two strains, Constricta strain (CYDV) and Sanguinolenta strain (SYDV) have been described at the level of vector-specificity. CYDV is vectored by Agallia constricta and SYDV is transmitted by Aceratagllia sanguinolenta. The full-length genome of CYDV was sequenced. The 12,792 nt antisense genome encodes seven open reading frames in the order of, nucleocapsid protein (N), unknown protein (X), phosphoprotein (P), movement protein (Y), matrix ...


Temporal Dynamics Of Bacterial Communities In Soil And Leachate Water After Swine Manure Application, Elizabeth L. Rieke, Michelle L. Soupir, Thomas B. Moorman, Fan Yang, Adina C. Howe Dec 2018

Temporal Dynamics Of Bacterial Communities In Soil And Leachate Water After Swine Manure Application, Elizabeth L. Rieke, Michelle L. Soupir, Thomas B. Moorman, Fan Yang, Adina C. Howe

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Application of swine manure to agricultural land allows recycling of plant nutrients, but excess nitrate, phosphorus and fecal bacteria impact surface and drainage water quality. While agronomic and water quality impacts are well studied, little is known about the impact of swine manure slurry on soil microbial communities. We applied swine manure to intact soil columns collected from plots maintained under chisel plow or no-till with corn and soybean rotation. Targeted 16S-rRNA gene sequencing was used to characterize and to identify shifts in bacterial communities in soil over 108 days after swine manure application. In addition, six simulated rainfalls were ...


Orbit: A New Paradigm For Genetic Engineering Of Mycobacterial Chromosomes, Kenan C. Murphy, Samantha J. Nelson, Subhalaxmi Nambi, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Christina E. Baer, Christopher M. Sassetti Dec 2018

Orbit: A New Paradigm For Genetic Engineering Of Mycobacterial Chromosomes, Kenan C. Murphy, Samantha J. Nelson, Subhalaxmi Nambi, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Christina E. Baer, Christopher M. Sassetti

Open Access Articles

Two efficient recombination systems were combined to produce a versatile method for chromosomal engineering that obviates the need to prepare double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) recombination substrates. A synthetic "targeting oligonucleotide" is incorporated into the chromosome via homologous recombination mediated by the phage Che9c RecT annealase. This oligonucleotide contains a site-specific recombination site for the directional Bxb1 integrase (Int), which allows the simultaneous integration of a "payload plasmid" that contains a cognate recombination site and a selectable marker. The targeting oligonucleotide and payload plasmid are cotransformed into a RecT- and Int-expressing strain, and drug-resistant homologous recombinants are selected in a single step ...


The Effects Of Inulin And Galactooligosaccharides On The Production Of Reuterin By Lactobacillus Reuteri, Micah Dwight Forshee Dec 2018

The Effects Of Inulin And Galactooligosaccharides On The Production Of Reuterin By Lactobacillus Reuteri, Micah Dwight Forshee

ELAIA

The microbiome is a dynamic community that can positively and negatively influence host health. Lactobacillus reuteri is a probiotic that has received much attention for its ability to inhibit pathogens such as Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium difficile. It does so by its unique ability to metabolize glycerol into the antimicrobial compound 3-HPA, which is commonly referred to as reuterin. The ability to secrete reuterin is dependent not only on glycerol availability but also the concentration of glucose. In fact, there appears to be a “goldilocks” ratio between glucose and glycerol as either too much or too little glucose ...


Antibiotic Resistance Coming Soon To A Pathogen Near You, Mckenzie Altman, Tamia Mills, Lindsey Layman, Catherine Stone Dec 2018

Antibiotic Resistance Coming Soon To A Pathogen Near You, Mckenzie Altman, Tamia Mills, Lindsey Layman, Catherine Stone

Undergraduate Research Symposium (URS)

The phenomena of antibiotic resistant bacteria has increased worldwide and can frequently be found on everyday surfaces. Here, we characterize a bacterial isolate from a woman’s restroom door handle at Marian. Preliminary results comprised of morphological and biochemical tests, including growth characteristics on blood agar medium, as well as usage of the Kirby Bauer agar diffusion test to determine antibiotic susceptibility, identifies this isolate to be a multidrug resistant Neisseria species. However, additional detailed analysis is needed to confirm its identity.


Investigating The Impact Of Oxidative Stress On Tetrahymena Thermophila Sirtuin,Thd 18, Emmanuel Dubuisson Dec 2018

Investigating The Impact Of Oxidative Stress On Tetrahymena Thermophila Sirtuin,Thd 18, Emmanuel Dubuisson

Publications and Research

Sirtuins are a family of enzymes that fulfill various important biological functions. Investigators have looked for the implication of Sirtuin genes in cell signaling mechanisms, in the formation and silencing of heterochromatin, in the regulation of ion channels, and in the modulation of the cellular redox reactions[2]. Different model organisms have been previously used to conduct these studies; among them, there are yeasts, nematodes, and fruit flies. Each one has made some valuable contribution into the vast body of knowledge related to this field.

However, gaps in the understanding of Sirtuins functions still remain to be filled. In this ...


Potent Cas9 Inhibition In Bacterial And Human Cells By Acriic4 And Acriic5 Anti-Crispr Proteins, Jooyoung Lee, Aamir Mir, Alireza Edraki, Bianca Garcia, Nadia Amrani, Hannah E. Lou, Ildar Gainetdinov, April Pawluk, Raed Ibraheim, Xin D. Gao, Pengpeng Liu, Alan R. Davidson, Karen L. Maxwell, Erik J. Sontheimer Dec 2018

Potent Cas9 Inhibition In Bacterial And Human Cells By Acriic4 And Acriic5 Anti-Crispr Proteins, Jooyoung Lee, Aamir Mir, Alireza Edraki, Bianca Garcia, Nadia Amrani, Hannah E. Lou, Ildar Gainetdinov, April Pawluk, Raed Ibraheim, Xin D. Gao, Pengpeng Liu, Alan R. Davidson, Karen L. Maxwell, Erik J. Sontheimer

Open Access Articles

In their natural settings, CRISPR-Cas systems play crucial roles in bacterial and archaeal adaptive immunity to protect against phages and other mobile genetic elements, and they are also widely used as genome engineering technologies. Previously we discovered bacteriophage-encoded Cas9-specific anti-CRISPR (Acr) proteins that serve as countermeasures against host bacterial immunity by inactivating their CRISPR-Cas systems (A. Pawluk, N. Amrani, Y. Zhang, B. Garcia, et al., Cell 167:1829-1838.e9, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2016.11.017). We hypothesized that the evolutionary advantages conferred by anti-CRISPRs would drive the widespread occurrence of these proteins in nature (K ...


Virulence Regulation In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Via The Alginate Regulators, Algu And Algr, The Posttranscriptional Regulator, Rsma, And The Two-Component System, Algz/R, Sean Stacey Dec 2018

Virulence Regulation In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Via The Alginate Regulators, Algu And Algr, The Posttranscriptional Regulator, Rsma, And The Two-Component System, Algz/R, Sean Stacey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacillus able to colonize a wide variety of environments. In the human host, P. aeruginosa can establish an acute infection or persist and create a chronic infection. P. aeruginosa is able to establish a niche and persist in human hosts by using a wide array of virulence factors used for: movement, killing host cells, and evading immune cells and antibiotics. Understanding virulence factors and their regulation has proved to be an important means of combating the morbidity and mortality of P. aeruginosa as well as the ever-increasing threat of drug resistance. By targeting virulence factors ...


The Antimicrobial Properties Of Honey And Their Effect On Pathogenic Bacteria, Shreena Himanshu Mody Dec 2018

The Antimicrobial Properties Of Honey And Their Effect On Pathogenic Bacteria, Shreena Himanshu Mody

All Theses and Dissertations

Honey has been used to heal wounds since ancient times. There are many references in ancient literature that cite honey for its medicinal uses. It is used as an alternative agent to cure infections of wounds, burns, ulcers etc. Researchers have shown some of the antimicrobial properties of honey when used as an ointment. When applied to an affected area, it helps to promote the growth of healthy tissue. One of the factors on which the quality of the honey depends, is its geographical origin. Based on the location, honey types can vary as much as 100-fold from each other ...


Aqueous Ozone Inactivation Of Viruses And Bacteria On Biotic And Abiotic Surfaces, Cailin Dawley Dec 2018

Aqueous Ozone Inactivation Of Viruses And Bacteria On Biotic And Abiotic Surfaces, Cailin Dawley

Theses and Dissertations

Produce is susceptible to contamination by foodborne pathogens. Food service establishments utilize sanitizing agents to reduce microbes on produce surfaces. The research objectives were to evaluate the efficacy of aqueous ozone 1) on the inactivation of viruses and bacteria on produce; 2) on the inactivation of viruses on stainless steel; and 3) against viruses in association with bacteria on produce surfaces. For objective 1, Boston bibb lettuce and cherry tomatoes were spot inoculated with a cocktail of viruses (murine norovirus (MNV) and MS2 bacteriophage) or bacteria (Enterobacter cloacae and Bacillus cereus) and washed for 40 min with samples taken every ...


Assessment Of Salmonella Enterica Biofilms And Expression Differences Among Serovars, Zhaohao Shi Dec 2018

Assessment Of Salmonella Enterica Biofilms And Expression Differences Among Serovars, Zhaohao Shi

Theses and Dissertations

Biofilms are communities of microorganisms associated by a matrix of extracellular polymers. In this state, microorganisms occupy an ecological niche distinct from their free-floating, planktonic counterparts. Also, biofilm bacteria become biologically unique as they form communities and lose motility. The acquisition of these physiological attributes enables the biofilm to persist through harsh environmental conditions, including antimicrobial induced stress and to resist sanitization efforts. Because of these features, biofilms can rapidly disseminate across numerous surfaces and as they establish, become challenging to remove. This is a particular issue for the food industry as processing plants offer favorable conditions for biofilm formation ...


Galleria Mellonella As An Alternate Infection Model For Burkholderia Species And A Comparison Of Suspension And Surface Test Methods For Evaluating Sporicidal Efficacy, Joseph D. Thiriot Dec 2018

Galleria Mellonella As An Alternate Infection Model For Burkholderia Species And A Comparison Of Suspension And Surface Test Methods For Evaluating Sporicidal Efficacy, Joseph D. Thiriot

All Theses and Dissertations

Melioidosis is a neglected tropical disease that continues unabated in many countries, particularly in Southeast Asia. There is no vaccine and antimicrobial treatment is expensive and complicated. Virulence models are important tools used to investigate genes involved in pathogenesis. Galleria mellonella is the larvae of the wax worm moth that has been used to model various infections. Based on previous studies, we attempted to establish an infection model using Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia thailandensis, a related species which is avirulent in humans. Injections of various forms of these species (fresh and frozen) were used to develop Kaplan-Meier plots. We also ...


Methanogens, Plausible Extraterrestrial Life Forms On Mars, And Their Tolerance To Increasing Concentrations Of Illite Clay, Chandler Kern Dec 2018

Methanogens, Plausible Extraterrestrial Life Forms On Mars, And Their Tolerance To Increasing Concentrations Of Illite Clay, Chandler Kern

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Methanogens, some of Earth’s most primitive prokaryotic organisms, are candidates for possible life forms capable of inhabiting Mars. Specifically, four different species (Methanobacterium formicicum, Methanococcus maripaludis, Methanosarcina barkeri, Methanothermobacter wolfeii) were analyzed for their tolerance to the presence of illite clay. Illite is a crystalline mineral that has been identified from regions of Mars’s surface. Results indicated that all four species grew with some success in the illite at different concentrations. This experimentation with methanogens’ abilities to survive and reproduce in the presence of illite allows for a more accurate understanding of the potential capability of microbial growth ...


The Gut Microbiota Of Cornu Aspersum, Parker Neal Smith, Sarah M. Boomer, Michael Baltzley Nov 2018

The Gut Microbiota Of Cornu Aspersum, Parker Neal Smith, Sarah M. Boomer, Michael Baltzley

PURE Insights

The “Brown Garden Snail,” Cornu aspersum is a widely distributed land snail, whose consumption of soil to acquire calcium results in soil microbes colonizing their gut. While previous work has utilized culture-based approaches to analyze the gut microbiota of C. aspersum, no previous studies have used high throughput DNA sequencing, or examined the changes in the gut microbiota over time in response to antibiotics exposure. In this study, we use 16S amplicon sequencing and fecal plating to characterize the gut microbiota of C. aspersum, and to monitor changes in their microbiota over time after a short penicillin treatment. We found ...


Bacterial Abundance And Resistance In Ground Beef Varieties, Savannah Kumar, Sarah M. Boomer Nov 2018

Bacterial Abundance And Resistance In Ground Beef Varieties, Savannah Kumar, Sarah M. Boomer

PURE Insights

Raw ground beef purchased at supermarkets across America have one thing in common: they harbor bacteria, some of which are drug resistant and can be detrimental to public health. To understand the impact of farming and processing practices on the quantity of bacteria and drug resistance, organic and regular beef were assessed using MacConkey media. Bacterial colonies were sorted according to lactose utilization, with positive colonies representing fecal E. coli. Lactose negative colonies were further characterized into one of two groups (fecal Hafnia-like or soil Pseudomonas) using a variety of metabolic tests (oxidase, sulfur, indole). Advanced metabolic testing showed that ...


Cryptococcus Neoformans Cda1 And Its Chitin Deacetylase Activity Are Required For Fungal Pathogenesis, Rajendra Upadhya, Lorina G. Baker, Woei C. Lam, Charles A. Specht, Maureen J. Donlin, Jennifer K. Lodge Nov 2018

Cryptococcus Neoformans Cda1 And Its Chitin Deacetylase Activity Are Required For Fungal Pathogenesis, Rajendra Upadhya, Lorina G. Baker, Woei C. Lam, Charles A. Specht, Maureen J. Donlin, Jennifer K. Lodge

Open Access Articles

Chitin is an essential component of the cell wall of Cryptococcus neoformans conferring structural rigidity and integrity under diverse environmental conditions. Chitin deacetylase genes encode the enyzmes (chitin deacetylases [Cdas]) that deacetylate chitin, converting it to chitosan. The functional role of chitosan in the fungal cell wall is not well defined, but it is an important virulence determinant of C. neoformans Mutant strains deficient in chitosan are completely avirulent in a mouse pulmonary infection model. C. neoformans carries genes that encode three Cdas (Cda1, Cda2, and Cda3) that appear to be functionally redundant in cells grown under vegetative conditions. Here ...


Novel Inactivation Of The Causative Fungus Of White Nose Syndrome With Methoxsalen And Ultraviolet A Light, Colin J. Hartman, Joseph Mester Phd, Alan Cohen Md Nov 2018

Novel Inactivation Of The Causative Fungus Of White Nose Syndrome With Methoxsalen And Ultraviolet A Light, Colin J. Hartman, Joseph Mester Phd, Alan Cohen Md

Posters-at-the-Capitol

White Nose Syndrome (WNS) is a newly recognized disease responsible for the rapid mass destruction of the North American bat populations. This study addressed the novel inactivation of fungal spores from Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of WNS, using ultraviolet A (UVA) light at 365nm and methoxsalen, a photosensitizer from a family of compounds known as furanocoumarins. Penicillium crustosum, an environmental fungus, was studied as a comparator.

Spore suspensions were soaked in specific concentrations of methoxsalen and subsequently exposed to UVA light. The plates were examined for both spore inactivation and resultant inhibition of colony growth. The results demonstrated that ...


Characterization Of The Caspase-3 Cleavage Motif Of The Salmonella Typhimurium Effector Protein Sifa And Its Role In Pathogenesis, Samir Patel Nov 2018

Characterization Of The Caspase-3 Cleavage Motif Of The Salmonella Typhimurium Effector Protein Sifa And Its Role In Pathogenesis, Samir Patel

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a Gram-negative facultative anaerobe that induces severe inflammation resulting in gastroenteritis. In the case of S. Typhimurium infection, induction of an inflammatory response has been linked to its primary virulence mechanism, the type III secretion system (T3SS). The T3SS secretes protein effectors that exploit the host’s cell biology to facilitate bacterial entry and intracellular survival, and to modulate the host immune response.

One such effector, SifA, is a bi-functional T3SS effector protein that plays an important role in Salmonella virulence. The N-terminal domain of SifA binds SifA-Kinesin-Interacting-Protein (SKIP), and via an interaction ...


Deciphering The Molecular Basis Of Mycobacteria And Lipoglycan Recognition By The C-Type Lectin Dectin-2, Alexiane Decout, Devinder Kaur, Jerome Nigou Nov 2018

Deciphering The Molecular Basis Of Mycobacteria And Lipoglycan Recognition By The C-Type Lectin Dectin-2, Alexiane Decout, Devinder Kaur, Jerome Nigou

Open Access Articles

Dectin-2 is a C-type lectin involved in the recognition of several pathogens such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Schistosoma mansonii, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis that triggers Th17 immune responses. Identifying pathogen ligands and understanding the molecular basis of their recognition is one of the current challenges. Purified M. tuberculosis mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM) was shown to induce signaling via Dectin-2, an activity that requires the (alpha1 --> 2)-linked mannosides forming the caps. Here, using isogenic M. tuberculosis mutant strains, we demonstrate that ManLAM is a bona fide and actually the sole ligand mediating bacilli recognition by Dectin-2, although M. tuberculosis produces a ...


Microbial Diversity In Urban Environments: Concern For Antibiotic Resistance, Ality Aghedo, Mangala Tawde, Nazrul I. Khandaker Nov 2018

Microbial Diversity In Urban Environments: Concern For Antibiotic Resistance, Ality Aghedo, Mangala Tawde, Nazrul I. Khandaker

Publications and Research

We are almost oblivious to the presence of microorganisms in our daily lives, but they exist and come into contact with us all the time. While some bacteria are harmless, and even beneficial, other bacteria can cause infections. A common treatment to bacterial infections is antibiotics and the success of an antibiotic depends on the resistance of the bacteria to the antibiotic. We conducted experiments to identify the types of bacteria that can be found on surfaces or within soil environments that come into contact with a vast number of people on a daily basis and how this can affect ...


21 - Antibiotic-Producing Bacteria Associated With Sharks Of St. Helena And Port Royal Sound, Daniel Conrad Nov 2018

21 - Antibiotic-Producing Bacteria Associated With Sharks Of St. Helena And Port Royal Sound, Daniel Conrad

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Antibiotic-Producing Bacteria Associated with Sharks of St. Helena and Port Royal Sound

Daniel Conrad1, Diego L. GilAgudelo1,2, Kim B. Ritchie1

1. University of South Carolina at Beaufort, Beaufort South Carolina

2. Texas A&M University at Galveston, Galveston Texas

Elasmobranchs possess the ability to heal quickly from wounds yet, limited research has been done to explore the roll of beneficial bacterial associations in this healing process (Ritchie et al., 2017). Our objectives were to identify antibiotic producing bacteria associated with sharks as a measure of potential beneficial roles. Three Tiger Sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier), two Bull ...


16 - Assessment Of Efficacy And Effectiveness Of Antiseptic Mouthwash Products Against Oral Microbiota, Angel Shue, Elizabeth G. Miranda-Ayala, Davison T. Sangweme Nov 2018

16 - Assessment Of Efficacy And Effectiveness Of Antiseptic Mouthwash Products Against Oral Microbiota, Angel Shue, Elizabeth G. Miranda-Ayala, Davison T. Sangweme

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Mouthwashes help prevent dental caries, gum disease (such as gingivitis), slow down the buildup of plaque (biofilms formed by buccal microbiota) and help fight bad breath (halitosis). These antibacterial products kill bacteria, or hinder their reproduction. Some antiseptic products inhibit growth and reproduction of many microorganisms, including bacteria, as well as fungi, protozoa, and viruses. Mouthwashes that kill or reduce bacterial load in the buccal cavity can reduce the production of sulfur compounds that can cause bad breath. Common ingredients in mouthwashes include cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), zinc chloride, alcohol and chlorhexidine which can neutralize sulfur compounds as well as kill ...


Alternative Genes For Exploring Ranavirus Phylogenetics: Four Core Genes Compared To The Major Capsid Protein And The Whole Genome., Abigale Garner Nov 2018

Alternative Genes For Exploring Ranavirus Phylogenetics: Four Core Genes Compared To The Major Capsid Protein And The Whole Genome., Abigale Garner

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

The Iridoviridae is a family of virus that infects invertebrates and poikilothermic vertebrates such as amphibians, reptiles, and fish. Ranavirus is one of the five genera within the Iridoviridae. Ranavirus infections have been seen on every continent. The ranaviruses have 26 core genes, but our study focuses on the utility of: an immediate early protein ICP-46 [open reading frame (ORF) 91R in Frog virus 3 (FV3)]; a transcription elongation factor TIIS (ORF 81R in FV3); Evrl/Air family protein (ORF 88R in FV3); and a hypothetical/putative protein of unknown function (ORF 94R in FV3) as alternative genes for phylogenetic ...


Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia Coli From Retail Poultry Meat With Different Antibiotic Use Claims, Gregg S. Davis, Kara Waits, Lora Nordstrom, Heidi Grande, Brett Weaver, Katerina Papp, Joseph Horwinski, Benjamin Koch, Bruce A. Hungate, Cindy M. Liu, Lance B. Price Nov 2018

Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia Coli From Retail Poultry Meat With Different Antibiotic Use Claims, Gregg S. Davis, Kara Waits, Lora Nordstrom, Heidi Grande, Brett Weaver, Katerina Papp, Joseph Horwinski, Benjamin Koch, Bruce A. Hungate, Cindy M. Liu, Lance B. Price

Civil & Environmental Engineering and Construction Faculty Publications

Background We sought to determine if the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli differed across retail poultry products and among major production categories, including organic, “raised without antibiotics”, and conventional. Results We collected all available brands of retail chicken and turkey—including conventional, “raised without antibiotic”, and organic products—every two weeks from January to December 2012. In total, E. coli was recovered from 91% of 546 turkey products tested and 88% of 1367 chicken products tested. The proportion of samples contaminated with E. coli was similar across all three production categories. Resistance prevalence varied by meat type and was highest ...


Characterization Of Tick Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides (Oatps) Upon Bacterial And Viral Infections, Vikas Taank, Wenshou Zhou, Xuran Zhuang, John F. Anderson, Utpal Pal, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta Nov 2018

Characterization Of Tick Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides (Oatps) Upon Bacterial And Viral Infections, Vikas Taank, Wenshou Zhou, Xuran Zhuang, John F. Anderson, Utpal Pal, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: Ixodes scapularis organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) play important roles in tickrickettsial pathogen interactions. In this report, we characterized the role of these conserved molecules in ticks infected with either Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi or tick-borne Langat virus (LGTV), a pathogen closely related to tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV).

Results: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed no significant changes in oatps gene expression upon infection with B. burgdorferi in unfed ticks. Synchronous infection of unfed nymphal ticks with LGTV in vitro revealed no significant changes in oatps gene expression. However, expression of specific oatps was significantly downregulated upon ...