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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Analysis And Exploration Of Novel Antibiotic-Producing Streptomyces Spp. In Spokane County, Washington, Kyle S. Kramer, Jenifer B. Walke Ph.D May 2020

Analysis And Exploration Of Novel Antibiotic-Producing Streptomyces Spp. In Spokane County, Washington, Kyle S. Kramer, Jenifer B. Walke Ph.D

2020 Symposium Posters

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a US citizen is infected by an antibiotic-resistant pathogen every 11 seconds, and every 15 minutes, a patient dies as a result of these infections. Due to the increasing incidence of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic microbes, the study and exploration of novel antibiotics from novel environments are imperative as infectious diseases are the second leading cause of death in the United States. The purpose of this research is to investigate and analyze antibiotic-producing soil microbes in Spokane County, WA, with hopes of discovering novel antibiotic-producing microbes, specifically Streptomyces species, and explore some of ...


Coping With Stress: The Caulobacter Approach, Bronson R. Weston, Yang Cao, John J. Tyson May 2020

Coping With Stress: The Caulobacter Approach, Bronson R. Weston, Yang Cao, John J. Tyson

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Mathematical Modeling Of Gliding Motility And Its Regulation In Myxococcus Xanthus, Yirui Chen May 2020

Mathematical Modeling Of Gliding Motility And Its Regulation In Myxococcus Xanthus, Yirui Chen

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Pandemic Forum Syllabus, Lynda Coon May 2020

Pandemic Forum Syllabus, Lynda Coon

Pandemic Course

This forum tackles the recent global outbreak of the COVID-19 Coronavirus. University of Arkansas faculty, doctors from Washington Regional Medical Center and Arkansas state leaders confront the virus from a variety of angles —medical sciences, supply chain, public health, social media, mathematics, economics, history, religion, art, and environmental studies. In so doing, the forum’s instructors situate COVID-19 within a broader narrative of the history of pandemics as well as the multivalent factors contributing to virulent flu eruptions across an international stage.


Identifying Determinants Of Target Specificity In Two Related Bacterial Peptide Toxins, Andrew D. Holmes May 2020

Identifying Determinants Of Target Specificity In Two Related Bacterial Peptide Toxins, Andrew D. Holmes

Honors Thesis

Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems were originally identified as two-component systems ensuring the stable inheritance of plasmids in bacterial populations. Recently, they have been identified on bacterial chromosomes where their functions remain mostly undefined. The par locus of E. faecalis plasmid pAD1 (parpAD1) was the first TA system defined in a Gram-positive bacterium and a homolog encoded on the E. faecalis chromosome (parEF0409) was later described. Related loci numbering in the hundreds have been identified throughout Gram-positive bacteria based on homology to the toxin of the system, Fst, and similarities in genetic organization and regulation. Despite their similar sequences, over-expression ...


Influences Of Anti-Bd Bacteria On Amphibians And Their Microbiomes, Emme L. Schmidt May 2020

Influences Of Anti-Bd Bacteria On Amphibians And Their Microbiomes, Emme L. Schmidt

Honors Thesis

The fungal pathogen Batrochochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been threatening amphibian populations across the globe. Recent work has discovered that bacteria isolated from certain populations of amphibians protect hosts from this pathogen. This project focuses on the anti-fungal mechanisms of Serratia marcescens, a species of bacteria isolated from a Costa Rican frog that dramatically inhibited Bd in culture. Wild-type and recombinant S. marcescens was introduced to the microbiomes of a live amphibian host, Acris blanchardi (Blanchard’s Cricket Frog) and then challenged with Bd to examine the protective effects of this bacteria. The experiment includes recombinant S. marcescens with the genetic ...


Characterization Of A Plasmid-Based Dna Vaccine For Simian Immunodeficiency Virus, Priya Sanipara May 2020

Characterization Of A Plasmid-Based Dna Vaccine For Simian Immunodeficiency Virus, Priya Sanipara

Honors Theses

Described as one of the world’s worst pandemics, HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infects millions of people each year and is the cause for AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). Despite the development of vaccines for numerous infectious diseases such as polio, small pox, and influenza, a vaccine for HIV remains elusive due to the virus’s high mutation rate and ability to evade the immune system. HIV causes depletion of CD4+ lymphocytes, resulting in a weakened immune system. However, the development of a plasmid-based DNA vaccine approach may help revolutionize vaccine development for HIV due to its ability to confer cellular ...


The Trichoplusia Ni Gut Microbiome And Its Derivation From The Phyllosphere Of Its Food Plants, Josemaria Garcia, Marisol Escanuela, Swapna Bhat, Evan Lampert May 2020

The Trichoplusia Ni Gut Microbiome And Its Derivation From The Phyllosphere Of Its Food Plants, Josemaria Garcia, Marisol Escanuela, Swapna Bhat, Evan Lampert

Georgia Journal of Science

Insects are the most abundant and diverse animals on planet Earth and rely on their diverse microbiomes to be so. The insect gut microbiome is vital in the growth and development of many insect species. Trichoplusia ni, the cabbage looper, is a generalist herbivore, but little is known about its microbiome. In this study, a metagenomic analysis of fecal samples was used to determine the effect of diet on the microbiome of T. ni larvae. Larvae were reared on six plant species, the microbiome was sampled from fecal material, and the phyllosphere was sampled from leaves the larvae ate. Bacteria ...


Site Selection Of Pyrococcus Horikoshi Rada Intein, Madison Paige White May 2020

Site Selection Of Pyrococcus Horikoshi Rada Intein, Madison Paige White

Honors College Theses

Inteins are polypeptides translated within host proteins that undergo an autocatalytic protein splicing reaction to join the flanking sequences, termed N- and C- extiens. Long considered molecular parasites, recent work has demonstrated that protein splicing can be regulated by environmental signals, representing an exciting new form of post-translational regulation. A landmark example comes from the homologous recombinase RadA of the archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii, which splices in response to substrate single-stranded DNA. Interestingly, while the P. horikoshii RadA intein splices efficiently when inserted into foreign exteins under all conditions tested, splicing is inhibited in native exteins in absence of ssDNA. In ...


Investigation Of Rapid Diagnostic Tests For Characterization Of Mycobacterium Avium Complex (Mac) From Various Isolates And Identification Of Virulence Factors Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv) In Vitro, Claudia Antonika May 2020

Investigation Of Rapid Diagnostic Tests For Characterization Of Mycobacterium Avium Complex (Mac) From Various Isolates And Identification Of Virulence Factors Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv) In Vitro, Claudia Antonika

UCARE Research Products

Chapter 1

Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) has become one of the major problems in public health and livestock. Members of MAC, such as M. avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) and M. avium subsp hominissuis (MAH), are responsible for many opportunistic infections and the loss of livestock. MAP is economically significant to the beef and dairy industries because it is the etiologic agent of Johnes’s disease, a chronic and fatal enteritis in ruminants. Tracing the infection sources of MAC could be difficult since it infects many types of hosts in the natural environment. Furthermore, there is less information known about MAP ...


Glycogen Accumulation By Wild Type And Bald Mutant Strains Of Streptomyces Sp. Sfb5a During Growth On 3-Hydroxybutyrate, Mackenzie Francis May 2020

Glycogen Accumulation By Wild Type And Bald Mutant Strains Of Streptomyces Sp. Sfb5a During Growth On 3-Hydroxybutyrate, Mackenzie Francis

Honors Projects

Previous research has shown that Streptomyces sp. SFB5A produces PHA depolymerase and forms aerial hyphae, while the bld4 mutant of this species forms aerial hyphae very poorly and does not produce PHA depolymerase. This effect may be due to the mutant’s inability to sense starvation. Therefore, we hypothesized that the bld4 may also be deficient in formation of glycogen and spores, which are both associated with starvation. To test this hypothesis, we grew the wild type (WT) Streptomyces sp. SFB5A and bld4 in broth cultures containing 3HB. We compared 3HB consumption, glycogen accumulation, PHA depolymerase synthesis, protein accumulation, and ...


Possible Role Of N-Acetylglucosamine For Induction Of Polyhydroxybutyrate Depolymerase In Streptomyces Sp. Sfb5a, Morgan Todd May 2020

Possible Role Of N-Acetylglucosamine For Induction Of Polyhydroxybutyrate Depolymerase In Streptomyces Sp. Sfb5a, Morgan Todd

Honors Projects

Streptomyces sp. SFB5A is a filamentous, Gram-positive bacterium that makes a polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) depolymerase to degrade PHB for energy usage. Its life cycle begins as spores germinate to form vegetative mycelia. Starvation prompts formation of aerial mycelia and ultimately spores after 5-7 days. During starvation, Streptomyces may use peptidoglycan hydrolases to degrade its own cell walls, releasing N-Acetylglucosamine (NAG). PHA depolymerase activity is detected during growth of strain SFB5A on NAG as the sole carbon source, suggesting that NAG induces PHA depolymerase synthesis. To test this hypothesis, strain SFB5A was grown for 4 days on PHB, and a colorimetric assay ...


Phospholipid Remodeling Via Exogenous Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Uptake Modulates Stress Resistance In Vibrio Cholerae, William Strike May 2020

Phospholipid Remodeling Via Exogenous Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Uptake Modulates Stress Resistance In Vibrio Cholerae, William Strike

Honors Theses

Antibiotic-resistant pathogens represent an escalating threat to public health worldwide, substantially increasing the burden of healthcare and community-acquired infections. Several factors contribute to the emergence and spread of this threat, including but not limited to improper antibiotic use and prescriptions in health-care settings and the community, increasing global travel and migration from countries that have higher levels of antibiotic-resistant pathogens, and a lack of new antibiotics under development. According to the World Health Organization, rising rates of resistance among Gram-negative bacteria (such as Vibrio cholerae) are of particular concern. These bacteria have evolved a number of endogenous membrane remodeling strategies ...


Optimization Of Rt-Qpcr Protocols To Quantify Chua Gene Expression In Campylobacter Jejuni Mutants Under Iron-Limited Conditions, Jacob D. Wilbert May 2020

Optimization Of Rt-Qpcr Protocols To Quantify Chua Gene Expression In Campylobacter Jejuni Mutants Under Iron-Limited Conditions, Jacob D. Wilbert

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Surface Runoff Alters Cave Microbial Community Structure And Function, Madison Davis, Maria A. Messina, Giuseppe Nicolosi, Salvatore Petralia, Melvin D. Baker, Christiana K. S. Mayne, Chelsea M. Dinon, Christina J. Moss, Bogdan P. Onac, James R. Garey May 2020

Surface Runoff Alters Cave Microbial Community Structure And Function, Madison Davis, Maria A. Messina, Giuseppe Nicolosi, Salvatore Petralia, Melvin D. Baker, Christiana K. S. Mayne, Chelsea M. Dinon, Christina J. Moss, Bogdan P. Onac, James R. Garey

Cell Biology, Microbiology, and Molecular Biology Faculty Publications

Caves formed by sulfuric acid dissolution have been identified worldwide. These caves can host diverse microbial communities that are responsible for speleogenesis and speleothem formation. It is not well understood how microbial communities change in response to surface water entering caves. Illumina 16S rRNA sequencing and bioinformatic tools were used to determine the impact of surface water on the microbial community diversity and function within a spring pool found deep in the Monte Conca Cave system in Sicily, Italy. Sulfur oxidizers comprised more than 90% of the microbial community during the dry season and were replaced by potential anthropogenic contaminants ...


Reversible Inhibition Of Mycobacterial Dnab Protein Splicing By Zinc, Gabrielle Hardison, Gabrielle Hardison May 2020

Reversible Inhibition Of Mycobacterial Dnab Protein Splicing By Zinc, Gabrielle Hardison, Gabrielle Hardison

Honors College Theses

Inteins are emerging as post-translational regulatory elements, undergoing conditional protein splicing in response to a variety of environmental cues. Inteins are seamlessly removed by self-splicing from exteins, or flanking portions of the host protein, which they interrupt. DnaB of Mycobacterium smegmatis, a helicase essential for replication, harbors two inteins known as DnaBi1 and DnaBi2, each with discrete structural characteristics and insertion positions. DnaBi1 was used here to design a reporter system which links splicing with resistance to the antibiotic kanamycin. We built a construct that strictly requires catalytically active DnaBi1 for survival in the presence of kanamycin and used this ...


Two Component System Independent Acid Response In Helicobacter Pylori, Catharine Burgess May 2020

Two Component System Independent Acid Response In Helicobacter Pylori, Catharine Burgess

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The acid acclimation capabilities of Helicobacter pylori allow it to colonize the gastric biome for decades, causing many adverse health effects for its human host. The Acid Response System (ArsRS) accomplishes much of the H. pylori acid response by inducing the transcription of subunits and accessory genes of the enzyme urease. Hydrolyzing urea into CO2 and NH3 to buffer the periplasm facilitates long term bacterial survival.

We used H. pylori isogenic mutants of ArsRS and other TCS (DarsS, and DarsS-DcrdS-DflgS) to examine TCS-independent pH mediated gene expression. Control and TCS mutants were treated at pH 7 and ...


The Release, Transport, And Utilization Of Phosphorus From Bed-Sediments: A Study Of A Eutrophic Littoral Cove On Beaver Lake In Northwest Arkansas, James A. Mccarty May 2020

The Release, Transport, And Utilization Of Phosphorus From Bed-Sediments: A Study Of A Eutrophic Littoral Cove On Beaver Lake In Northwest Arkansas, James A. Mccarty

Theses and Dissertations

Eutrophication of surface waters not only impacts the environment but also water treatment processes, the most significant of which is from the effects of algae. During peak algal growth in many southern U.S. reservoirs, inflows that bring nutrients are at an annual minimum, and phosphorus released from bed-sediments is trapped in the hypolimnion. Littoral areas, described as the most productive zone of the lake, may be a possible source of phosphorus that fuels algal growth in the reservoir. I studied an isolated shallow cove in the War Eagle Creek arm of Beaver Lake in Northwest Arkansas to measure, quantify ...


Mathematic Modeling Of Covid-19 In The United States, Yuanji Tang, Shixia Wang Apr 2020

Mathematic Modeling Of Covid-19 In The United States, Yuanji Tang, Shixia Wang

Coronavirus COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

Since the early reports of COVID-19 cases in China in late January 2020 (1-2), the worst pandemic in 100 years has spread to the entire globe with approximately 2.4 million diagnosed cases and over 165,000 deaths up to April 20, 2020.

While scientists from various public and private groups use math and computer to simulate the course of this pandemic to try to predict how this outbreak might evolve (3), most of such analyses are either quite complicated or not publicly available.

Here a simple mathematic modeling approach is taken to track the outbreaks of COVID-19 in the ...


Zika Virus Induces Apoptosis In Retinal Pigmented Epithelial Cells, Madison Kraus, Philma Glora Muthuraj, Sathish Kumar Natarajan Apr 2020

Zika Virus Induces Apoptosis In Retinal Pigmented Epithelial Cells, Madison Kraus, Philma Glora Muthuraj, Sathish Kumar Natarajan

UCARE Research Products

Zika virus is a single-stranded positive sense RNA virus that attracted international attention in 2015 when an epidemic broke out in Brazil. This vector borne virus is transmitted by mosquitos and is especially concerning for pregnant women because the virus can affect the development of the fetus. One known complication is the destruction of infected retinal epithelial cells. The transduction of light is interrupted due to cell death and results in blind spots. Previous research has demonstrated that palmitoleate can reduce the observed levels of apoptosis in ZIKAV infected JEG-3 cells. We have also seen the protection of retinal pigmented ...


Sars-Cov-2 Receptor Ace2 Is An Interferon-Stimulated Gene In Human Airway Epithelial Cells And Is Detected In Specific Cell Subsets Across Tissues, Carly G. K. Ziegler, Yuming Cao, Zhiru Guo, Jennifer P. Wang, Robert W. Finberg, Manuel Garber, Alex K. Shalek, Jose Ordovas-Montanes, Hca Lung Biological Network Apr 2020

Sars-Cov-2 Receptor Ace2 Is An Interferon-Stimulated Gene In Human Airway Epithelial Cells And Is Detected In Specific Cell Subsets Across Tissues, Carly G. K. Ziegler, Yuming Cao, Zhiru Guo, Jennifer P. Wang, Robert W. Finberg, Manuel Garber, Alex K. Shalek, Jose Ordovas-Montanes, Hca Lung Biological Network

Coronavirus COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

There is pressing urgency to understand the pathogenesis of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus clade 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes the disease COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein binds angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and in concert with host proteases, principally transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), promotes cellular entry. The cell subsets targeted by SARS-CoV-2 in host tissues and the factors that regulate ACE2 expression remain unknown. Here, we leverage human, non-human primate, and mouse single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) datasets across health and disease to uncover putative targets of SARS-CoV-2 among tissue-resident cell subsets. We identify ACE2 and TMPRSS2 co-expressing cells within lung ...


The Covid-19 Pandemic: A Comprehensive Review Of Taxonomy, Genetics, Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment, And Control, Yosra A. Helmy, Mohamed Fawzy, Ahmed Elaswad, Ahmed Sobieh, Scott P. Kenney, Awad A. Shehata Apr 2020

The Covid-19 Pandemic: A Comprehensive Review Of Taxonomy, Genetics, Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment, And Control, Yosra A. Helmy, Mohamed Fawzy, Ahmed Elaswad, Ahmed Sobieh, Scott P. Kenney, Awad A. Shehata

Coronavirus COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

A pneumonia outbreak with unknown etiology was reported in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, in December 2019, associated with the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market. The causative agent of the outbreak was identified by the WHO as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), producing the disease named coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). The virus is closely related (96.3%) to bat coronavirus RaTG13, based on phylogenetic analysis. Human-to-human transmission has been confirmed even from asymptomatic carriers. The virus has spread to at least 200 countries, and more than 1,700,000 confirmed cases and 111,600 deaths have been recorded, with massive global ...


Research Tools And Their Uses For Determining The Thermal Inactivation Kinetics Of Salmonella In Low-Moisture Foods, Soon Kiat Lau Apr 2020

Research Tools And Their Uses For Determining The Thermal Inactivation Kinetics Of Salmonella In Low-Moisture Foods, Soon Kiat Lau

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

The reputation of low-moisture foods as safe foods has been crumbling over the past decade due to repeated involvement in foodborne illness outbreaks. Although various pasteurization technologies exist, a majority are thermal processes and have not been well-characterized for pasteurizing low-moisture foods. In addition, the nature of a low-moisture food matrix introduces various experimental complications that are not encountered in high-moisture foods. In this dissertation, the development, building instructions, and characterization of various open source tools for studying the inactivation kinetics of microorganisms in low-moisture foods are described. The first tool is the TDT Sandwich, a dry heating device for ...


Contraction Analysis Of Functional Competitive Lotka-Volterra Systems: Understanding Competition Between Modified Bacteria And Plasmodium Within Mosquitoes., Nickolas Goncharenko Apr 2020

Contraction Analysis Of Functional Competitive Lotka-Volterra Systems: Understanding Competition Between Modified Bacteria And Plasmodium Within Mosquitoes., Nickolas Goncharenko

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

We propose and analyze an extension to the classic Competitive Lotka-Volterra (CLV) model. The goal is to model competition between species, with a response from the environment. This response is a function of the population of all species and can represent numerous physical phenomena including resource limitation and immune response of a host due to infection. We name this new system a Functional Competitive Lotka-Volterra (FCLV) model. We mainly use the construction of contraction metrics, to determine global properties of the model. We use this result to analyze the competition between Plasmodium sp. and genetically engineered bacteria within the midgut ...


The Efficacy Of Hand Washing And Cleaning And Disinfecting Methods, Christina J. Amoruso Apr 2020

The Efficacy Of Hand Washing And Cleaning And Disinfecting Methods, Christina J. Amoruso

Student Showcase for Research and Creative Inquiry

Potentially pathogenic microorganisms are often used in teaching laboratories. Several different cleaning methods are available and implemented in these laboratories. This project was originally aimed to determine the most efficient method of cleaning lab surfaces and student hands. The topic of this investigation became even more relevant due to the recent development with the COVID-19 pandemic. Efficient hand washing and cleaning methods are more important now than ever. The purpose of hand washing is to reduce the number of microorganisms from the hands (Michaels, 2002). Proper hand washing with friction and soap is necessary to decontaminate hands (Miller, 2011).


Go With Your Gut: The Role Of Gut Microbiota In Health, Lydia Bangerter, Mateja R. Savoie-Roskos, Jeffrey Chapman, Abbigail Sundell, Carrie Durward Apr 2020

Go With Your Gut: The Role Of Gut Microbiota In Health, Lydia Bangerter, Mateja R. Savoie-Roskos, Jeffrey Chapman, Abbigail Sundell, Carrie Durward

All Current Publications

Living within your gastrointestinal tract (gut) are about 100 trillion bacterial cells—your gastrointestinal microbiota—a host of bacteria that play a vital role in your body (Ghaisas, Maher, & Kanthasamy, 2016). Your gut microbiome is responsible for a wide variety of functions that contribute to overall health and may be linked to many chronic diseases including cancer, obesity, and cardiovascular disease (Ghaisaset al., 2016; Peregrin, 2013). This fact sheet will discuss the role the gut microbiome plays in various aspects of health and how to improve your gut health.


Evolutionary Bioethics Advanced By Ernest Everett Just: Implications For Biology, Ethics, And Theology, Theodore Walker Apr 2020

Evolutionary Bioethics Advanced By Ernest Everett Just: Implications For Biology, Ethics, And Theology, Theodore Walker

Perkins Faculty Research and Special Events

Ernest Everett Just (1883-1941) is an acknowledged “pioneer” in biology, being honored with a Black Heritage postage stamp in 1996. Here we discover that Just also made pioneering contributions to general evolutionary bioethics (distinct from special medical bioethics) by advancing a cell-biology-rooted theory of the origin and continuing evolution of ethical behavior influenced by the “law of environmental dependence.”

See especially “The Origin of Man’s Ethical Behavior (1941, unpublished book manuscript) by Ernest Everett Just and Hedwig Schnetzler Just, discovered in 2018 among the collected papers of E.E. Just at the Moorland-Spingarn Research Center at Howard University.

Accordingly ...


Toxins Produced By Staphylococcus Aureus, Courtney Carlson Apr 2020

Toxins Produced By Staphylococcus Aureus, Courtney Carlson

Research and Scholarship Symposium Posters

The focus of this study was to analyze the presence of toxin genes from Staphylococcus aureus, such as alpha toxin and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1). The bacteria’s genomic DNA was amplified via Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and visualized through DNA gel electrophoresis. Clinical isolates that were known to be positive for the specific toxin genes were used as positive controls.


Broad Host Range Of Sars-Cov-2 Predicted By Comparative And Structural Analysis Of Ace2 In Vertebrates, Joana Damas, Elinor K. Karlsson, Harris A. Lewin Apr 2020

Broad Host Range Of Sars-Cov-2 Predicted By Comparative And Structural Analysis Of Ace2 In Vertebrates, Joana Damas, Elinor K. Karlsson, Harris A. Lewin

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is the cause of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19). The main receptor of SARS-CoV-2, angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), is now undergoing extensive scrutiny to understand the routes of transmission and sensitivity in different species. Here, we utilized a unique dataset of 410 vertebrates, including 252 mammals, to study cross-species conservation of ACE2 and its likelihood to function as a SARS-CoV-2 receptor. We designed a five-category ranking score based on the conservation properties of 25 amino acids important for the binding between receptor and virus, classifying all species from very high to very low. Only mammals fell ...


Single-Cell Analysis Of Upper Airway Cells Reveals Host-Viral Dynamics In Influenza Infected Adults, Yuming Cao, Zhiru Guo, Pranitha Vangala, Elisa Donnard, Ping Liu, Patrick Mcdonel, Jose Ordovas Montanes, Alex K. Shalek, Robert W. Finberg, Jennifer P. Wang, Manuel Garber Apr 2020

Single-Cell Analysis Of Upper Airway Cells Reveals Host-Viral Dynamics In Influenza Infected Adults, Yuming Cao, Zhiru Guo, Pranitha Vangala, Elisa Donnard, Ping Liu, Patrick Mcdonel, Jose Ordovas Montanes, Alex K. Shalek, Robert W. Finberg, Jennifer P. Wang, Manuel Garber

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Influenza virus infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality. Research using cultured cells, bulk tissue, and animal models cannot fully capture human disease dynamics. Many aspects of virus-host interactions in a natural setting remain unclear, including the specific cell types that are infected and how they and neighboring bystander cells contribute to the overall antiviral response. To address these questions, we performed single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-Seq) on cells from freshly collected nasal washes from healthy human donors and donors diagnosed with acute influenza during the 2017-18 season. We describe a previously uncharacterized goblet cell population, specific to infected individuals ...