Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Medical Specialties

Institution
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 5673

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

B Cells Migrate Into Remote Brain Areas And Support Neurogenesis And Functional Recovery After Focal Stroke In Mice, Sterling B. Ortega, Vanessa O. Torres, Sarah E. Latchney, Cody W. Whoolery, Ibrahim Z. Noorbhai, Katie Poinsatte, Uma M. Selvaraj, Monica A. Benson, Anouk J. M. Meeuwissen, Erik J. Plautz, Xiangmei Kong, Denise M. Ramirez, Apoorva D. Ajay, Julian P. Meeks, Mark P. Goldberg, Nancy L. Monson, Amelia J. Eisch, Ann M. Stowe Feb 2020

B Cells Migrate Into Remote Brain Areas And Support Neurogenesis And Functional Recovery After Focal Stroke In Mice, Sterling B. Ortega, Vanessa O. Torres, Sarah E. Latchney, Cody W. Whoolery, Ibrahim Z. Noorbhai, Katie Poinsatte, Uma M. Selvaraj, Monica A. Benson, Anouk J. M. Meeuwissen, Erik J. Plautz, Xiangmei Kong, Denise M. Ramirez, Apoorva D. Ajay, Julian P. Meeks, Mark P. Goldberg, Nancy L. Monson, Amelia J. Eisch, Ann M. Stowe

Neurology Faculty Publications

Lymphocytes infiltrate the stroke core and penumbra and often exacerbate cellular injury. B cells, however, are lymphocytes that do not contribute to acute pathology but can support recovery. B cell adoptive transfer to mice reduced infarct volumes 3 and 7 d after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo), independent of changing immune populations in recipient mice. Testing a direct neurotrophic effect, B cells cocultured with mixed cortical cells protected neurons and maintained dendritic arborization after oxygen-glucose deprivation. Whole-brain volumetric serial two-photon tomography (STPT) and a custom-developed image analysis pipeline visualized and quantified poststroke B cell diapedesis throughout the brain, including ...


Hsp47 Promotes Cancer Metastasis By Enhancing Collagen-Dependent Cancer Cell-Platelet Interaction, Gaofeng Xiong, Jie Chen, Guoying Zhang, Shike Wang, Kunito Kawasaki, Jieqing Zhu, Yan Zhang, Kazuhiro Nagata, Zhenyu Li, Binhua P. Zhou, Ren Xu Feb 2020

Hsp47 Promotes Cancer Metastasis By Enhancing Collagen-Dependent Cancer Cell-Platelet Interaction, Gaofeng Xiong, Jie Chen, Guoying Zhang, Shike Wang, Kunito Kawasaki, Jieqing Zhu, Yan Zhang, Kazuhiro Nagata, Zhenyu Li, Binhua P. Zhou, Ren Xu

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

Increased expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) suggests potential function of cancer cell-produced ECM in initiation of cancer cell colonization. Here, we showed that collagen and heat shock protein 47 (Hsp47), a chaperone facilitating collagen secretion and deposition, were highly expressed during the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and in CTCs. Hsp47 expression induced mesenchymal phenotypes in mammary epithelial cells (MECs), enhanced platelet recruitment, and promoted lung retention and colonization of cancer cells. Platelet depletion in vivo abolished Hsp47-induced cancer cell retention in the lung, suggesting that Hsp47 promotes cancer cell colonization by enhancing cancer cell–platelet ...


Potential Use Of Biotherapeutic Bacteria To Target Colorectal Cancer-Associated Taxa, Gareth Lawrence, Maire Begley, Paul D. Cotter, Caitríona M. Guinane Jan 2020

Potential Use Of Biotherapeutic Bacteria To Target Colorectal Cancer-Associated Taxa, Gareth Lawrence, Maire Begley, Paul D. Cotter, Caitríona M. Guinane

Articles

The role of the gut microbiome in human health and disease is the focus of much attention. It has been widely agreed upon that our gut bacteria play a role in host immunity, nutrient absorption, digestion, metabolism, and other key drivers of health. Furthermore, certain microbial signatures and specific taxa have also been associated with the development of diseases, such as obesity; inflammatory bowel disease; and, indeed, colorectal cancer (CRC), which is the focus of this review. By extension, such taxa represent potential therapeutic targets. In particular, the emerging human pathogen Fusobacterium nucleatum represents an important agent in CRC development ...


Micom: Metagenome-Scale Modeling To Infer Metabolic Interactions In The Gut Microbiota., Christian Diener, Sean M Gibbons, Osbaldo Resendis-Antonio Jan 2020

Micom: Metagenome-Scale Modeling To Infer Metabolic Interactions In The Gut Microbiota., Christian Diener, Sean M Gibbons, Osbaldo Resendis-Antonio

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

Compositional changes in the gut microbiota have been associated with a variety of medical conditions such as obesity, Crohn's disease, and diabetes. However, connecting microbial community composition to ecosystem function remains a challenge. Here, we introduce MICOM, a customizable metabolic model of the human gut microbiome. By using a heuristic optimization approach based on L2 regularization, we were able to obtain a unique set of realistic growth rates that corresponded well with observed replication rates. We integrated adjustable dietary and taxon abundance constraints to generate personalized metabolic models for individual metagenomic samples. We applied MICOM to a balanced cohort ...


Identification Of The Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (Kshv) Surface Glycoprotein Targets Of Human Kshv-Specific Neutralizing Antibody Responses, Yasaman Mortazavi Jan 2020

Identification Of The Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (Kshv) Surface Glycoprotein Targets Of Human Kshv-Specific Neutralizing Antibody Responses, Yasaman Mortazavi

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), also known as human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), is the etiological agent of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS), and is also associated with two B cell malignancies, primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman's disease. The distribution of KSHV varies globally with high prevalence in some areas of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where seroprevalence can be as high as 80%. It is estimated that nearly 44,000 new cases of KS emerge annually globally, with the highest incidents occurring in Africa, where KSHV is endemic. Currently, there is no prophylactic vaccine against KSHV, and efforts to develop prophylactic ...


Genetic And Functional Approaches To Understanding Autoimmune And Inflammatory Pathologies, Abbas Raza Jan 2020

Genetic And Functional Approaches To Understanding Autoimmune And Inflammatory Pathologies, Abbas Raza

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Our understanding of genetic predisposition to inflammatory and autoimmune diseases has been enhanced by large scale quantitative trait loci (QTL) linkage mapping and genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, the resolution and interpretation of QTL linkage mapping or GWAS findings are limited. In this work, we complement genetic predictions for several human diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS) and systemic capillary leakage syndrome (SCLS) with genetic and functional data in model organisms to associate genes with phenotypes and diseases.

Focusing on MS, an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS), we experimentally tested the effect of three of the GWAS ...


Machine Learning Prediction Of Glioblastoma Patient One-Year Survival, Andrew Du '20, Warren Mcgee, Jane Y. Wu Jan 2020

Machine Learning Prediction Of Glioblastoma Patient One-Year Survival, Andrew Du '20, Warren Mcgee, Jane Y. Wu

Student Publications & Research

Glioblastoma (GBM) is a grade IV astrocytoma formed primarily from cancerous astrocytes and sustained by intense angiogenesis. GBM often causes non-specific symptoms, creating difficulty for diagnosis. This study aimed to utilize machine learning techniques to provide an accurate one-year survival prognosis for GBM patients using clinical and genomic data from the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas. Logistic regression (LR), support vector machines (SVM), random forest (RF), and ensemble models were used to identify and select predictors for GBM survival and to classify patients into those with an overall survival (OS) of less than one year and one year or greater. With ...


Recovery Of Viable Endocrine-Specific Cells And Transcriptomes From Human Pancreatic Islet-Engrafted Mice, Sambra D. Redick, Linda Leehy, Ann R. Rittenhouse, David M. Blodgett, Alan G. Derr, Alper Kucukural, Manuel Garber, Leonard D. Shultz, Dale L. Greiner, Jennifer P. Wang, David M. Harlan, Rita Bortell, Agata Jurczyk Jan 2020

Recovery Of Viable Endocrine-Specific Cells And Transcriptomes From Human Pancreatic Islet-Engrafted Mice, Sambra D. Redick, Linda Leehy, Ann R. Rittenhouse, David M. Blodgett, Alan G. Derr, Alper Kucukural, Manuel Garber, Leonard D. Shultz, Dale L. Greiner, Jennifer P. Wang, David M. Harlan, Rita Bortell, Agata Jurczyk

Program in Molecular Medicine Publications

Human pancreatic islets engrafted into immunodeficient mice serve as an important model for in vivo human diabetes studies. Following engraftment, islet function can be monitored in vivo by measuring circulating glucose and human insulin; however, it will be important to recover viable cells for more complex graft analyses. Moreover, RNA analyses of dissected grafts have not distinguished which hormone-specific cell types contribute to gene expression. We developed a method for recovering live cells suitable for fluorescence-activated cell sorting from human islets engrafted in mice. Although yields of recovered islet cells were relatively low, the ratios of bulk-sorted beta, alpha, and ...


Hiv-1 Subtypes And Drug Resistance Mutations Among Female Sex Workers Varied In Different Cities And Regions Of The Democratic Republic Of Congo, Eun Hee Kwon, Godefroid M. A. Musema, Jessica Boelter, Sydney Townsend, Desire Tshala-Katumbay, Patrick K. Kayembe, John T. West, Charles Wood Jan 2020

Hiv-1 Subtypes And Drug Resistance Mutations Among Female Sex Workers Varied In Different Cities And Regions Of The Democratic Republic Of Congo, Eun Hee Kwon, Godefroid M. A. Musema, Jessica Boelter, Sydney Townsend, Desire Tshala-Katumbay, Patrick K. Kayembe, John T. West, Charles Wood

Virology Papers

Background Complex mosaic structures of HIV-1 were found in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Currently, there is limited information on the circulating HIV-1 strains, the distribution of these strains and antiretroviral (ART) resistant viruses in different regions of the country, and the HIV-1 strains harbored by the high-risk groups like female sex workers (FSW) reported to be the source of recombinant and ART resistant viruses.

Methods Dried Blood Spots (DBS), collected from 325 infected FSWs in ten cities from 2012 DRC HIV/STI Integrated Biological and Behavioral Surveillance Survey, were tested for HIV-1 genotypes and antiretroviral resistance mutations. Regional ...


How The Cervical Microbiota Contributes To Cervical Cancer Risk In Sub-Saharan Africa, Cameron Klein, Crispin Kahesa, Julius Mwalselage, John T. West, Charles Wood, Peter C. Angeletti Jan 2020

How The Cervical Microbiota Contributes To Cervical Cancer Risk In Sub-Saharan Africa, Cameron Klein, Crispin Kahesa, Julius Mwalselage, John T. West, Charles Wood, Peter C. Angeletti

Virology Papers

Despite ongoing efforts, sub-Saharan Africa faces a higher cervical cancer burden than anywhere else in the world. Besides HPV infection, definitive factors of cervical cancer are still unclear. Particular states of the cervicovaginal microbiota and viral infections are associated with increased cervical cancer risk. Notably, HIV infection, which is prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, greatly increases risk of cervicovaginal dysbiosis and cervical cancer. To better understand and address cervical cancer in sub-Saharan Africa, a better knowledge of the regional cervicovaginal microbiome is required This review establishes current knowledge of HPV, HIV, cervicovaginal infections, and the cervicovaginal microbiota in sub-Saharan Africa. Because ...


Perivascular Waste Metabolites Clearance In Central Nervous System (Cns), Yiming Cheng Dec 2019

Perivascular Waste Metabolites Clearance In Central Nervous System (Cns), Yiming Cheng

Dissertations

Efficient clearance of interstitial waste metabolites is essential for normal brain homeostasis. Such effective clearance is hampered by the lack of a lymphatic system in the brain, and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is unable to clear large size waste metabolites in the brain. Here, a novel idea that brain arterial endothelium and smooth muscle cells reactivity regulates the clearance of these water-insoluble large size waste metabolites through the perivascular dynamic exchange, and that low dose ethanol promotes this perivascular clearance is proposed.

In Aim 1, the biodistribution of a large size waste metabolite (Amyloid-β protein mimic) in rat perivascular space ...


Comparing Sensitivity To Change Using The 6-Item Versus The 17-Item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale In The Guided Randomized Controlled Trial, Boadie W. Dunlop, Sagar V. Parikh, Anthony J. Rothschild, Michael E. Thase, Charles Debattista, Charles R. Conway, Brent P. Forester, Francis M. Mondimore, Richard C. Shelton, Matthew Macaluso, Jennifer Logan, Paul Traxler, James Li, Holly Johnson, John F. Greden Dec 2019

Comparing Sensitivity To Change Using The 6-Item Versus The 17-Item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale In The Guided Randomized Controlled Trial, Boadie W. Dunlop, Sagar V. Parikh, Anthony J. Rothschild, Michael E. Thase, Charles Debattista, Charles R. Conway, Brent P. Forester, Francis M. Mondimore, Richard C. Shelton, Matthew Macaluso, Jennifer Logan, Paul Traxler, James Li, Holly Johnson, John F. Greden

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests that the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17) is less sensitive in detecting differences between active treatment and placebo for major depressive disorder (MDD) than is the HAM-D6 scale, which focuses on six core depression symptoms. Whether HAM-D6 shows greater sensitivity when comparing two active MDD treatment arms is unknown.

METHODS: This post hoc analysis used data from the intent-to-treat (ITT) cohort (N = 1541) of the Genomics Used to Improve DEpression Decisions (GUIDED) trial, a rater- and patient-blinded randomized controlled trial. GUIDED compared combinatorial pharmacogenomics-guided care with treatment as usual (TAU) in patients with MDD. Percent ...


Chloroviruses, James L. Van Etten, Irina V. Agarkova, David D. Dunigan Dec 2019

Chloroviruses, James L. Van Etten, Irina V. Agarkova, David D. Dunigan

Virology Papers

Chloroviruses are large dsDNA, plaque-forming viruses that infect certain chlorella-like green algae; the algae are normally mutualistic endosymbionts of protists and metazoans and are often referred to as zoochlorellae. The viruses are ubiquitous in inland aqueous environments throughout the world and occasionally single types reach titers of thousands of plaque-forming units per ml of native water. The viruses are icosahedral in shape with a spike structure located at one of the vertices. They contain an internal membrane that is required for infectivity. The viral genomes are 290 to 370 kb in size, which encode up to 16 tRNAs and 330 ...


Intestinal Neurod1 Expression Impairs Paneth Cell Differentiation And Promotes Enteroendocrine Lineage Specification, Joyce H. Li, Subir Ray, Ning Pan, Jody Haigh, Bernd Fritzsch, Andrew B. Leiter Dec 2019

Intestinal Neurod1 Expression Impairs Paneth Cell Differentiation And Promotes Enteroendocrine Lineage Specification, Joyce H. Li, Subir Ray, Ning Pan, Jody Haigh, Bernd Fritzsch, Andrew B. Leiter

Open Access Articles

Transcription factor Neurod1 is required for enteroendocrine progenitor differentiation and maturation. Several earlier studies indicated that ectopic expression of Neurod1 converted non- neuronal cells into neurons. However, the functional consequence of ectopic Neurod1 expression has not been examined in the GI tract, and it is not known whether Neurod1 can similarly switch cell fates in the intestine. We generated a mouse line that would enable us to conditionally express Neurod1 in intestinal epithelial cells at different stages of differentiation. Forced expression of Neurod1 throughout intestinal epithelium increased the number of EECs as well as the expression of EE specific transcription ...


Curing Hemophilia A By Nhej-Mediated Ectopic F8 Insertion In The Mouse, Jian-Ping Zhang, Xin-Xin Cheng, Mei Zhao, Guo-Hua Li, Jing Xu, Feng Zhang, Meng-Di Yin, Fei-Ying Meng, Xin-Yue Dai, Ya-Wen Fu, Zhi-Xue Yang, Cameron Arakaki, Ruijun Jeanna. Su, Wei Wen, Wen-Tian Wang, Wanqiu Chen, Hannah Choi, Charles Wang, Guangping Gao, Lei Zhang, Tao Cheng, Xiao-Bing Zhang Dec 2019

Curing Hemophilia A By Nhej-Mediated Ectopic F8 Insertion In The Mouse, Jian-Ping Zhang, Xin-Xin Cheng, Mei Zhao, Guo-Hua Li, Jing Xu, Feng Zhang, Meng-Di Yin, Fei-Ying Meng, Xin-Yue Dai, Ya-Wen Fu, Zhi-Xue Yang, Cameron Arakaki, Ruijun Jeanna. Su, Wei Wen, Wen-Tian Wang, Wanqiu Chen, Hannah Choi, Charles Wang, Guangping Gao, Lei Zhang, Tao Cheng, Xiao-Bing Zhang

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Hemophilia A, a bleeding disorder resulting from F8 mutations, can only be cured by gene therapy. A promising strategy is CRISPR-Cas9-mediated precise insertion of F8 in hepatocytes at highly expressed gene loci, such as albumin (Alb). Unfortunately, the precise in vivo integration efficiency of a long insert is very low (~ 0.1%).

RESULTS: We report that the use of a double-cut donor leads to a 10- to 20-fold increase in liver editing efficiency, thereby completely reconstituting serum F8 activity in a mouse model of hemophilia A after hydrodynamic injection of Cas9-sgAlb and B domain-deleted (BDD) F8 donor plasmids. We ...


Generation And Utilization Of Diverse Memory B Cells After Flavivirus Challenges, Rachel Wong Dec 2019

Generation And Utilization Of Diverse Memory B Cells After Flavivirus Challenges, Rachel Wong

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Over the course of an effective immune response to an infection, two distinct B cell populations are generated to provide protection against reinfection, long-lived plasma cells (LLPCs) and memory B cells (MBCs). LLPCs and MBCs originate from germinal center (GC) B cells that have undergone B cell receptor (BCR) affinity maturation through iterative rounds of somatic hypermutation, proliferation, and selection. Thus, LLPCs and MBCs can bind to their antigen with higher affinity than their naïve B cell precursors. LLPCs constitutively secrete antibodies and can provide sterilizing immunity that pre-exists subsequent infections. MBCs, on the other hand, are quiescent and provide ...


Long-Term Therapeutic Efficacy Of Intravenous Aav-Mediated Hamartin Replacement In Mouse Model Of Tuberous Sclerosis Type 1, Shilpa Prabhakar, Pike See Cheah, Xuan Zhang, Max Zinter, Maria Gianatasio, Eloise Hudry, Roderick T. Bronson, David J. Kwiatkowski, Anat Stemmer-Rachamimov, Casey A. Maguire, Miguel Sena-Esteves, Bakhos A. Tannous, Xandra O. Breakefield Dec 2019

Long-Term Therapeutic Efficacy Of Intravenous Aav-Mediated Hamartin Replacement In Mouse Model Of Tuberous Sclerosis Type 1, Shilpa Prabhakar, Pike See Cheah, Xuan Zhang, Max Zinter, Maria Gianatasio, Eloise Hudry, Roderick T. Bronson, David J. Kwiatkowski, Anat Stemmer-Rachamimov, Casey A. Maguire, Miguel Sena-Esteves, Bakhos A. Tannous, Xandra O. Breakefield

Open Access Articles

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a tumor suppressor syndrome caused by mutations in TSC1 or TSC2, encoding hamartin and tuberin, respectively. These proteins act as a complex that inhibits mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-mediated cell growth and proliferation. Loss of either protein leads to overgrowth in many organs, including subependymal nodules, subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, and cortical tubers in the human brain. Neurological manifestations in TSC include intellectual disability, autism, hydrocephalus, and epilepsy. In a stochastic mouse model of TSC1 brain lesions, complete loss of Tsc1 is achieved in homozygous Tsc1-floxed mice in a subpopulation of neural cells in ...


Systemic Rage Ligands Are Upregulated In Tuberculosis Individuals With Diabetes Co-Morbidity And Modulated By Anti-Tuberculosis Treatment And Metformin Therapy, Nathella Pavan Kumar, Kadar Moideen, Arul Nancy, Vijay Viswanathan, Basavaradhya S. Shruthi, Shanmugam Sivakumar, Syed Hissar, Hardy Kornfeld, Subash Babu Dec 2019

Systemic Rage Ligands Are Upregulated In Tuberculosis Individuals With Diabetes Co-Morbidity And Modulated By Anti-Tuberculosis Treatment And Metformin Therapy, Nathella Pavan Kumar, Kadar Moideen, Arul Nancy, Vijay Viswanathan, Basavaradhya S. Shruthi, Shanmugam Sivakumar, Syed Hissar, Hardy Kornfeld, Subash Babu

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Ligands of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) are key signalling molecules in the innate immune system but their role in tuberculosis-diabetes comorbidity (TB-DM) has not been investigated.

METHODS: We examined the systemic levels of soluble RAGE (sRAGE), advanced glycation end products (AGE), S100A12 and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in participants with either TB-DM, TB, DM or healthy controls (HC).

RESULTS: Systemic levels of AGE, sRAGE and S100A12 were significantly elevated in TB-DM and DM in comparison to TB and HC. During follow up, AGE, sRAGE and S100A12 remained significantly elevated in TB-DM compared to ...


Alzheimer's And Amyloid Beta: Amyloidogenicity And Tauopathy Via Dyshomeostatic Interactions Of Amyloid Beta, Jordan Tillinghast Dec 2019

Alzheimer's And Amyloid Beta: Amyloidogenicity And Tauopathy Via Dyshomeostatic Interactions Of Amyloid Beta, Jordan Tillinghast

Senior Honors Theses

This paper reviews functions of Amyloid-β (Aβ) in healthy individuals compared to the consequences of aberrant Aβ in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). As extraneuronal Aβ accumulation and plaque formation are characteristics of AD, it is reasonable to infer a pivotal role for Aβ in AD pathogenesis. Establishing progress of the disease as well as the mechanism of neurodegeneration from AD have proven difficult (Selkoe, 1994). This thesis provides evidence suggesting the pathogenesis of AD is due to dysfunctional neuronal processes involving Aβ’s synaptic malfunction, abnormal interaction with tau, and disruption of neuronal homeostasis. Significant evidence demonstrates that AD symptoms ...


Yap/Taz Activation Drives Uveal Melanoma Initiation And Progression, Huapeng Li, Qi Li, Kyvan Dang, Shan Ma, Jennifer L. Cotton, Sun Yang, Lihua Julie Zhu, April C. Deng, Y. Tony Ip, Randy L. Johnson, Xu Wu, Claudio Punzo, Junhao Mao Dec 2019

Yap/Taz Activation Drives Uveal Melanoma Initiation And Progression, Huapeng Li, Qi Li, Kyvan Dang, Shan Ma, Jennifer L. Cotton, Sun Yang, Lihua Julie Zhu, April C. Deng, Y. Tony Ip, Randy L. Johnson, Xu Wu, Claudio Punzo, Junhao Mao

Open Access Articles

Uveal melanoma (UM), the most common ocular malignancy, is characterized by GNAQ/11 mutations. Hippo/YAP and Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) emerge as two important signaling pathways downstream of G protein alpha subunits of the Q class (GalphaQ/11)-mediated transformation, although whether and how they contribute to UM genesis in vivo remain unclear. Here, we adapt an adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based ocular injection method to directly deliver Cre recombinase into the mouse uveal tract and demonstrate that Lats1/2 kinases suppress UM formation specifically in uveal melanocytes. We find that genetic activation of YAP, but not Kras, is ...


Investigating The Effects Of Excitotoxic Stimuli On The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus, Rachel A. Brandes Dec 2019

Investigating The Effects Of Excitotoxic Stimuli On The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus, Rachel A. Brandes

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Induce Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Accompanied By Immunogenic Cell Death In Murine Models Of Lymphoma And Colorectal Cancer, Alessandra Rossi, Olga N. Pakhomova, Peter A. Mollica, Maura Casciola, Uma Mangalanathan, Andrei G. Pakhomov, Claudia Muratori Dec 2019

Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Induce Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Accompanied By Immunogenic Cell Death In Murine Models Of Lymphoma And Colorectal Cancer, Alessandra Rossi, Olga N. Pakhomova, Peter A. Mollica, Maura Casciola, Uma Mangalanathan, Andrei G. Pakhomov, Claudia Muratori

Bioelectrics Publications

Depending on the initiating stimulus, cancer cell death can be immunogenic or non-immunogenic. Inducers of immunogenic cell death (ICD) rely on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress for the trafficking of danger signals such as calreticulin (CRT) and ATP. We found that nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF), an emerging new modality for tumor ablation, cause the activation of the ER-resident stress sensor PERK in both CT-26 colon carcinoma and EL-4 lymphoma cells. PERK activation correlates with sustained CRT exposure on the cell plasma membrane and apoptosis induction in both nsPEF-treated cell lines. Our results show that, in CT-26 cells, the activity of ...


Production Of Poly(Ga) In C9orf72 Patient Motor Neurons Derived From Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, Sandra Almeida, Gopinath Krishnan, Mia Rushe, Yuanzheng Gu, Mark W. Kankel, Fen-Biao Gao Dec 2019

Production Of Poly(Ga) In C9orf72 Patient Motor Neurons Derived From Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, Sandra Almeida, Gopinath Krishnan, Mia Rushe, Yuanzheng Gu, Mark W. Kankel, Fen-Biao Gao

Open Access Articles

GGGGCC (G4C2) repeat expansion in the first intron of C9ORF72 is the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). A key pathological hallmark of C9ORF72-related ALS/FTD is the accumulation of dipeptide repeat (DPR) proteins synthesized from both sense and antisense repeat RNAs in affected neurons.To investigate how DPR proteins are synthesized in C9ORF72 human neurons, we used CRISPR-Cas9 technology to generate a homozygous deletion in the first intron of C9ORF72, 5′ to the G4C2 repeats to assess the effect of this deletion on DPR production.


Cdr3alpha Drives Selection Of The Immunodominant Epstein Barr Virus (Ebv) Brlf1-Specific Cd8 T Cell Receptor Repertoire In Primary Infection, Larisa Kamga, Anna Gil, Inyoung Song, Robin M. Brody, Dario Ghersi, Nuray Aslan, Lawrence J. Stern, Liisa K. Selin, Katherine Luzuriaga Nov 2019

Cdr3alpha Drives Selection Of The Immunodominant Epstein Barr Virus (Ebv) Brlf1-Specific Cd8 T Cell Receptor Repertoire In Primary Infection, Larisa Kamga, Anna Gil, Inyoung Song, Robin M. Brody, Dario Ghersi, Nuray Aslan, Lawrence J. Stern, Liisa K. Selin, Katherine Luzuriaga

Open Access Articles

The T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire is an essential component of the CD8 T-cell immune response. Here, we seek to investigate factors that drive selection of TCR repertoires specific to the HLA-A2-restricted immunodominant epitope BRLF1109-117 (YVLDHLIVV) over the course of primary Epstein Barr virus (EBV) infection. Using single-cell paired TCRalphabeta sequencing of tetramer sorted CD8 T cells ex vivo, we show at the clonal level that recognition of the HLA-A2-restricted BRLF1 (YVL-BR, BRLF-1109) epitope is mainly driven by the TCRalpha chain. For the first time, we identify a CDR3alpha (complementarity determining region 3 alpha) motif, KDTDKL, resulting from an obligate ...


In Vivo Clonal Expansion And Phenotypes Of Hypocretin-Specific Cd4(+) T Cells In Narcolepsy Patients And Controls, Wei Jiang, James R. Birtley, Grant C. Weaver, Liying Lu, Lawrence J. Stern, Elizabeth D. Mellins Nov 2019

In Vivo Clonal Expansion And Phenotypes Of Hypocretin-Specific Cd4(+) T Cells In Narcolepsy Patients And Controls, Wei Jiang, James R. Birtley, Grant C. Weaver, Liying Lu, Lawrence J. Stern, Elizabeth D. Mellins

Open Access Articles

Individuals with narcolepsy suffer from abnormal sleep patterns due to loss of neurons that uniquely supply hypocretin (HCRT). Previous studies found associations of narcolepsy with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ6 allele and T-cell receptor alpha (TRA) J24 gene segment and also suggested that in vitro-stimulated T cells can target HCRT. Here, we present evidence of in vivo expansion of DQ6-HCRT tetramer(+)/TRAJ24(+)/CD4(+) T cells in DQ6(+) individuals with and without narcolepsy. We identify related TRAJ24(+) TCRalphabeta clonotypes encoded by identical alpha/beta gene regions from two patients and two controls. TRAJ24-G allele(+) clonotypes only expand in the two ...


Elaia 2019, Stephen Case Nov 2019

Elaia 2019, Stephen Case

ELAIA

DIRECTOR'S NOTE

Each fall, the Honors Program at Olivet Nazarene University admits a small number of academically gifted students into its freshman class. From the moment they set foot on our campus, these women and men join a community of scholars, and together they read, reflect upon, and discuss the most important ideas of the past and present—all within a Christian fellowship. The first two years of the program involve a series of Honors courses, taught by a team of faculty and modeled on the historic “old-time college,” where small class relationships, interdisciplinary discussion, and debate prevailed.

In ...


Genome Editing Of Hbg1 And Hbg2 To Induce Fetal Hemoglobin, Jean-Yves Metais, Kevin Luk, Scot A. Wolfe, Shengdar Q. Tsai, Mitchell J. Weiss Nov 2019

Genome Editing Of Hbg1 And Hbg2 To Induce Fetal Hemoglobin, Jean-Yves Metais, Kevin Luk, Scot A. Wolfe, Shengdar Q. Tsai, Mitchell J. Weiss

Open Access Articles

Induction of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) via clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9-mediated disruption of DNA regulatory elements that repress gamma-globin gene (HBG1 and HBG2) expression is a promising therapeutic strategy for sickle cell disease (SCD) and beta-thalassemia, although the optimal technical approaches and limiting toxicities are not yet fully defined. We disrupted an HBG1/HBG2 gene promoter motif that is bound by the transcriptional repressor BCL11A. Electroporation of Cas9 single guide RNA ribonucleoprotein complex into normal and SCD donor CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells resulted in high frequencies of on-target mutations and the induction of HbF to potentially ...


A Cohesin Subunit Variant Identified From A Peripheral Sclerocornea Pedigree, Bi Ning Zhang, Tommy Chung Yan Chan, Pancy Oi Sin Tam, Yu Liu, Chi Pui Pang, Vishal Jhanji, Li Jia Chen, Wai Kit Chu Nov 2019

A Cohesin Subunit Variant Identified From A Peripheral Sclerocornea Pedigree, Bi Ning Zhang, Tommy Chung Yan Chan, Pancy Oi Sin Tam, Yu Liu, Chi Pui Pang, Vishal Jhanji, Li Jia Chen, Wai Kit Chu

Open Access Articles

Background: Sclerocornea is a rare congenital disorder characterized with the opacification of the cornea. Here, we report a nonconsanguineous Chinese family with multiple peripheral sclerocornea patients spanning across three generations inherited in an autosomal dominant manner.

Methods: This is a retrospective case series of a peripheral sclerocornea pedigree. Comprehensive ophthalmic examinations were conducted and assessed on 14 pedigree members. Whole-exome sequencing was used to identify the genetic alterations in the affected pedigree members. Lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) were established using blood samples from the family members. Functional tests were performed with these cell lines.

Results: Six affected and eight unaffected ...


Genome-Wide Variation In Potyviruses, Deepti Nigam, Katherine Latourrette, Pedro F.N. Souza, Hernan Garcia Ruiz Nov 2019

Genome-Wide Variation In Potyviruses, Deepti Nigam, Katherine Latourrette, Pedro F.N. Souza, Hernan Garcia Ruiz

Virology Papers

Potyviruses (family Potyviridae, genus Potyvirus) are the result of an initial radiation event that occurred 6,600 years ago. The genus currently consists of 167 species that infect monocots or dicots, including domesticated and wild plants. Potyviruses are transmitted in a non-persistent way by more than 200 species of aphids. As indicated by their wide host range, worldwide distribution, and diversity of their vectors, potyviruses have an outstanding capacity to adapt to new hosts and environments. However, factors that confer adaptability are poorly understood. Viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases introduce nucleotide substitutions that generate genetic diversity. We hypothesized that selection imposed ...


A Big-Data Approach To Understanding Metabolic Rate And Response To Obesity In Laboratory Mice, June K. Corrigan, Deepti Ramachandran, Yuchen He, Colin Palmer, Michael J. Jurczak, Bingshan Li, Randall H. Friedline, Jason K. Kim, Jon J. Ramsey, Louise Lantier, Owen P. Mcguinness, Alexander S. Banks, Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Center Energy Balance Working Group Nov 2019

A Big-Data Approach To Understanding Metabolic Rate And Response To Obesity In Laboratory Mice, June K. Corrigan, Deepti Ramachandran, Yuchen He, Colin Palmer, Michael J. Jurczak, Bingshan Li, Randall H. Friedline, Jason K. Kim, Jon J. Ramsey, Louise Lantier, Owen P. Mcguinness, Alexander S. Banks, Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Center Energy Balance Working Group

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Maintaining a healthy body weight requires an exquisite balance between energy intake and energy expenditure. In humans and in laboratory mice these factors are experimentally measured by powerful and sensitive indirect calorimetry devices. To understand the genetic and environmental factors that contribute to the regulation of body weight, an important first step is to establish the normal range of metabolic values and primary sources contributing to variability in results. Here we examine indirect calorimetry results from two experimental mouse projects, the Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Centers and International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium to develop insights into large-scale trends in mammalian metabolism. Analysis ...