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Articles 1 - 30 of 8940

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Wildfires Enhance Phytoplankton Production In Tropical Oceans, Dongyan Liu, Chongran Zhou, John K. Keesing, Oscar Serrano, Axel Werner, Yin Fang, Yingjun Chen, Pere Masque, Janine Kinloch, Aleksey Sadekov, Yan Du Dec 2022

Wildfires Enhance Phytoplankton Production In Tropical Oceans, Dongyan Liu, Chongran Zhou, John K. Keesing, Oscar Serrano, Axel Werner, Yin Fang, Yingjun Chen, Pere Masque, Janine Kinloch, Aleksey Sadekov, Yan Du

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Wildfire magnitude and frequency have greatly escalated on a global scale. Wildfire products rich in biogenic elements can enter the ocean through atmospheric and river inputs, but their contribution to marine phytoplankton production is poorly understood. Here, using geochemical paleo-reconstructions, a century-long relationship between wildfire magnitude and marine phytoplankton production is established in a fire-prone region of Kimberley coast, Australia. A positive correlation is identified between wildfire and phytoplankton production on a decadal scale. The importance of wildfire on marine phytoplankton production is statistically higher than that of tropical cyclones and rainfall, when strong El Niño Southern Oscillation coincides with ...


Comparing Two Non-Invasive Methods For Assessing Marine Mammal Genetic Diversity: Environmental Dna Vs. Fecal Dna, Sydney Jackson May 2022

Comparing Two Non-Invasive Methods For Assessing Marine Mammal Genetic Diversity: Environmental Dna Vs. Fecal Dna, Sydney Jackson

Honors College

As technology and science progresses, the methodology behind observing, monitoring, and sampling marine mammals advances as well. One such technique is environmental DNA or eDNA, which entails extracting organismal DNA from water samples without ever handling or disturbing the organism. It is a cost-efficient and non-invasive method that can be utilized in the sampling of seal haulout sites as is its purpose for this research. Another method, using the DNA analysis of seal fecal samples, is a less invasive method that can also be utilized to monitor and assess marine mammals. Through collecting both fecal and water samples from gray ...


A Biological Condition Gradient For Coral Reefs In The Us Caribbean Territories: Part I. Coral Narrative Rules, Deborah Santavy, Susan K. Jackson, Benjamin Jessup, Jeroen Gerritsen, Caroline Rogers, William S. Fisher, Ernesto Weil, Alina Szmant, David Cuevas-Miranda, Brian Walker, Christopher Jeffrey, Patricia Bradley, David Ballantine, Loretta Roberson, Hector Ruiz-Torres, Brandi Todd, Tyler Smith, Randy Clark, Ernesto Diaz, Jorge Bauzá-Ortega, Christina Horstmann, Sandy Raimondo May 2022

A Biological Condition Gradient For Coral Reefs In The Us Caribbean Territories: Part I. Coral Narrative Rules, Deborah Santavy, Susan K. Jackson, Benjamin Jessup, Jeroen Gerritsen, Caroline Rogers, William S. Fisher, Ernesto Weil, Alina Szmant, David Cuevas-Miranda, Brian Walker, Christopher Jeffrey, Patricia Bradley, David Ballantine, Loretta Roberson, Hector Ruiz-Torres, Brandi Todd, Tyler Smith, Randy Clark, Ernesto Diaz, Jorge Bauzá-Ortega, Christina Horstmann, Sandy Raimondo

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

As coral reef condition and sustainability continue to decline worldwide, losses of critical habitat and their ecosystem services have generated an urgency to understand and communicate reef response to management actions, environmental contamination, and natural disasters. Increasingly, coral reef protection and restoration programs emphasize the need for robust assessment tools for protecting high-quality waters and establishing conservation goals. Of equal importance is the need to communicate assessment results to stakeholders, beneficiaries, and the public so that environmental consequences of decisions are understood. The Biological Condition (BCG) model provides a structure to evaluate the condition of a coral reef in increments ...


Characterizing Gray Snapper (Lutjanus Griseus) Life History In The Northcentral Gulf Of Mexico: Age And Growth, Mortality, And Reproduction, Edward Kim May 2022

Characterizing Gray Snapper (Lutjanus Griseus) Life History In The Northcentral Gulf Of Mexico: Age And Growth, Mortality, And Reproduction, Edward Kim

Theses and Dissertations

Gray Snapper (Lutjanus griseus) constitute a significant recreational fishery and minor commercial fishery throughout the Gulf of Mexico, and review of the recent assessment determined that the stock is overfished and has been undergoing overfishing. The absence of regional baseline data in the northcentral Gulf of Mexico, combined with projections of range expansion and subsequent population growth due to climatic warming, highlight the need for the present investigation into the age and growth, mortality, and reproduction of this species in Alabama and Mississippi. Sex-specific growth curves constructed using the von Bertalanffy growth function demonstrated a significantly greater mean asymptotic length ...


Coastal Sediment Response To The Diel Oxygen Cycle, Kara Gadeken May 2022

Coastal Sediment Response To The Diel Oxygen Cycle, Kara Gadeken

Theses and Dissertations

Shallow coastal sediments are sites of intense respiration and organic matter breakdown. Macroinfauna bioturbate and bioirrigate sediments which supplies microbes with oxygen and newly deposited organic material from surface sediments, facilitating microbial remineralization of organic matter. These processes depend heavily on the concentration of dissolved oxygen in overlying water. Shallow water oxygen patterns often follow a diel cycle as dissolved oxygen decreases at night due to respiration and then increases during the day with photosynthesis, creating recurring suboxic conditions that are potentially stressful to organisms. Sediment oxygen flux is known to depend on ambient dissolved oxygen concentration, but behavioral responses ...


Site Fidelity Of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus) Using Elemental Analyses And Photo-Identification, Lauren R. Clance May 2022

Site Fidelity Of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus) Using Elemental Analyses And Photo-Identification, Lauren R. Clance

Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this study was to determine if bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Alabama waters acquire location-specific elemental signatures indicative of site fidelity. I measured trace metal concentrations (Chapter II) and stable isotope ratios (Chapter III) in skin from free-ranging dolphins remotely biopsied in Mobile Bay, the northern Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) and eastern Mississippi Sound (EMSS). Elemental findings were corroborated with photo-identification data. I found that dolphins acquired some location-specific elements indicative of site fidelity, with the greatest differences at geographic extremes, particularly relative to salinity. For trace metals, highest concentrations were found in winter, consistent with higher ...


Temporal And Spatial Comparison Of Pseudo-Nitzschia Species Composition And Domoic Acid In Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island And The Northeast U.S. Shelf, Isabella Church, Bethany D. Jenkins May 2022

Temporal And Spatial Comparison Of Pseudo-Nitzschia Species Composition And Domoic Acid In Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island And The Northeast U.S. Shelf, Isabella Church, Bethany D. Jenkins

Senior Honors Projects

Diatoms are unicellular algae that make up a significant portion of phytoplankton biomass at the base of marine food webs. Narragansett Bay (NB), RI is home to several species of the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia (P-n), some of which are known to cause harmful algal blooms through the production of the potent neurotoxin domoic acid (DA). This toxin can lead to Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning in humans through the consumption of affected shellfish. Although the presence of P-n has been well established in NB for over 50 years, DA levels have only recently become a problem, with shellfish harvest closures in 2016 ...


Length-Based Risk Analysis Of Management Options For The Southern Florida Usa Multispecies Coral Reef Fish Fishery, Jerald Ault, Steven G. Smith, Matthew W. Johnson, Laura Jay W. Grove, James A. Bohnsack, Gerard T. Dinardo, Caroline Mclaughlin, Nelson M. Ehrhardt, Vanessa Mcdonough, Michael P. Seki, Steven Miller, Jiangang Luo, Jeremiah Blondeau, Michael P. Crosby, Glenn Simpson, Mark E. Monaco, Clayton G. Pollock, Michael W. Feeley, Alejandro Acosta May 2022

Length-Based Risk Analysis Of Management Options For The Southern Florida Usa Multispecies Coral Reef Fish Fishery, Jerald Ault, Steven G. Smith, Matthew W. Johnson, Laura Jay W. Grove, James A. Bohnsack, Gerard T. Dinardo, Caroline Mclaughlin, Nelson M. Ehrhardt, Vanessa Mcdonough, Michael P. Seki, Steven Miller, Jiangang Luo, Jeremiah Blondeau, Michael P. Crosby, Glenn Simpson, Mark E. Monaco, Clayton G. Pollock, Michael W. Feeley, Alejandro Acosta

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Exploitation impacts and management options for 15 coral reef fish species central to the commercial and recreational fisheries of the southern Florida USA coral reef ecosystem were evaluated using a length-based risk analysis (LBRA) framework. Population abundance-at-length composition data were obtained from several regional federal-state sampling programs. These and updated life history demographic data were integrated into a length-based numerical cohort model to generate LBRA fishery sustainability metrics from a probabilistic perspective. Three of five groupers, eight of eight snappers, and two of two grunts were below the 40% spawning potential ratio (SPR) stock sustainability minimum; ten of these stocks ...


Red Harvester Ant (Pogonomyrmex Barbatus F. Smith; Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Preference For Cover Crop Seeds In South Texas, Lilly Victoria Elliott-Vidaurri, Daniella Rivera, Adrian Noval, Robin A. Choudhury, Hannah J. Penn Apr 2022

Red Harvester Ant (Pogonomyrmex Barbatus F. Smith; Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Preference For Cover Crop Seeds In South Texas, Lilly Victoria Elliott-Vidaurri, Daniella Rivera, Adrian Noval, Robin A. Choudhury, Hannah J. Penn

Earth, Environmental, and Marine Sciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Harvester ants often selectively forage seeds, causing these ants to be viewed as pests in agricultural areas where they may forage on crop seeds. While little research has been done on harvester ant preferences for cover crop seeds, grower observations in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) suggest that ants may remove these seeds before germination. We examined red harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex barbatus F. Smith) preferences for cover crop seeds (fescue, oat, sunn hemp, radish, vetch, and wheatgrass) and the effects of a commonly used bacterial seed inoculant. We evaluated relative preferences using seed depots presented to colonies with no ...


Pre-Growth Environmental Stresses Affect Foodborne Pathogens Response To Subsequent Chemical Treatments, Amandeep Singh, Veerachandra K. Yemmireddy Apr 2022

Pre-Growth Environmental Stresses Affect Foodborne Pathogens Response To Subsequent Chemical Treatments, Amandeep Singh, Veerachandra K. Yemmireddy

Earth, Environmental, and Marine Sciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes are known to survive under different environmental stresses with an effect on their physiological properties. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different environmental stresses on the foodborne pathogens response to subsequent chemical treatments. Three types of pathogens Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes were subjected to different environmental stresses: (i) Desiccation (ii) high salt (iii) low pH, and (iv) temperatures (14, 23, and 37 °C) during their growth. The cells harvested at their early stationary growth phase were subsequently subjected to ...


Movement Patterns Of The Shovelnose Guitarfish (Pseudobatos Productus) And California Bat Ray (Myliobatis Californica) In The Southern California Bight, Annabel Gong Apr 2022

Movement Patterns Of The Shovelnose Guitarfish (Pseudobatos Productus) And California Bat Ray (Myliobatis Californica) In The Southern California Bight, Annabel Gong

Theses

While the movement patterns of large elasmobranch species have been studied extensively, those of smaller, mesopredatory species remain understudied. The shovelnose guitarfish (Pseudobatos productus) and the California bat ray (Myliobatis californica) are among the least studied elasmobranchs in the Southern California Bight. This study quantified the broad- and fine-scale movement patterns of these species using passive acoustic telemetry. Twelve guitarfish were surgically implanted with coded acoustic transmitters at a known aggregation site off La Jolla (San Diego County), California, USA and tracked for 849.5 days each, on average. Six bat rays were also implanted here and tracked for 1143 ...


Development And Validation Of An Edna Protocol For Monitoring Endemic Asian Spiny Frogs In The Himalayan Region Of Pakistan, Muhammad Saeed, Muhammad Rais, Ayesha Akram, Maggie R. Williams, Kenneth F. Kellner, Syed A. Hashsham, Drew R. Davis Apr 2022

Development And Validation Of An Edna Protocol For Monitoring Endemic Asian Spiny Frogs In The Himalayan Region Of Pakistan, Muhammad Saeed, Muhammad Rais, Ayesha Akram, Maggie R. Williams, Kenneth F. Kellner, Syed A. Hashsham, Drew R. Davis

Earth, Environmental, and Marine Sciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Wildlife monitoring programs are instrumental for the assessment of species, habitat status, and for the management of factors affecting them. This is particularly important for species found in freshwater ecosystems, such as amphibians, as they have higher estimated extinction rates than terrestrial species. We developed and validated two species-specific environmental DNA (eDNA) protocols and applied them in the field to detect the Hazara Torrent Frog (Allopaa hazarensis) and Murree Hills Frog (Nanorana vicina). Additionally, we compared eDNA surveys with visual encounter surveys and estimated site occupancy. eDNA surveys resulted in higher occurrence probabilities for both A. hazarensis and N. vicina ...


Development And Assessment Of An Environmental Dna (Edna) Assay For A Cryptic Siren (Amphibia: Sirenidae), Krista M. Ruppert, Drew R. Davis, Md Saydur Rahman, Richard J. Kline Apr 2022

Development And Assessment Of An Environmental Dna (Edna) Assay For A Cryptic Siren (Amphibia: Sirenidae), Krista M. Ruppert, Drew R. Davis, Md Saydur Rahman, Richard J. Kline

Earth, Environmental, and Marine Sciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Environmental DNA (eDNA) assays have become a major aspect of surveys for aquatic organisms in the past decade. These methods are highly sensitive, making them well-suited for monitoring rare and cryptic species. Current efforts to study the Rio Grande Siren in southern Texas have been hampered due to the cryptic nature of these aquatic salamanders. Arid conditions further add to the difficulty in studying this species, as many water bodies they inhabit are ephemeral, sometimes constraining sampling efforts to a short window after heavy rain. Additionally, sirens are known to cease activity and reside underground when ponds begin to dry ...


Characterization Of Particulate Matter Species In An Area Impacted By Aggregate And Limestone Mining North Of San Antonio, Tx, Usa, Amit U. Raysoni, Esmeralda Mendez, August Luna, Joe Collins Apr 2022

Characterization Of Particulate Matter Species In An Area Impacted By Aggregate And Limestone Mining North Of San Antonio, Tx, Usa, Amit U. Raysoni, Esmeralda Mendez, August Luna, Joe Collins

Earth, Environmental, and Marine Sciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Aggregate and limestone mining in San Antonio's Bexar and Comal counties in Texas, USA, has caused considerable health concerns as of late. Aggregate mining actions can result in localized air quality issues in any neighborhood. Furthermore, heavy truck traffic, hauling, and transportation of the mined material contribute to pollution. In this research, PM species were sampled at four locations north of the San Antonio city limits. The data were collected using a TSI Air Quality Sampler that sampled PM1, PM2.5, PM4, PM10, wind speed, wind direction, temperature, and relative humidity. Continuous data with 1 min averages were recorded ...


The Influence Of Particle Concentration And Bulk Characteristics On Polarized Oceanographic Lidar Measurements, Brian L. Collister, Richard C. Zimmerman, Charles I. Sukenik, William M. Balch, Victoria J. Hill Apr 2022

The Influence Of Particle Concentration And Bulk Characteristics On Polarized Oceanographic Lidar Measurements, Brian L. Collister, Richard C. Zimmerman, Charles I. Sukenik, William M. Balch, Victoria J. Hill

OES Faculty Publications

Oceanographic lidar measurements of the linear depolarization ratio, δ, contain information on the bulk characteristics of marine particles that could improve our ability to study ocean biogeochemistry. However, a scarcity of information on the polarized light-scattering properties of marine particles and the lack of a framework for separating single and multiple scattering effects on δ have hindered the development of polarization-based retrievals of bulk particle properties. To address these knowledge gaps, we made single scattering measurements of δ for several compositionally and morphologically distinct marine particle assemblages. We then used a bio-optical model to explore the influence of multiple scattering ...


Centering Community Voices In Mining Governance, Anna Erwin, Zhao Ma, Emma Patricia Salas O'Brien, Jonathan Bauchet, Nelly Ramirez Calderon, Eliseo Zeballos Zeballos, Glenn Roberto Arce Larrea, Ruxandra Popovici, Laura Zanotti, Chelsea A. Silva Mar 2022

Centering Community Voices In Mining Governance, Anna Erwin, Zhao Ma, Emma Patricia Salas O'Brien, Jonathan Bauchet, Nelly Ramirez Calderon, Eliseo Zeballos Zeballos, Glenn Roberto Arce Larrea, Ruxandra Popovici, Laura Zanotti, Chelsea A. Silva

Earth, Environmental, and Marine Sciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Peru has shifted away from centralized mining management to governance among government, companies, and communities. Various mechanisms facilitate community participation, including the mining canon, dialogues, and corporate social responsibility programs. Even with these laws and mechanisms, mining pollution and conflicts continue. In this study, we ask: how do communities perceive and participate in mining governance? And what are some alternative ways, driven by community priorities, to address governance in mining contexts? We collected 53 semi-structured with agricultural actors in two Peruvian districts with mining activity and analyzed those perspectives through the lens of community-centered governance. Our analyses revealed how centering ...


Comparative Toxicity Of Hydrocarbons For Evaluation Of Lysmata Boggessi As An Experimental Proxy For Deep-Water Column Micronekton, Dorothy-Ellen A. Renegar, Nicholas Turner, Gopal Bera, Eileen G. Whitemiller, Bernhard Riegl, Jose Sericano, Anthony H. Knap Mar 2022

Comparative Toxicity Of Hydrocarbons For Evaluation Of Lysmata Boggessi As An Experimental Proxy For Deep-Water Column Micronekton, Dorothy-Ellen A. Renegar, Nicholas Turner, Gopal Bera, Eileen G. Whitemiller, Bernhard Riegl, Jose Sericano, Anthony H. Knap

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

The potential impacts of sub-surface hydrocarbon plumes to deep-water column micronekton are an important consideration in a more complete understanding of ecosystem effects resulting from deep-sea oil spills. However, evaluating toxicity in these organisms presents multiple challenges, and the use of a shallow-water proxy species allows comparison and validation of experimental results. This study thus examined the suitability of the peppermint shrimp, Lysmata boggessi, as an experimental proxy for ecologically important deep-sea zooplankton/micronekton in hydrocarbon toxicity assays. This crustacean species occurs in shallow coastal marine environments throughout the western Atlantic, Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico, is similar in size ...


[Opinion Piece] Comparison Of Recent Survey Techniques For Estimating Benthic Cover On Caribbean Mesophotic Reefs, Joseph R. Pawlik, Roy A. Armstrong, Stephanie Farrington, John Reed, Sara Rivero-Calle, Hanumant Singh, Brian Walker, Jason White Mar 2022

[Opinion Piece] Comparison Of Recent Survey Techniques For Estimating Benthic Cover On Caribbean Mesophotic Reefs, Joseph R. Pawlik, Roy A. Armstrong, Stephanie Farrington, John Reed, Sara Rivero-Calle, Hanumant Singh, Brian Walker, Jason White

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Highly divergent estimates of benthic cover of sponges have been reported for Caribbean mesophotic reefs (90-100 m) based on quadrat point-intercept data collection using 2 methods: visual surveys conducted in situ by technical divers, and analyses of photographs taken by unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs). The second method has been criticized for potential errors from image distortion caused by variable camera angle relative to the substratum, but without a broader comparison of both methods. We find that studies that have used the UUV-based method are advantageous for a number of reasons, most importantly: (1) access to the full mesophotic zone, (2 ...


A General Pattern Of Trade-Offs Between Ecosystem Resistance And Resilience To Tropical Cyclones, Christopher J. Patrick, John S. Kominoski, (...), Enie Hensel, Marc J. S. Hense, Bradley A. Strickland, (..), A. K. Hardison, Sean Kinard, Et Al Mar 2022

A General Pattern Of Trade-Offs Between Ecosystem Resistance And Resilience To Tropical Cyclones, Christopher J. Patrick, John S. Kominoski, (...), Enie Hensel, Marc J. S. Hense, Bradley A. Strickland, (..), A. K. Hardison, Sean Kinard, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Tropical cyclones drive coastal ecosystem dynamics, and their frequency, intensity, and spatial distribution are pre-dicted to shift with climate change. Patterns of resistance and resilience were synthesized for 4138 ecosystem time series from n = 26 storms occurring between 1985 and 2018 in the Northern Hemisphere to predict how coastal ecosystems will respond to future disturbance regimes. Data were grouped by ecosystems (fresh water, salt water, terrestrial, and wetland) and response categories (biogeochemistry, hydrography, mobile biota, sedentary fauna, and vascular plants). We observed a repeated pattern of trade-offs between resistance and resilience across analyses. These patterns are likely the outcomes of ...


Analysis Of The Magnetic Signature Of Surface Waves Measured In A Laboratory Experiment, John Kluge, Alex Soloviev, Cayla W. Dean, Geoffrey K. Morrison, Brian K. Haus Mar 2022

Analysis Of The Magnetic Signature Of Surface Waves Measured In A Laboratory Experiment, John Kluge, Alex Soloviev, Cayla W. Dean, Geoffrey K. Morrison, Brian K. Haus

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

A magnetic signature is created by secondary magnetic field fluctuations caused by the phenomenon of seawater moving in Earth’s magnetic field. A laboratory experiment was conducted at the SUrge STructure Atmosphere INteraction (SUSTAIN) facility to measure the magnetic signature of surface waves using a differential method: a pair of magnetometers, separated horizontally by one-half wavelength, were placed at several locations on the outer tank walls. This technique significantly reduced the extraneous magnetic distortions that were detected simultaneously by both sensors and additionally doubled the magnetic signal of surface waves. Accelerometer measurements and local gradients were used to identify magnetic ...


The Risk Of Multiple Anthropogenic And Climate Change Threats Must Be Considered For Continental Scale Conservation And Management Of Seagrass Habitat, Kathryn Mcmahon, Kieryn Kilminster, Robert Canto, Chris Roelfsema, Mitchell Lyons, Gary A. Kendrick, Michelle Waycott, James Udy Mar 2022

The Risk Of Multiple Anthropogenic And Climate Change Threats Must Be Considered For Continental Scale Conservation And Management Of Seagrass Habitat, Kathryn Mcmahon, Kieryn Kilminster, Robert Canto, Chris Roelfsema, Mitchell Lyons, Gary A. Kendrick, Michelle Waycott, James Udy

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Globally marine-terrestrial interfaces are highly impacted due to a range of human pressures. Seagrass habitats exist in the shallow marine waters of this interface, have significant values and are impacted by a range of pressures. Cumulative risk analysis is widely used to identify risk from multiple threats and assist in prioritizing management actions. This study conducted a cumulative risk analysis of seagrass habitat associated with the Australian continent to support management actions. We developed a spatially explicit risk model based on a database of threats to coastal aquatic habitat in Australia, spanning 35,000 km of coastline. Risk hotspots were ...


A Non-Iteration Solution For Solving The Backward-In-Time Two-Dimensional Burgers’ Equation With A Large Reynolds Number, Yen-Shen Chang, Yung-Wei Chen, Chein-Shan Liu, Jiang-Ren Chang Mar 2022

A Non-Iteration Solution For Solving The Backward-In-Time Two-Dimensional Burgers’ Equation With A Large Reynolds Number, Yen-Shen Chang, Yung-Wei Chen, Chein-Shan Liu, Jiang-Ren Chang

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

This article proposes a noniteration solution based on the Lie-group shooting method (LGSM) to solve the backward-in-time two-dimensional Burgers’ equation with a large Reynolds number. The backward problem is famous for seriously ill-posed cases because the solution is generally unstable and highly dependent on the input data. Small perturbations in the input data, such as random errors inherent to the measurements in the analysis, can cause large oscillations in the solution. To handle a large Reynolds number under long time spans, it is very difficult to integrate towards the time direction. To avoid time integration and numerical iteration, the noniteration ...


Polyketides And Terpenes In Marine Microalgae: Ecological Roles And Mechanisms Of Biosynthesis, Yunxuan Xie, Mohammad Elsheikh Mar 2022

Polyketides And Terpenes In Marine Microalgae: Ecological Roles And Mechanisms Of Biosynthesis, Yunxuan Xie, Mohammad Elsheikh

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

Marine microalgae comprise a large number of polyketides and terpenes identified to date with highly diverse molecular scaffolds and the biological activities (Kalaitzis et al., 2010). These compounds play significant roles in marine food web and nutraceutical supplementation in marine animals. Compounds of this class are often synthesized by gene clusters with dedicated domains responsible for carbon chain extension and modification. The unique molecular structure of these compounds encourages people to investigate their biosynthetic mechanisms in-depth. In this review, we summarize relevant articles to unravel the shared mechanisms of these compounds to further understand the variety of domain organizations and ...


Unbaited Light-Emitting Diode Traps Performance For Catching Orange Mud Crabs, Muhamad Naimullah, Kuo-Wei Lan, Mhd Ikhwanuddin, Adnan Amin-Safwan, Wei-Yu Lee Mar 2022

Unbaited Light-Emitting Diode Traps Performance For Catching Orange Mud Crabs, Muhamad Naimullah, Kuo-Wei Lan, Mhd Ikhwanuddin, Adnan Amin-Safwan, Wei-Yu Lee

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

Mud crabs (Scylla spp.) are a vital fishery resource and targeted for a valuable source of income for coastal communities throughout the Indo-Pacific region. Baited traps are a considerable expense in crustacean fishing. Hence, the present study was performed to investigate the catchability of Scylla olivacea in response to light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in captivity and field conditions. We used a new experimental setup in the captivity condition that revealed most S. olivacea were attracted to green, blue, and white LED lights and no attractive effect by red LED lights similar to the controls. Field studies have shown that the catch ...


Catch And Effort Standardization For Taiwanese Swordtip Squid Uroteuthis Edulis Fisheries In The Southern East China Sea, Ke-Yang Chang, Yu-Jie Hsu, Tzu-Yun Ching, Cheng-Hsin Liao, Chih-Shin Chen Mar 2022

Catch And Effort Standardization For Taiwanese Swordtip Squid Uroteuthis Edulis Fisheries In The Southern East China Sea, Ke-Yang Chang, Yu-Jie Hsu, Tzu-Yun Ching, Cheng-Hsin Liao, Chih-Shin Chen

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

The swordtip squid Uroteuthis edulis is a neritic squid species that is widely distributed within the coastal waters of subtropical and tropical Indo-western Pacific regions. This squid is a commercially important species throughout its distribution range and plays a critical role in marine ecosystems. Stock assessments of the squid in the East China Sea (ECS) are scarce, although it is crucial information for the sustainability of the squid and relevant fisheries. The squid was harvested by various fisheries in the southern ECS, which could restrict methods for catch-effort standardization. In this study, catch-effort data of Taiwanese swordtip squid fisheries in ...


Uniform Torsion Analysis Of Composite Shafts Using Point Collocation Method Based On Pascal Polynomials, Chih-Wen Chang, Jyh-Hong Wu, Ying-Ru Lin, Yu-Feng Lin, Nan-Nong Huang Mar 2022

Uniform Torsion Analysis Of Composite Shafts Using Point Collocation Method Based On Pascal Polynomials, Chih-Wen Chang, Jyh-Hong Wu, Ying-Ru Lin, Yu-Feng Lin, Nan-Nong Huang

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

Torsion bars are important elements in the marine structure applications. The usage of the composite torsion bars has increased recently because it takes advantage of the different material property of each constituent. The current research focuses mainly on the uniform warping analysis of composite torsion shafts by using the point collocation method (PCM). The PCM is based on Pascal's triangle polynomial expansion and coupled with subdomain technique that is indispensable for the analysis of composite bars. In addition to satisfying the field equation (Laplace equation for warping function) and traction-free boundary condition for each component, the continuity conditions in ...


Local Reinforcement Design And Safety Factor Evaluation Of Elliptical Hatch Of Pressure Hull, Guang-Min Luo, Jun-Wei Chen Mar 2022

Local Reinforcement Design And Safety Factor Evaluation Of Elliptical Hatch Of Pressure Hull, Guang-Min Luo, Jun-Wei Chen

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

A pressure hull is the primary pressure-resistant structure of a submarine. To safeguard the compressive strength of such a hull, local structural reinforcement is required for various hatches on the hull. Hatches are commonly reinforced through increasing the thickness of the hull regions around them; alternatively, hatch nozzle walls are connected with stiffened frames to maintain the continuity of reinforced structures. This study focused on a pressure hull with an elliptical hatch. A PD-5500 cylindrical pressure hull was used to design a cylindrical pressure hull structure, and a model of hatch nozzle reinforcement was designed using the Boiler and Pressure ...


Effects Of Dietary Lipid, L-Carnitine And L-Lysine Supplementation On The Growth Performance And Body Composition Of Epinephelus Lanceolatus Larvae, Jen-Hong Chu, Yu-Cong Hong, Angela Chien, Shyn-Shin Sheen Mar 2022

Effects Of Dietary Lipid, L-Carnitine And L-Lysine Supplementation On The Growth Performance And Body Composition Of Epinephelus Lanceolatus Larvae, Jen-Hong Chu, Yu-Cong Hong, Angela Chien, Shyn-Shin Sheen

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

The effects of different combinations of dietary lipid, L-carnitine and L-lysine on the growth performance and fatty acid profiles of larval grouper Epinephalus lanceolatus were evaluated. Eight treatment diets were formulated based on a 2x2x2 factorial design, namely 5 and 14% dietary oil mixture (3:1 fish oil/soybean oil), 0 and 0.5% L-carnitine and 0 and 2.83% L-lysine. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of ten 0.08g E. lanceolatus larvae for 42 days. The grouper larvae fed with diets containing 14% lipid had significantly higher weight gain percentages than those fed with diets containing ...


Spatial And Temporal Patterns Of Fire On Saipan, Cnmi, Ilan E. Bubb, Zachary B. Williams Mar 2022

Spatial And Temporal Patterns Of Fire On Saipan, Cnmi, Ilan E. Bubb, Zachary B. Williams

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Sediment core studies from Saipan suggest that fires did not play a prominent role in the disturbance regime of the Mariana Islands and have increased in frequency since human settlement around 4,000 years ago. On Saipan fires are understood to interrupt the pattern of succession leading to the degradation of native limestone forests, the proliferation of grasslands and the eventual creation of badlands. Little baseline data regarding the spatial and temporal patterns of fire on Saipan exist to create effective Fire Management Plans. This project uses Landsat 8 images from April 2013 to July 2020 and the Normalized Burn ...


Niches Of Marine Mammals In The European Arctic, K. M. Mackenzie, C. Lydersen, T. Haug, H. Routti, J. Aars, C. M. Andvik, K. Borgå, A. T. Fisk, S. Meier, M. Biuw, A. D. Lowther, U. Lindstrøm, K. M. Kovacs Mar 2022

Niches Of Marine Mammals In The European Arctic, K. M. Mackenzie, C. Lydersen, T. Haug, H. Routti, J. Aars, C. M. Andvik, K. Borgå, A. T. Fisk, S. Meier, M. Biuw, A. D. Lowther, U. Lindstrøm, K. M. Kovacs

Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research Publications

The Arctic is warming rapidly, with concomitant sea ice losses and ecosystem changes. The animals most vulnerable to Arctic food web changes are long-lived and slow-growing such as marine mammals, which may not be able to adapt rapidly enough to respond to changes in their resource bases. To determine the current extent and sources of these resource bases, we examined isotopic and trophic niches for marine mammals in the European Arctic using skin carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ 15N) stable isotope (SI) compositions from 10 species: blue, fin, humpback, minke, sperm and white whales, bearded and ringed seals, walruses and ...