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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Genetic Impacts Of Deforestation On Mouse Lemurs, Darice Westphal Jun 2022

Genetic Impacts Of Deforestation On Mouse Lemurs, Darice Westphal

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The impact of deforestation on the genetic structure of mouse lemurs is poorly understood. In this project, I assess deforestation of Madagascar’s terrestrial protected regions, quantify genomic wide genetic variation in two sympatric mouse lemurs, and evaluate the role of landscape structure in genetic relatedness patterns within two sympatric mouse lemur species. Overall deforestation rates across the 98 terrestrial protected areas in Madagascar are increasing, resulting in an average annual deforestation rate of 0.68% per year, with approximately 10,600 km2 lost between 2000 and 2019. In a comparison of relatedness patterns between the sympatric gray mouse ...


Cdc6 Is Sequentially Regulated By Pp2a-Cdc55, Cdc14, And Sic1 For Origin Licensing In S. Cerevisiae, Jasmin Philip Jun 2022

Cdc6 Is Sequentially Regulated By Pp2a-Cdc55, Cdc14, And Sic1 For Origin Licensing In S. Cerevisiae, Jasmin Philip

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Control of DNA replication is critical for progression of the cell cycle and genomic stability. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) coordinate numerous phosphorylation events to accomplish two biological tasks for all living organisms: DNA replication and cell division. One CDK, Cyclin-Cdc28, is responsible for cell cycle progression in budding yeast. DNA replication requires a stepwise assembly of the pre-replicative complex on DNA, including Orc1-6, Cdc6, Cdt1 and Mcm2-7, during M-G1 phase. Cdc6 contains eight Cdc28 consensus sites, SP or TP motifs. Clb5-Cdc28 phosphorylates Cdc6-T7 to recruit Cks1, the Cdc28 phospho-adaptor, for subsequent multisite phosphorylation during S phase. There are two phospho-degrons at ...


Gene Drives And The Consequences Of Over-Suppression, Cole Butler May 2022

Gene Drives And The Consequences Of Over-Suppression, Cole Butler

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Elevated Substitution Rates Among Wolbachia-Infected Mosquito Species Results In Apparent Phylogenetic Discordance., James E. Russell, Michael Saum, Rebekah Williams May 2022

Elevated Substitution Rates Among Wolbachia-Infected Mosquito Species Results In Apparent Phylogenetic Discordance., James E. Russell, Michael Saum, Rebekah Williams

Georgia Journal of Science

As one of the most widely distributed bacterial cytoplasmic symbionts on earth, Wolbachia pipientis Hertig serves as a model organism for the understanding of host-symbiont interactions. Many mosquito species are infected with Wolbachia strains that induce a form of reproductive manipulation called cytoplasmic incompatibility, in which infected females gain a reproductive advantage over uninfected females in mixed infection populations. The selective advantage of cytoplasmic incompatibility often results in a population sweep of Wolbachia and co-transmitted mitochondrial genomes. Mitochondrial evolution and phylogenetic inferences drawn from mitochondrial gene sequences are thus potentially compromised by reproductive manipulating symbionts, like Wolbachia. Our initial analyses ...


Investigation Into The Genetic Basis Of Capsaicin Production In Peppers Using Next Generation Rna Sequencing And Synthetic Biology Approaches, Ryan Patrick Calhoun May 2022

Investigation Into The Genetic Basis Of Capsaicin Production In Peppers Using Next Generation Rna Sequencing And Synthetic Biology Approaches, Ryan Patrick Calhoun

Theses and Dissertations

Capsaicin, a molecule synthesized by plants in the Capsicum genus, is popular for its ability to produce a sensation of burning in any tissue it encounters. The synthesis of capsaicin molecules is achieved through the capsaicin biosynthesis pathway. In this dual study, our goal was to insert two crucial genes, pun1 and pAMT, into a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to allow capsaicin synthesis and perform Illumina RNA sequencing on seven pepper species of increasing pungency to identify other key or novel genes needed or related to capsaicin synthesis. We implemented a golden gate cloning strategy to insert our genes of ...


Characterization Of A Helicobacter Pylori Small Rna By Rt-Pcr, Roxanne Mcpeck, Andrea Castillo May 2022

Characterization Of A Helicobacter Pylori Small Rna By Rt-Pcr, Roxanne Mcpeck, Andrea Castillo

2022 Symposium

Helicobacter pylori, a bacterial gastric pathogen infecting approximately 50% of the human population, produces gastritis, ulcers, and gastric cancers. Colonizing the inhospitable and fluctuating environment in the stomach requires tight genetic control. However, H. pylori lacks many genetic regulatory elements present in other bacteria to control gene expression. Instead, over 200 small RNAs (sRNAs; noncoding RNAs shorter than 300 nucleotides) have been found in this bacterium, but few have been fully characterized. Of those, many are antisense to virulence genes. Characterizing these sRNAs is important in understanding the mechanisms of molecular genetics and potentially supporting medical management of this pathogen ...


Isolation Of Arabidopsis Thaliana Plants Homozygous For An Insertional Inactivation Mutation Within Atprp4., Sydney Raitz, Timothy D. Trott May 2022

Isolation Of Arabidopsis Thaliana Plants Homozygous For An Insertional Inactivation Mutation Within Atprp4., Sydney Raitz, Timothy D. Trott

Faculty Works

The AtPRP4 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana has been shown to function in several specific parts of the plant’s cell wall. It is shown to be expressed in the seeds, radicles, roots, leaves, inflorescences, and embryos of Arabidopsis thaliana. These patterns have suggested unique functions for ATPRP4 in determining cell-type-specific wall structure during the development of a plant as well as contributing to defense reactions against physical damage to the plant and pathogen infection within the plant. In this study, a simple DNA prep was performed on the true leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. Subsequent PCR reactions were performed using AtPRP4F ...


Comparing Two Non-Invasive Methods For Assessing Marine Mammal Genetic Diversity: Environmental Dna Vs. Fecal Dna, Sydney Jackson May 2022

Comparing Two Non-Invasive Methods For Assessing Marine Mammal Genetic Diversity: Environmental Dna Vs. Fecal Dna, Sydney Jackson

Honors College

As technology and science progresses, the methodology behind observing, monitoring, and sampling marine mammals advances as well. One such technique is environmental DNA or eDNA, which entails extracting organismal DNA from water samples without ever handling or disturbing the organism. It is a cost-efficient and non-invasive method that can be utilized in the sampling of seal haulout sites as is its purpose for this research. Another method, using the DNA analysis of seal fecal samples, is a less invasive method that can also be utilized to monitor and assess marine mammals. Through collecting both fecal and water samples from gray ...


Effects Of Sunrise/Sunset Lighting On Corticosterone Levels In Coturnix Quail (Coturnix Coturnix), Hannah Feuerborn May 2022

Effects Of Sunrise/Sunset Lighting On Corticosterone Levels In Coturnix Quail (Coturnix Coturnix), Hannah Feuerborn

Poultry Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Both genetics and environment play an important role in the growth, performance and overall welfare of poultry species. Current commercial production practices typically do not mimic the natural environmental conditions of ancestral poultry species, specifically lighting requirements. In nature, poultry species are subjected to natural day length and the slow rising and setting of the sun. This is compared to commercial conditions in which lights are sudden on/off, not mimicking the natural trajectory of the sun in terms of light intensity and exposure. The current study aimed to evaluate the impact of genetics and the effect of sunrise/sunset ...


Scalable Software Infrastructure For The Lab And A Specific Investigation Of The Yeast Transcription Factor Eds1, Chase Mateusiak May 2022

Scalable Software Infrastructure For The Lab And A Specific Investigation Of The Yeast Transcription Factor Eds1, Chase Mateusiak

McKelvey School of Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Individual biology labs handle increasingly large data sets. Ensuring accurate data entry, consistent sample metadata, and ease of access to the data once it is stored, are critical for both the integrity of analysis as well as productivity of the lab. Chapter 1 one of this thesis describes three implementations of software meant to facilitate handling data and metadata in the lab as the size of the data and complexity of analysis scale. The first piece of software is a database and entry interface for storing a large and varied amount of data on biological samples. The second is a ...


Characterizing The Expression Pattern And Function Of Tartan During Drosophila Development, Alaina Baggett May 2022

Characterizing The Expression Pattern And Function Of Tartan During Drosophila Development, Alaina Baggett

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The development of complex structures and organs by multicellular organisms relies on the ability of epithelial cells to self-organize. Epithelia are sheets of connected cells, and compartment boundaries are formed between certain epithelial cells to create distinct tissue compartments. Compartment boundaries are specialized cell-cell interfaces that are enriched for the cytoskeletal proteins actin and myosin, leading to straight cell edges under relatively high tension that act as fences keep cells from moving between compartments. In the model organism Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), compartment boundaries in the early embryo are established in response to the non-uniform striped expression of the cell-surface ...


Root Phenotyping Of Peptide-Treated Glycine Max, Salem Jackson May 2022

Root Phenotyping Of Peptide-Treated Glycine Max, Salem Jackson

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Plant elicitor peptides (Peps) – endogenous chains of amino acids involved in natural plant defense – have been shown to decrease damage from herbivores and pathogens by inducing an immune response, increasing the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), transcripts, and metabolites. Exogenous treatment of soybean seeds with plant elicitor peptide GmPep3 has been shown to induce these broad-spectrum defenses and offers a new method for increasing crop yield. However, the effects of GmPep3 on indicators of soybean health – root characteristics, growth stages, etc. – have not been fully realized.

Using the root-phenotyping platform RhizoVision Explorer, several root traits of soybean plants treated ...


The Effects Of Deletion Of The Cytoplasmic Domain Of Robo3 On Drosophila, Jessie Agcaoili May 2022

The Effects Of Deletion Of The Cytoplasmic Domain Of Robo3 On Drosophila, Jessie Agcaoili

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

My research project examines how the deletion of the cytoplasmic domain affects the function of Robo3. If Robo3 is signaling repulsion in response to SLIT this activity should require the cytoplasmic domain. I investigated the functional importance of Robo3 by deleting the cytoplasmic domain of Robo3 using a CRISPR-based technique. This modified gene was then injected into Drosophila embryos where it replaced the normal copy of the gene. Embryos expressing the modified version of robo3 in place of normal robo3 were dissected and examined.


Comparative Analyses Of De Novo Transcriptome Assembly Pipelines For Diploid Wheat, Natasha Pavlovikj May 2022

Comparative Analyses Of De Novo Transcriptome Assembly Pipelines For Diploid Wheat, Natasha Pavlovikj

Computer Science and Engineering: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

Gene expression and transcriptome analysis are currently one of the main focuses of research for a great number of scientists. However, the assembly of raw sequence data to obtain a draft transcriptome of an organism is a complex multi-stage process usually composed of pre-processing, assembling, and post-processing. Each of these stages includes multiple steps such as data cleaning, error correction and assembly validation. Different combinations of steps, as well as different computational methods for the same step, generate transcriptome assemblies with different accuracy. Thus, using a combination that generates more accurate assemblies is crucial for any novel biological discoveries. Implementing ...


Temporal And Spatial Comparison Of Pseudo-Nitzschia Species Composition And Domoic Acid In Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island And The Northeast U.S. Shelf, Isabella Church, Bethany D. Jenkins May 2022

Temporal And Spatial Comparison Of Pseudo-Nitzschia Species Composition And Domoic Acid In Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island And The Northeast U.S. Shelf, Isabella Church, Bethany D. Jenkins

Senior Honors Projects

Diatoms are unicellular algae that make up a significant portion of phytoplankton biomass at the base of marine food webs. Narragansett Bay (NB), RI is home to several species of the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia (P-n), some of which are known to cause harmful algal blooms through the production of the potent neurotoxin domoic acid (DA). This toxin can lead to Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning in humans through the consumption of affected shellfish. Although the presence of P-n has been well established in NB for over 50 years, DA levels have only recently become a problem, with shellfish harvest closures in 2016 ...


Investigation Of Microbe And Host Tissue Interactions Contributing To The Pathogenesis Of Colorectal Cancer, Ryan Chapman, Dhundy Bastola May 2022

Investigation Of Microbe And Host Tissue Interactions Contributing To The Pathogenesis Of Colorectal Cancer, Ryan Chapman, Dhundy Bastola

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. The pathogenesis of this disease can fall under broad categories; however, the specific precursory mechanism of CRC pathogenesis is still unknown. Dysregulations of the gut microbiome have been identified in the CRC tissue environment. Additionally, CRC tissue gene expression has been observed to differ from that of healthy tissue. Despite these noticeable changes, few studies have directly compared the microorganism composition to the gene expression of CRC tissue. Doing so may identify whether the differentially abundant microorganisms influence the changes in gene expression. The goal of this ...


Severe Hypoxia Up-Regulates Gluconeogenesis In Daphnia, Morad C. Malek May 2022

Severe Hypoxia Up-Regulates Gluconeogenesis In Daphnia, Morad C. Malek

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Hypoxia is a significant low oxygen state that has complex and diverse impacts on organisms. In aerobes, hypoxia causes numerous physiological changes and adaptive responses that vary depending on the level of oxygen depletion and on previous adaptation, hence its continued attention as an important abiotic stressor. Adaptive responses to hypoxia are primarily governed by the hypoxia-inducible-factors (HIFs), which activate downstream genetic pathways responsible for metabolic adjustments and homeostasis maintenance. In aquatic organisms, hypoxia is an important ecological constraint, as oxygen availability within waterbodies can vary greatly over time and space. Therefore, adaptation to hypoxia is likely pervasive, especially in ...


Utilizing Pharmacology To Target Transcription Factors Involved With Cancer Onset And Development, Tristan D. Sanders Apr 2022

Utilizing Pharmacology To Target Transcription Factors Involved With Cancer Onset And Development, Tristan D. Sanders

Mountaineer Undergraduate Research Review

Transcription factors (TFs) are a vital part of every living organism on earth, as they allow for the correct genes to be expressed while much of the genome is never used. They can fall victim to mutations or manipulations that lead to the deregulation of many genes within a cell. If specific genes are over/under-expressed, a cell may become cancerous and begin replicating into a tumor. It has been demonstrated that common TFs associated with cancer can be targeted using small molecule drugs, and a popular target of these drugs is the DNA binding site on the TF along ...


Increased Risk Of Mental Illness Due To Epigenetic Alteration Of The Nr3c1 Gene After Early Life Adversity., Erin Mccue Apr 2022

Increased Risk Of Mental Illness Due To Epigenetic Alteration Of The Nr3c1 Gene After Early Life Adversity., Erin Mccue

Thinking Matters Symposium

Early life adversity (ELA), such as malnutrition, abuse, and economic disparity, is an issue commonly seen in adolescents, a group already facing increased risk for stress-related disorders. This review of current literature reveals that gestational stress exposure, as well as variations in maternal care during postnatal development, cause latent effects on the epigenome, specifically impacting the glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) encoded by the NR3C1 gene. GRs bind to glucocorticoids to regulate the body’s neuroendocrine stress response. However, in those with a history of ELA, the number of GRs is reduced, generating dysregulation within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Rodent studies are ...


The Central Dogma: Gene Expression, Ayisha Sookdeo Apr 2022

The Central Dogma: Gene Expression, Ayisha Sookdeo

Open Educational Resources

In this lesson plan, students will learn the basic structure and function of DNA and RNA. They will also learn the process of gene expression. Finally, students will learn about the scientific contributor, Ernest Everest Just, and his contributions to the field of Biology.


Exploration Of Genes Controlling Grain Yield Heterosis In Hybrid Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) Utilizing 3ʹ Rna Sequencing, Nichole Miller Apr 2022

Exploration Of Genes Controlling Grain Yield Heterosis In Hybrid Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) Utilizing 3ʹ Rna Sequencing, Nichole Miller

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

The implementation and future success of hybrid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is impacted by breeders’ inability to create consistent high yielding, high heterosis hybrids. This research addresses this problem by conducting an exploration of transcriptomes from hybrids and parent lines to determine what genes are active in heterotic or non-heterotic hybrids and how their level of expression can explain the phenotype of grain yield heterosis. Using hybrids that showed positive mid-parent heterosis (MPH), classified as heterotic in our study, and negative or no difference MPH hybrids, classified as non-heterotic, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) potentially related to heterosis and hybrid yield ...


Covid Susceptibility And Severity Correlation With The Ace2 Gene, Natalie Taylor Apr 2022

Covid Susceptibility And Severity Correlation With The Ace2 Gene, Natalie Taylor

Thinking Matters Symposium

A wide spectrum of susceptibility and severity of infection has been observed among COVID-19 patients. While some individuals remain unaffected by the Sars-Cov-2 virus, others have contracted the virus multiple times with varying levels of severity. This poster reviews some of the research demonstrating a link between the susceptibility of the Sars-Cov- 2 virus and the severity of infection, and a specific gene called ACE2. The ACE2 gene encodes an angiotensin-converting enzyme that acts as a functional receptor for the spike glycoprotein receptor binding domain of the coronavirus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses. ACE2 presents numerous amino acid variants ...


Genomic Analysis Of Metabolic Differences Found In Clostridium Perfringens That Cause Necrotic Enteritis In Poultry, Connor Aylor Apr 2022

Genomic Analysis Of Metabolic Differences Found In Clostridium Perfringens That Cause Necrotic Enteritis In Poultry, Connor Aylor

Dissertations & Theses in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Clostridium perfringens is a common member of gut microbiota in healthy animals, but can also be an important pathogen in human and veterinary medicine. It produces several protein toxins that contribute to both histotoxic and enteric diseases in animals. Necrotic enteritis in poultry has been associated with the NetB toxin of C. perfringens; however, this toxin alone is insufficient to cause disease in infected chickens. While considerable research has focused on the presence of toxins and virulence factors, little has been done to assess the function of metabolic factors on the ability of the bacteria to cause disease. In this ...


Using Machine Learning To Recognize Chronic Rhinosinusitis, Irene Liu '23 Apr 2022

Using Machine Learning To Recognize Chronic Rhinosinusitis, Irene Liu '23

Student Publications & Research

Chronic Rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a nasal disease characterized by the inflammation of the mucosa and paranasal sinuses with a duration of at least 12 consecutive weeks. So, to diagnose CRS, one needs to keep a record of their symptoms for ~12 weeks before they are recommended to get a tomography which will allow physicians to classify them as a patient with CRS or without. This is a timely and costly process; thus, machine learning should be used to speed the process up. Since patients with CRS have more obstructed noses, the sound produced should be different than an individual without ...


The Synthesis And Purification Methodology Of An Intermolecular Pyrophosphate Sensor: Applications For The Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction, Ethan Gevedon Apr 2022

The Synthesis And Purification Methodology Of An Intermolecular Pyrophosphate Sensor: Applications For The Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction, Ethan Gevedon

Honors Projects

The optimized synthesis and purification methodology for an intermolecular pyrophosphate sensor scaffold molecule was performed: high performance liquid chromatography afforded the scaffold in excellent purity and yield. The applications of the sensor assembly in the quantitative polymerase chain reaction were discussed, and preliminary results show that


Using Conservation Genetics To Inform Reintroduction Of The Endangered Mottled Duskywing (Erynnis Martialis), Shayla Kroeze Apr 2022

Using Conservation Genetics To Inform Reintroduction Of The Endangered Mottled Duskywing (Erynnis Martialis), Shayla Kroeze

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Habitat loss and climate change have caused declines in species diversity and abundance globally, including in butterflies which are important components of many ecosystems. Reintroductions are increasingly used to reverse diversity loss but are most effective when informed using genetics. I developed 24 microsatellites and characterized genetic structure and diversity of the endangered Mottled Duskywing (Erynnis martialis) in Ontario and neighbouring provinces and states. These were used to inform a planned reintroduction in Ontario. Populations had moderate levels of genetic diversity, however all but the largest populations may be subject to appreciable levels of genetic drift. Populations more than 8 ...


Phenotype Characterization Of Sas-7(Or1945) C. Elegans, Chase Reinert Apr 2022

Phenotype Characterization Of Sas-7(Or1945) C. Elegans, Chase Reinert

Student Symposium

The ability to form a bipolar spindle is crucial for accurate cell division. In the nematode C. elegans several genes have been described with roles in spindle assembly including sas-7. The centriole is a key organizer of mitotic spindles. The sas-7 protein is a centriole component that regulates centriole duplication, elongation, and assembly. To date, most work on sas-7 was using a conditional non-null allele. In this study, phenotypes associated with the loss-of-function sas-7(or1945) null allele were characterized. Homozygous sas-7(or1945) hermaphrodites have reduced brood sizes with no viable embryos compared to wild-type and heterozygotes. When they do produce ...


Generating Improved Rna Localization Reporters Using The U1hp-U1a System, Ryan Dannemiller, Rebecca Adams Phd Apr 2022

Generating Improved Rna Localization Reporters Using The U1hp-U1a System, Ryan Dannemiller, Rebecca Adams Phd

Belmont University Research Symposium (BURS)

Generating Improved RNA Localization Reporters Using the U1hp-U1A System

Ryan Dannemiller, Rebecca Adams, PhD. Belmont University, Nashville, TN.

Messenger mRNA (mRNA) is genetic material that is used to bridge between DNA in the nucleus and protein-making machinery in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. The processes of transcription and translation are physically separated, so the localization of mRNA dictates whether the encoded protein can be generated. In order to observe the localization of specific transcripts in response to stimuli, tools are needed to track location of mRNA. For example, in response to heat shock and ethanol stress, most mRNA is retained ...


Identification Of Dna Methylation Episignatures For Classification And Phenotype/Genotype Correlation In Mendelian Neurodevelopmental Disorders, John Reilly Apr 2022

Identification Of Dna Methylation Episignatures For Classification And Phenotype/Genotype Correlation In Mendelian Neurodevelopmental Disorders, John Reilly

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

ABSTRACT: Diagnosis for neurodevelopmental disorders poses numerous challenges, related to the lack of specific findings and limited understanding of clinical impact of the majority of genetic variation. Epigenomics mechanisms involve chemical modifications in DNA that involve a range of cellular mechanisms. DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism involving addition and removal of methyl groups to cytosine residues. These methylation signals form episignatures; patterns of methylation that can be used as biomarkers capable of differentiating neurodevelopmental disorders. EpiSigns have enabled molecular diagnosis of a number of genetic conditions, classification of variants of unknown significance, and provided insights into the pathophysiology of ...


Spr-5; Met-2 Maternal Reprogramming Cooperates With The Dream Complex To Regulate Developmental Cell Fates, Jazmin Dozier, Sandra Nguyen, Brandon Carpenter Apr 2022

Spr-5; Met-2 Maternal Reprogramming Cooperates With The Dream Complex To Regulate Developmental Cell Fates, Jazmin Dozier, Sandra Nguyen, Brandon Carpenter

Symposium of Student Scholars

Histone methylation is a post-transcriptional modification to the N-terminal tails of histone core proteins that regulates DNA accessibility, and consequently, gene expression. Like DNA, histone methylation can be inherited between generations, and is highly regulated during embryonic development. At fertilization, histone methylation must undergo maternal reprogramming to reset the epigenetic landscape in the new zygote. During maternal reprogramming of histone methylation in the nematode, C. elegans, H3K4me (a modification associated with active transcription) is removed by the H3K4 demethylase, SPR-5, and H3K9me (a modification associated with transcriptional repression) is subsequently added by the histone methyltransferase, MET-2. Recently, it was demonstrated ...