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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Frayed Connections: How Long-Term Nitrogen Additions Disrupt Plant-Soil Interactions And The Carbon Cycle Of A Temperate Forest, Brooke A. Eastman Jan 2022

Frayed Connections: How Long-Term Nitrogen Additions Disrupt Plant-Soil Interactions And The Carbon Cycle Of A Temperate Forest, Brooke A. Eastman

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Forests are expected to mitigate some of the negative effects of climate change by sequestering anthropogenic carbon (C) from the atmosphere, but the degree to which they drawn down C will depend on the availability of key nutrients, such as nitrogen (N). There is a fair amount of uncertainty in the future of the forest C sink, mostly owing to the fate of soil organic matter (SOM) and soil heterotrophic respiration to future conditions. In N limited systems, plants allocate a significant amount of their photosynthate belowground for the acquisition of nutrients, but under conditions of chronic N deposition, plants …


Earthworm And Soil Data For Ottawa National Forest, Blair Orr Nov 2021

Earthworm And Soil Data For Ottawa National Forest, Blair Orr

Michigan Tech Research Data

Two types of analysis were run.

I. Probability of finding L. terrestris in habitat types of the Ottawa National Forests.

Abstract: Parts of the Ottawa National Forest (ONF) provide suitable habitat for invasive earthworms. Extensive earthworm invasion is a relatively recent event on the ONF and this study captures the current state of the earthworm invasion through a four-stage invasive species distribution model (iSDM). The random distribution of earthworms indicates early colonization by earthworms which is moderated by habitat (forest type, soil group, and drainage class). CART modeling was used to determine probability of earthworm invasion. The CART model had …


Losses Of Mineral Soil Carbon Largely Offset Biomass Accumulation Fifteen Years After Whole-Tree Harvest In A Northern Hardwood Forest, Matthew A. Vadeboncoeur, Steven P. Hamburg, Chris E. Johnson, Jonathan Sanderman May 2019

Losses Of Mineral Soil Carbon Largely Offset Biomass Accumulation Fifteen Years After Whole-Tree Harvest In A Northern Hardwood Forest, Matthew A. Vadeboncoeur, Steven P. Hamburg, Chris E. Johnson, Jonathan Sanderman

Earth Systems Research Center

Changes in soil carbon stocks following forest harvest can be an important component of ecosystem and landscape-scale C budgets in systems managed for bioenergy or carbon-trading markets. However, these changes are characterized less often and with less certainty than easier-to-measure aboveground stocks. We sampled soils prior to the whole-tree harvest of Watershed 5 at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in 1983, and again in years 3, 8, and 15 following harvest. The repeated measures of total soil C in this stand show no net change in the O horizon over 15 years, though mixing with the mineral soil reduced observed …


A Tree Species Effect On Soil That Is Consistent Across The Species’ Range: The Case Of Aspen And Soil Carbon In North America, Jerome Laganiere, Antra Boča, H. Van Miegroet, David Paré Apr 2017

A Tree Species Effect On Soil That Is Consistent Across The Species’ Range: The Case Of Aspen And Soil Carbon In North America, Jerome Laganiere, Antra Boča, H. Van Miegroet, David Paré

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Trembling aspen covers a large geographic range in North America, and previous studies reported that a better understanding of its singular influence on soil properties and processes is of high relevance for global change questions. Here we investigate the potential impact of a shift in aspen abundance on soil carbon sequestration and soil carbon stability at the continental scale by conducting a systematic literature review using 23 published studies. Our review shows that aspen’s effect on soil carbon is relatively consistent throughout the species range. Aspen stores less C in the forest floor but similar amounts in the mineral soil …


Lignin Decomposition Is Sustained Under Fluctuating Redox Conditions In Humid Tropical Forest Soils, Steven J. Hall, Whendee L. Silver, Vitaliy I. Timokhin, Kenneth E. Hammel Jul 2015

Lignin Decomposition Is Sustained Under Fluctuating Redox Conditions In Humid Tropical Forest Soils, Steven J. Hall, Whendee L. Silver, Vitaliy I. Timokhin, Kenneth E. Hammel

Steven J. Hall

Lignin mineralization represents a critical flux in the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle, yet little is known about mechanisms and environmental factors controlling lignin breakdown in mineral soils. Hypoxia is thought to suppress lignin decomposition, yet potential effects of oxygen (O2) variability in surface soils have not been explored. Here, we tested the impact of redox fluctuations on lignin breakdown in humid tropical forest soils during ten-week laboratory incubations. We used synthetic lignins labeled with 13C in either of two positions (aromatic methoxyl or propyl side chain Cb) to provide highly sensitive and specific measures of lignin mineralization seldom employed in …


Breaking The Enzymatic Latch: Impacts Of Reducing Conditions On Hydrolytic Enzyme Activity In Tropical Forest Soils, Steven J. Hall, Jonathan Treffkorn, Whendee L. Silver Oct 2014

Breaking The Enzymatic Latch: Impacts Of Reducing Conditions On Hydrolytic Enzyme Activity In Tropical Forest Soils, Steven J. Hall, Jonathan Treffkorn, Whendee L. Silver

Steven J. Hall

The enzymatic latch hypothesis proposes that oxygen (O2) limitation promotes wetland carbon (C) storage by indirectly decreasing the activities of hydrolytic enzymes that decompose organic matter. Humid tropical forest soils are often characterized by low and fluctuating redox conditions and harbor a large pool of organic matter, yet they also have the fastest decomposition rates globally. We tested the enzymatic latch hypothesis across a soil O2 gradient in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico, USA. Enzyme activities expressed on a soil mass basis did not systematically decline across a landscape O2 gradient, nor did phenolics accumulate, the proposed mechanism of …


Iron Oxidation Stimulates Organic Matter Decomposition In Humid Tropical Forest Soils, Steven J. Hall, Whendee L. Silver Jul 2013

Iron Oxidation Stimulates Organic Matter Decomposition In Humid Tropical Forest Soils, Steven J. Hall, Whendee L. Silver

Steven J. Hall

Humid tropical forests have the fastest rates of organic matter decomposition globally, which often coincide with fluctuating oxygen (O2) availability in surface soils. Microbial iron (Fe) reduction generates reduced iron [Fe(II)] under anaerobic conditions, which oxidizes to Fe(III) under subsequent aerobic conditions. We demonstrate that Fe (II) oxidation stimulates organic matter decomposition via two mechanisms: (i) organic matter oxidation, likely driven by reactive oxygen species; and (ii) increased dissolved organic carbon (DOC) availability, likely driven by acidification. Phenol oxidative activity increased linearly with Fe(II) concentrations (P < 0.0001, pseudo R2 = 0.79) in soils sampled within and among five tropical forest sites. A similar pattern occurred in the absence of soil, suggesting an abiotic driver of this reaction. No phenol oxidative activity occurred in soils under anaerobic conditions, implying the importance of oxidants such as O2 or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in addition to Fe(II). Reactions between Fe(II) and H2O2 generate hydroxyl radical, a strong nonselective oxidant of organic compounds. We found increasing consumption of H2O2 as soil Fe(II) concentrations increased, suggesting that reactive oxygen species produced by Fe(II) oxidation explained variation in phenol oxidative activity among samples. Amending soils with Fe(II) at field concentrations stimulated short-term C mineralization by up to 270%, likely via a second mechanism. Oxidation of Fe(II) drove a decrease in pH and a monotonic increase in DOC; a decline of two pH units doubled DOC, likely stimulating microbial respiration. We obtained similar results by manipulating soil acidity independently of Fe(II), implying that Fe(II) oxidation affected C substrate availability via pH fluctuations, in addition to producing reactive oxygen species. Iron oxidation coupled to organic matter decomposition contributes to rapid rates of C cycling across humid tropical forests in spite of periodic O2 limitation, and may help explain the rapid turnover of complex C molecules in these soils.


Implications Of Cereal-Based Crop Rotations, Nitrogen Fertilization, And Stubble Grazing On Soil Organic Matter In A Mediterranean-Type Environment, John Ryan, S. Masri, Hayri̇ye İbri̇kçi̇, M. Singh, Mustafa Pala, H. C. Harris Jan 2008

Implications Of Cereal-Based Crop Rotations, Nitrogen Fertilization, And Stubble Grazing On Soil Organic Matter In A Mediterranean-Type Environment, John Ryan, S. Masri, Hayri̇ye İbri̇kçi̇, M. Singh, Mustafa Pala, H. C. Harris

Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry

Soil organic matter (SOM) is essential to all soil processes that have an impact on crop production and the environment. Soils of the semi-arid Mediterranean region are low in SOM due to environmental conditions (temperature, moisture) and centuries of cultivation. Hence, as SOM has a major influence on soil aggregation, nutrient supply, and soil moisture, as well as the relationships between them, there is a need to assess the impact of cropping systems on this critical soil parameter. During a 14-year rotation trial of durum wheat with alternate crops in northern Syria (mean annual rainfall: 340 mm), we examined the …


Ecosystem Carbon Following Aspen Harvesting In The Upper Great Lakes, David H. Alban, D.A. Perala Jan 1990

Ecosystem Carbon Following Aspen Harvesting In The Upper Great Lakes, David H. Alban, D.A. Perala

Aspen Bibliography

No abstract provided.