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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Quantification Of Hydrologic Response To Forest Disturbance In Western U.S. Watersheds, Sara A. Goeking Aug 2022

Quantification Of Hydrologic Response To Forest Disturbance In Western U.S. Watersheds, Sara A. Goeking

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Forested watersheds produce more than half of the water supply in the United States. Forests affect how precipitation is partitioned into available water versus evapotranspiration. This dissertation investigated how water yield and snowpack responded to forest disturbance following recent disturbances in western U.S. forests during the period 2000-2019.

Chapter 2 systematically reviewed 78 recent studies that examined how water yield or snowpack changed after forest disturbances. Water yield and snowpack often increased after disturbance, but decreased in some circumstances. Decreased water yield was most likely to occur following disturbances that did not remove the entire forest canopy. It was ...


Using Deep Learning With Satellite Imagery To Estimate Deforestation Rates, Maeve Naughton-Rockwell May 2022

Using Deep Learning With Satellite Imagery To Estimate Deforestation Rates, Maeve Naughton-Rockwell

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Previous studies have used Convolutional Neural Networks for regional detection of deforestation breaks. However, there is limited research into the capability of deep neural networks to identify sudden shifts in global forest cover from satellite imagery. Additionally, many deforestation detection models are trained on region specific data and need manual input thresholds. In this work, we develop a deep learning model to predict the percent of deforestation in a region between two points in time, trained on globally sourced data. Using the before and after satellite images of a deforestation event as inputs, we implemented a two input Convolutional Neural ...


Chronic Wasting Disease In Deer And Elk Herds In Arkansas, Baker Kendrick Apr 2022

Chronic Wasting Disease In Deer And Elk Herds In Arkansas, Baker Kendrick

Scholars Day Conference

This presentation gives a broad introduction to Chronic Wasting Disease. It goes over what the disease is and its history, symptoms, how it works on a molecular level, effects on the hunting industry, host range, management and regulation, transmission, treatment, and research.


Data For Dancing, Joseph D. Birch, James A. Lutz, Justine Karst Apr 2022

Data For Dancing, Joseph D. Birch, James A. Lutz, Justine Karst

Browse all Datasets

Fungal communities can influence the productivity, composition, and survival of trees through cycling nutrients, providing resources, and altering pathogens. Thus, shifts in fungal communities could impact forests by altering interactions between trees and their environments. Fungal community composition may be shaped by stochastic and deterministic processes such as dispersal-limitation, environmental filtering, and partner specificity between trees and fungi. For tree species with large geographic ranges, we expect fungal assembly processes to change with environmental variation across the range of the tree partner. Due to specificity between trees and symbiotic fungi, we expect deterministic to outweigh stochastic processes in root compared ...


Enacting Boundaries Or Building Bridges? Language And Engagement In Food-Energy-Water Systems Science, Valoree Gagnon, Chelsea Schelly, William Lytle, Andrew Kliskey, Virginia H. Dale, Anna Maria Marshall, Luis F. Rodriguez, Paula Williams, Michael Waasegiizhig Price, Elizabeth A. Redd, Margaret A. Noodin Apr 2022

Enacting Boundaries Or Building Bridges? Language And Engagement In Food-Energy-Water Systems Science, Valoree Gagnon, Chelsea Schelly, William Lytle, Andrew Kliskey, Virginia H. Dale, Anna Maria Marshall, Luis F. Rodriguez, Paula Williams, Michael Waasegiizhig Price, Elizabeth A. Redd, Margaret A. Noodin

Michigan Tech Publications

Scientific study of issues at the nexus of food–energy–water systems (FEWS) requires grappling with multifaceted, “wicked” problems. FEWS involve interactions occurring directly and indirectly across complex and overlapping spatial and temporal scales; they are also imbued with diverse and sometimes conflicting meanings for the human and more-than-human beings that live within them. In this paper, we consider the role of language in the dynamics of boundary work, recognizing that the language often used in stakeholder and community engagement intended to address FEWS science and decision-making constructs boundaries and limits diverse and inclusive participation. In contrast, some language systems ...


Landscapes Are Cornerstones Of Sustainability Programs, Don Spence Apr 2022

Landscapes Are Cornerstones Of Sustainability Programs, Don Spence

Sustainability Conference

Typical American landscapes are not sustainable in an economic or biological framework. The essence of the idea of sustainable growth and development are centered on the idea that those activities are not degrading natural resources or that they are outstrip budgets. A significant piece of any sustainable management plan is tied to how we manage our landscapes, how we use plants; specifically, how much grass there is, and how many native plants there are. Sustainable landscapes should require less chemical and financial inputs, which in the end, saves money and increases the biological value of the land and creates a ...


Halfway: The Legacy Of Civilian Conservation Corps Company #704, Maxibillion Thompson Apr 2022

Halfway: The Legacy Of Civilian Conservation Corps Company #704, Maxibillion Thompson

Student Academic Conference

Civilian Conservation Corps Company #704 began operations in 1933 approximately 10 miles southeast of Ely, MN, based at the site known as Halfway Camp F-1. This presentation explores some of the legacy they left in the region in the form of ecological projects and recreational structures, as well as the few remaining signs of their former camp on the shores of Birch Lake.


Flooding Tolerance Of Four Tropical Peatland Tree Species In A Nursery Trial, Hesti L. Tata, Hani S. Nuroniah, Diandra A. Ahsania, Haning Anggunira, Siti N. Hidayati, Meydina Pratama, Istomo Istomo, Rodney Chimner, Meine Van Noordwijk, Randall Kolka Apr 2022

Flooding Tolerance Of Four Tropical Peatland Tree Species In A Nursery Trial, Hesti L. Tata, Hani S. Nuroniah, Diandra A. Ahsania, Haning Anggunira, Siti N. Hidayati, Meydina Pratama, Istomo Istomo, Rodney Chimner, Meine Van Noordwijk, Randall Kolka

Michigan Tech Publications

In order to facilitate hydrological restoration, initiatives have been conducted to promote tree growth in degraded and rewetted peatlands in Indonesia. For these initiatives to be successful, tree seedlings need to be able to survive flooding episodes, with or without shade. We investigated the survival rates and the formation of adventitious roots in the case of four tree species exposed to combinations of different shading and water levels under controlled conditions in a nursery, with artificial rainwater and with peat soil as the medium. The research focused on the following questions (i) whether trees can grow on flooded peat soils ...


Leaf Phenology Of Callery Pear: Spring, Margaret A. Maloney, Abby Hay, Eric B. Borth, Ryan W. Mcewan Apr 2022

Leaf Phenology Of Callery Pear: Spring, Margaret A. Maloney, Abby Hay, Eric B. Borth, Ryan W. Mcewan

Five Rivers MetroParks Collaboration Data Archive

No abstract provided.


Historical And Future Role Of Wilmar Palm Oil In Deforestation Of Indonesian Borneo, Sam Coroniti Iii Apr 2022

Historical And Future Role Of Wilmar Palm Oil In Deforestation Of Indonesian Borneo, Sam Coroniti Iii

Senior Theses

Borneo is one of the most biologically diverse locations on Earth, with thousands of endemic and rare species forming unique and intricate relationships throughout the ecosystems. Orangutans, elephants, leopards, tigers, rhinos, and many more species call this island their home, although population levels for all of the mentioned species have been in seriously decline over recent decades. The loss of primary rainforest that provides the most critical habitat for these species has occurred at the highest rate that has ever been seen on Earth, leading to extreme land conversion and greenhouse gas producing operations. The primary driver of these actions ...


Do 2h And 18o In Leaf Water Reflect Environmental Drivers Differently?, Lucas A. Cernusak, Adrià Barbeta, Rosemary T. Bush, Rebekka Eichstaedt Bögelein, Juan Pedro Ferrio, Lawrence B. Flanagan, Arthur Gessler, Paula Martín-Gómez, Regina T. Hirl, Ansgar Kahmen, Claudia Keitel, Chun-Ta Lai, Niels C. Munksgaard, Daniel B. Nelson, Jérôme Ogée, John S. Roden, Hans Schnyder, Steve L. Voelker, Lixin Wang, Hilary Stuart-Williams, Lisa Wingate, Wusheng Yu, Liangju Zhao, Matthias Cuntz Mar 2022

Do 2h And 18o In Leaf Water Reflect Environmental Drivers Differently?, Lucas A. Cernusak, Adrià Barbeta, Rosemary T. Bush, Rebekka Eichstaedt Bögelein, Juan Pedro Ferrio, Lawrence B. Flanagan, Arthur Gessler, Paula Martín-Gómez, Regina T. Hirl, Ansgar Kahmen, Claudia Keitel, Chun-Ta Lai, Niels C. Munksgaard, Daniel B. Nelson, Jérôme Ogée, John S. Roden, Hans Schnyder, Steve L. Voelker, Lixin Wang, Hilary Stuart-Williams, Lisa Wingate, Wusheng Yu, Liangju Zhao, Matthias Cuntz

Michigan Tech Publications

We compiled hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope compositions (δ H and δ O) of leaf water from multiple biomes to examine variations with environmental drivers. Leaf water δ H was more closely correlated with δ H of xylem water or atmospheric vapour, whereas leaf water δ O was more closely correlated with air relative humidity. This resulted from the larger proportional range for δ H of meteoric waters relative to the extent of leaf water evaporative enrichment compared with δ O. We next expressed leaf water as isotopic enrichment above xylem water (Δ H and Δ O) to remove the ...


Assessment Of The Economic And Ecosystem Service Contributions Of Usda Forest Service Landowner Assistance Programs In The Conterminous United States, Jacqueline S. Dias Mar 2022

Assessment Of The Economic And Ecosystem Service Contributions Of Usda Forest Service Landowner Assistance Programs In The Conterminous United States, Jacqueline S. Dias

Masters Theses

Forests provide immense goods and services to both local and regional communities. The USDA Forest Service’s, State and Private Forestry program administer multiple landowner assistance programs aimed at helping private forest owners while supporting the continued supply of ecosystem services (e.g., timber harvesting, recreation, carbon sequestration and storage). The two landowner assistance programs assessed in this study are the Forest Legacy Program (FLP) and the Forest Stewardship Program (FSP). A majority of the nation’s forests are privately owned, many of which are facing deleterious impacts like wildfires, invasive species, development pressures, and other adverse effects from climate ...


The Role Of Leaf Decomposition In Macroinvertebrate Colonization, Bethany Mabel Lian Schorr, Kevin Geedey Mar 2022

The Role Of Leaf Decomposition In Macroinvertebrate Colonization, Bethany Mabel Lian Schorr, Kevin Geedey

Independent Research Projects

Decomposition plays an important ecological role in carbon and nutrient cycling that supply food and energy resources to food webs. This study investigates the potential role that leaf decomposition of different leaf species may play in macroinvertebrate assemblages in upper Midwest streams. We hypothesized that the different decomposition rates experienced with different leaf species and in different streams would have an effect on invertebrate colonization due to the variance in nutrient availability. Due to altered fire regimes and other influences, forests are experiencing declines in fire-adapted, heliophytic species such as oaks and compositional shifts toward shade-tolerant, mesophytic species such as ...


Quantitative Analysis Of Methodological And Environmental Influences On Survival Of Planted Mangroves In Restoration And Afforestation, Daniel Gorman, Mathew A. Vanderklift, Anna Lafratta Mar 2022

Quantitative Analysis Of Methodological And Environmental Influences On Survival Of Planted Mangroves In Restoration And Afforestation, Daniel Gorman, Mathew A. Vanderklift, Anna Lafratta

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Mangrove planting has been employed for decades to achieve aims associated with restoration and afforestation. Often, survival of planted mangroves is low. Improving survival might be aided by augmenting the understanding of which planting methods and environmental variables most influence plant survival across a range of contexts. The aim of this study was to provide a global synthesis of the influence of planting methods and background environment on mangrove survival. This was achieved through a global meta-analysis, which compiled published survival rates for the period 1979–2021 and analyzed the influence of decisions about minimum spacing and which life stage ...


Single-Cell Transcriptome And Network Analyses Unveil Key Transcription Factors Regulating Mesophyll Cell Development In Maize, Shentong Tao, Peng Liu, Yining Shi, Yilong Feng, Jingjing Gao, Lifen Chen, Hairong Wei, Et, Al, Feb 2022

Single-Cell Transcriptome And Network Analyses Unveil Key Transcription Factors Regulating Mesophyll Cell Development In Maize, Shentong Tao, Peng Liu, Yining Shi, Yilong Feng, Jingjing Gao, Lifen Chen, Hairong Wei, Et, Al,

Michigan Tech Publications

BACKGROUND: Maize mesophyll (M) cells play important roles in various biological processes such as photosynthesis II and secondary metabolism. Functional differentiation occurs during M-cell development, but the underlying mechanisms for regulating M-cell development are largely unknown. RESULTS: We conducted single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) to profile transcripts in maize leaves. We then identified coregulated modules by analyzing the resulting pseudo-time-series data through gene regulatory network analyses. , , , and () families were highly expressed in the early stage, whereas () and families were highly expressed in the late stage of M-cell development. Construction of regulatory networks revealed that these transcript factor (TF) families, especially and ...


Smokejumper Obituary: Palmer, Christopher Richard “Chris” (Redding 1975), National Smokejumper Association Feb 2022

Smokejumper Obituary: Palmer, Christopher Richard “Chris” (Redding 1975), National Smokejumper Association

Smokejumper Obituaries

No abstract provided.


The Study Of Tree Biomass Calculation By Comparing Partial Harvest Method With The Allometric Equations Method, Kanlayarat Jantawong, Titinan Pothong Feb 2022

The Study Of Tree Biomass Calculation By Comparing Partial Harvest Method With The Allometric Equations Method, Kanlayarat Jantawong, Titinan Pothong

Journal of Bioresource Management

This study aimed to investigate the effective of partial harvest method used for tree biomass estimation. Such method was analyzed for the correlation in compare with invented allometric equations. The advantages and disadvantages of those methods were discussed. The significantly difference between estimation methods were analyzed. As a result, tree biomass calculated by the Brown’s allometric equation produced highest results, followed by the partial harvest method, Tsutsumi’s, Chave’s and Pothong’s equations respectively. The selected allometric equations showed the positive correlation with partial harvest method. The highest positive correlation was found between the partial harvest method and ...


Belowground Mechanism Reveals Climate Change Impacts On Invasive Clonal Plant Establishment, Surendra Bam, Jacqueline P. Ott, Jack L. Butler, Lan Xu Feb 2022

Belowground Mechanism Reveals Climate Change Impacts On Invasive Clonal Plant Establishment, Surendra Bam, Jacqueline P. Ott, Jack L. Butler, Lan Xu

Natural Resource Management Faculty Publications

Climate change and disturbance can alter invasion success of clonal plants by differentially affecting the clonal traits influencing their establishment as young plants. Clonal traits related to the vegetative reproduction of native Pascopyrum smithii and non-native Bromus inermis grass seedlings were evaluated under altered precipitation frequencies and a single grazing event. Pascopyrum smithii maintained similar vegetative reproduction under three simulated precipitation frequencies whereas B. inermis vegetative reproduction declined as precipitation became more intermittent. Vegetative reproduction of the non-native B. inermis was greater than the native P. smithii under all simulated precipitation frequencies except the most intermittent scenario. A single grazing ...


3d-Printed Polycaprolactone-Chitosan Based Drug Delivery Implants For Personalized Administration, Yutong Yang, Haichao Wu, Qiliang Fu, Xinfeng Xie, Yongming Song, Min Xu, Jian Li Feb 2022

3d-Printed Polycaprolactone-Chitosan Based Drug Delivery Implants For Personalized Administration, Yutong Yang, Haichao Wu, Qiliang Fu, Xinfeng Xie, Yongming Song, Min Xu, Jian Li

Michigan Tech Publications

Fused deposition molding (FDM) can complete most complex preparation of drug delivery implants to meet the personalized needs of patients. However, the drug activity has strict requirements on processing temperature and preparation method of filaments, the implant also has strict biocompatibility requirements for the materials. In this study, a drug delivery implant was prepared with good biocompatibility, controlled and efficient drug release using FDM printing for personalized administration. Drug-loaded filaments were developed for FDM process by hot-melt extrusion (HME). Polycaprolactone was used as a drug delivery carrier, and ibuprofen as the model drug. Notably, chitosan was dissolved to form controlled ...


Smokejumper Obituary: Bilbao, Julio Bernardo (Idaho City 1964), National Smokejumper Association Jan 2022

Smokejumper Obituary: Bilbao, Julio Bernardo (Idaho City 1964), National Smokejumper Association

Smokejumper Obituaries

No abstract provided.


A Review Of Landcover Classification With Very-High Resolution Remotely Sensed Optical Images—Analysis Unit, Model Scalability And Transferability, Rongjun Qin, Tao Liu Jan 2022

A Review Of Landcover Classification With Very-High Resolution Remotely Sensed Optical Images—Analysis Unit, Model Scalability And Transferability, Rongjun Qin, Tao Liu

Michigan Tech Publications

As an important application in remote sensing, landcover classification remains one of the most challenging tasks in very-high-resolution (VHR) image analysis. As the rapidly increasing number of Deep Learning (DL) based landcover methods and training strategies are claimed to be the state-of-the-art, the already fragmented technical landscape of landcover mapping methods has been further complicated. Although there exists a plethora of literature review work attempting to guide researchers in making an informed choice of landcover mapping methods, the articles either focus on the review of applications in a specific area or revolve around general deep learning models, which lack a ...


A Review Of Landcover Classification With Very-High Resolution Remotely Sensed Optical Images—Analysis Unit, Model Scalability And Transferability, Rongjun Qin, Tao Liu Jan 2022

A Review Of Landcover Classification With Very-High Resolution Remotely Sensed Optical Images—Analysis Unit, Model Scalability And Transferability, Rongjun Qin, Tao Liu

Michigan Tech Publications

As an important application in remote sensing, landcover classification remains one of the most challenging tasks in very-high-resolution (VHR) image analysis. As the rapidly increasing number of Deep Learning (DL) based landcover methods and training strategies are claimed to be the state-of-the-art, the already fragmented technical landscape of landcover mapping methods has been further complicated. Although there exists a plethora of literature review work attempting to guide researchers in making an informed choice of landcover mapping methods, the articles either focus on the review of applications in a specific area or revolve around general deep learning models, which lack a ...


Fine-Scale Mapping Of Natural Ecological Communities Using Machine Learning Approaches, Parth Bhatt, Ann Maclean, Yvette Dickinson, Chandan Kumar Jan 2022

Fine-Scale Mapping Of Natural Ecological Communities Using Machine Learning Approaches, Parth Bhatt, Ann Maclean, Yvette Dickinson, Chandan Kumar

Michigan Tech Publications

Remote sensing technology has been used widely in mapping forest and wetland communities, primarily with moderate spatial resolution imagery and traditional classification techniques. The success of these mapping efforts varies widely. The natural communities of the Laurentian Mixed Forest are an important component of Upper Great Lakes ecosystems. Mapping and monitoring these communities using high spatial resolution imagery benefits resource management, conservation and restoration efforts. This study developed a robust classification approach to delineate natural habitat communities utilizing multispectral high-resolution (60 cm) National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery data. For accurate training set delineation, NAIP imagery, soils data and spectral ...


Smokejumper Obituary: Schmid, Phillip George (Missoula 1955), National Smokejumper Association Jan 2022

Smokejumper Obituary: Schmid, Phillip George (Missoula 1955), National Smokejumper Association

Smokejumper Obituaries

No abstract provided.


Smokejumper Obituary: Houston, Douglas Wayne “Doug” (Redmond 1973), National Smokejumper Association Jan 2022

Smokejumper Obituary: Houston, Douglas Wayne “Doug” (Redmond 1973), National Smokejumper Association

Smokejumper Obituaries

No abstract provided.


Editorial: Adaptation Of Trees To Climate Change: Mechanisms Behind Physiological And Ecological Resilience And Vulnerability, Andrea Ghirardo, James D. Blande, Nadine K. Ruehr, Raffaella Balestrini, Carsten Külheim Jan 2022

Editorial: Adaptation Of Trees To Climate Change: Mechanisms Behind Physiological And Ecological Resilience And Vulnerability, Andrea Ghirardo, James D. Blande, Nadine K. Ruehr, Raffaella Balestrini, Carsten Külheim

Michigan Tech Publications

No abstract provided.


Sustainability Of Mahogany Production In Plantations: Does Resource Availability Influence Susceptibility Of Young Mahogany Plantation Stands To Hypsipyla Robusta Infestation?, C. B. Darko, E. Opuni-Frimpong, S. A. Owusu, B. Kyere, A. J. Storer Jan 2022

Sustainability Of Mahogany Production In Plantations: Does Resource Availability Influence Susceptibility Of Young Mahogany Plantation Stands To Hypsipyla Robusta Infestation?, C. B. Darko, E. Opuni-Frimpong, S. A. Owusu, B. Kyere, A. J. Storer

Michigan Tech Publications

Hypsipyla robusta Moore (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), like many other moth species, shows selectivity when choosing host plants for its eggs. Four Meliaceae species (Khaya grandifoliola, K. ivorensis, Swietenia macrophyla, and Entandrophragma cylindricum) were established in a moist semideciduous forest in Ghana to study this selectivity at 12 and 21 months after planting. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) at a P-value of 0.05 was used to test the significance of differences in infestation by H. robusta between the species. H. robusta attacks were recorded by month 12 after planting in the field, and only Khaya spp. was attacked, with attacks evident ...


Effects Of Foliar Application Of Zno Nanoparticles On Lentil Production, Stress Level And Nutritional Seed Quality Under Field Conditions, Marek Kolenčík, Dávid Ernst, Matej Komár, Martin Urík, Martin Šebesta, Ľuba Ďurišová, Marek Bujdoš, Ivan Černý, Juraj Chlpík, Martin Juriga, Ramakanth Illa, Yu Qian, Huan Feng, Gabriela Kratošová, Karla Čech Barabaszová, Ladislav Ducsay, Elena Aydın Jan 2022

Effects Of Foliar Application Of Zno Nanoparticles On Lentil Production, Stress Level And Nutritional Seed Quality Under Field Conditions, Marek Kolenčík, Dávid Ernst, Matej Komár, Martin Urík, Martin Šebesta, Ľuba Ďurišová, Marek Bujdoš, Ivan Černý, Juraj Chlpík, Martin Juriga, Ramakanth Illa, Yu Qian, Huan Feng, Gabriela Kratošová, Karla Čech Barabaszová, Ladislav Ducsay, Elena Aydın

Department of Earth and Environmental Studies Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

Nanotechnology offers new opportunities for the development of novel materials and strategies that improve technology and industry. This applies especially to agriculture, and our previous field studies have indicated that zinc oxide nanoparticles provide promising nano-fertilizer dispersion in sustainable agriculture. However, little is known about the precise ZnO-NP effects on legumes. Herein, 1 mg·L−1 ZnO-NP spray was dispersed on lentil plants to establish the direct NP effects on lentil production, seed nutritional quality, and stress response under field conditions. Although ZnO-NP exposure positively affected yield, thousand-seed weight and the number of pods per plant, there was no statistically ...


Annals Of Forest Science Promotes Multidisciplinary Research On Forests And Wood In A Changing World And Is Now A Full Open Access Journal, Erwin Dreyer, Jean Michel Leban, Shuguang Léo Liu, Andreas Bolte, John M. Lhotka, Marco Ferretti, Véronique Lesage Jan 2022

Annals Of Forest Science Promotes Multidisciplinary Research On Forests And Wood In A Changing World And Is Now A Full Open Access Journal, Erwin Dreyer, Jean Michel Leban, Shuguang Léo Liu, Andreas Bolte, John M. Lhotka, Marco Ferretti, Véronique Lesage

Forestry and Natural Resources Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Montane Temperate-Boreal Forests Retain The Leaf Economic Spectrum Despite Intraspecific Variability, Matthew J. Hecking, Jenna M. Zukswert, John E. Drake, Martin Dovciak, Julia I. Burton Jan 2022

Montane Temperate-Boreal Forests Retain The Leaf Economic Spectrum Despite Intraspecific Variability, Matthew J. Hecking, Jenna M. Zukswert, John E. Drake, Martin Dovciak, Julia I. Burton

Michigan Tech Publications

Trait-based analyses provide powerful tools for developing a generalizable, physiologically grounded understanding of how forest communities are responding to ongoing environmental changes. Key challenges lie in (1) selecting traits that best characterize the ecological performance of species in the community and (2) determining the degree and importance of intraspecific variability in those traits. Recent studies suggest that globally evident trait correlations (trait dimensions), such as the leaf economic spectrum, may be weak or absent at local scales. Moreover, trait-based analyses that utilize a mean value to represent a species may be misleading. Mean trait values are particularly problematic if species ...