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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Microsite Requirements For Successful Regeneration In Lowland Northern White-Cedar (Thuja Occidentalis) Forests, Jeanette Allogio Dec 2020

Microsite Requirements For Successful Regeneration In Lowland Northern White-Cedar (Thuja Occidentalis) Forests, Jeanette Allogio

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Declines in stands of northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis L., hereafter cedar) have been observed as both shifts in species composition and reductions in cedar densities, particularly those stands in lowland sites (Curtis 1946, Boulfroy 2012). While several factors inhibiting cedar regeneration have been identified, a thorough understanding of the conditions that best promote regeneration is lacking. Our objectives for the first chapter were to characterize the site conditions associated with successful regeneration in lowland cedar stands and to describe how spatial patterns of various cedar size classes relate to site preference and to regeneration dynamics. These objectives were achieved by ...


Research Focus: Depaul’S Tree Whisperer Nov 2020

Research Focus: Depaul’S Tree Whisperer

Scientia

Jalene LaMontagne, a population ecologist and associate professor of biological sciences in DePaul's College of Science and Health, is researching mast seeding of white spruce and the seed cones they produce across the 3,000-mile span of North America to understand the patter of tree behavior along the ecological dipole.


Soil Chemistry And Enzyme Data Examining Impacts Of Callery Pear Stem Cutting, Michaela J. Woods, Grace K. Attea, Ryan W. Mcewan Oct 2020

Soil Chemistry And Enzyme Data Examining Impacts Of Callery Pear Stem Cutting, Michaela J. Woods, Grace K. Attea, Ryan W. Mcewan

Five Rivers MetroParks Collaboration Data Archive

This dataset encompasses information following the collection of soil from underneath cut and treated Callery pear stems and untreated Callery pear trees. Soil was assessed for moisture, pH, and enzyme activities.


Fostering Climate Change Resilience: A Socio-Ecological Forest Systems Approach, Alyssa R. Soucy Aug 2020

Fostering Climate Change Resilience: A Socio-Ecological Forest Systems Approach, Alyssa R. Soucy

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

As climate change continues to impact socio-ecological systems, those that rely on natural resources are highly sensitive to climatic changes. Maine’s forest industry provides for the economic and social well-being of many residents and is especially vulnerable to climate change impacts. Changes in growing season length and timing, forest health threats imposed by insects and pathogens, extreme weather events, shifting forest composition, and changes in natural disturbance severity and frequency have already begun, and are projected to continue, to impact forest systems in the Northeastern U.S. While climate change presents a threat to forest systems, opportunities also arise ...


Foliage Type Controls Mercury Input, Storage, And Release In The Boreal Forest, Madelaine J R Anderson Aug 2020

Foliage Type Controls Mercury Input, Storage, And Release In The Boreal Forest, Madelaine J R Anderson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Mercury (Hg) is a naturally occurring element with a complex biogeochemical cycle. Forests act as net sinks for both carbon (C) and Hg as foliage accumulates Hg with time. Litterfall represents a main input of C and Hg into forest soils. My aim was to investigate how foliage type (coniferous, deciduous) governs the input of Hg into forests with a field-based study that measured Hg accumulation over a growing season, and then investigate the storage and release of Hg from foliar tissues into soil with a laboratory-based incubation experiment. Results from the field-based study demonstrate deciduous leaves have more linear ...


The Impacts Of Prescribed Burning And Mechanical Thinning On Insect Communities In The Arkansas Ozarks, Aaron P. Tormanen Aug 2020

The Impacts Of Prescribed Burning And Mechanical Thinning On Insect Communities In The Arkansas Ozarks, Aaron P. Tormanen

Theses and Dissertations from 2020

Insects are important in woodland ecosystems due to their role as pollinators and as prey for bats. My research investigated the relationships between forest management, vegetation, and insects in the Ozark National Forest in Arkansas. I selected 30 stands burned at varying frequencies in the last 12 years. Twelve of these stands were burned and mechanically thinned, 12 were only burned, and 6 were untreated. I deployed blacklight traps and malaise traps in each stand monthly from mid-March to mid- November 2019. Over 42,391 insects were collected, and Lepidoptera was the most abundant order. Insects were dried, weighed, and ...


Floodplain Forest Regeneration Dynamics In The Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, Whitney Anne Kroschel Jul 2020

Floodplain Forest Regeneration Dynamics In The Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, Whitney Anne Kroschel

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Floodplain forest species diversity is driven, in part, by variation in disturbance regime. Flood patterns create heterogeneity in microsite quality from small differences in elevation across a floodplain which, in turn, influence flood timing and duration. Differences in species’ regeneration niches in relation to hydrologic patterns can account for long-term coexistence of various species. In the past century floodplain forests have exhibited a wide range of changes in stand development and species composition as a result of altered hydrology in rivers and floodplains. I evaluated the role of regeneration in floodplain forest systems of the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley ...


Retention Forestry Influences Understory Diversity And Functional Identity, Miranda T. Curzon, Christel C. Kern, Susan C. Baker, Brian J. Palik, Anthony W. D’Amato Jul 2020

Retention Forestry Influences Understory Diversity And Functional Identity, Miranda T. Curzon, Christel C. Kern, Susan C. Baker, Brian J. Palik, Anthony W. D’Amato

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

In recent decades, a paradigm shift in forest management and associated policies has led to greater emphasis on harvest practices that retain mature, overstory trees in forest stands that would otherwise be clear-cut. While it is often assumed that the maintenance of compositional and structural complexity, such as that achieved through retention forestry approaches, will also mitigate negative impacts to functional diversity, empirical evidence of this relationship is sparse. We examined the effects of an aggregated retention system on taxonomic and functional diversity in a regenerating aspen-dominated forest. Sampling was conducted along transects arranged to capture the transition from harvested ...


Modeling Species Distribution And Habitat Suitability Of American Ginseng (Panax Quinquefolius) In Virginia, Jacob Peters May 2020

Modeling Species Distribution And Habitat Suitability Of American Ginseng (Panax Quinquefolius) In Virginia, Jacob Peters

Masters Theses, 2020-current

American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) is a well-known and sought-after medicinal plant native to North America that is facing increased threat of extinction due to overharvesting, herbivory, and habitat loss. Species distribution and habitat suitability models may be valuable to landowners interested in sustainable harvest or to institutions interested in the conservation and restoration of the species. With unequal sampling efforts across a region of interest, it is likely that some locations with appropriate habitat may be misrepresented in model predictions. This study refined a state-derived species distribution model for ginseng through increased sampling effort across the Cumberland Plateau of Virginia ...


Shifting Public Perception: Climate Change Means Living With Fire And Smoke, Robert Froembling May 2020

Shifting Public Perception: Climate Change Means Living With Fire And Smoke, Robert Froembling

Seattle Journal of Technology, Environmental & Innovation Law

The urgency to prepare for the climate crisis has never been greater. We are currently living in the sixth mass extinction and the effects are only going to accelerate. We will inherit more wildfires, larger wildfires, and more frequent wildfires.

This piece is not meant to stoke fear in its readers or be depressing, but to shift public perception on what our future holds by evaluating the laws and science presented to us. This piece will look at regional and federal regulations and assess the increased rate of forest fires and the grave public health concerns from stagnant smoke specifically ...


A Floristic Survey Of Andalusia: A Historic Preservation Site In Baldwin County, Georgia, William Pharr May 2020

A Floristic Survey Of Andalusia: A Historic Preservation Site In Baldwin County, Georgia, William Pharr

Biology Theses

A survey of the vascular plants of Andalusia, a historic preservation site located along Highway 441 north of Milledgeville in Baldwin County, Georgia, was conducted between August 2018 and February 2020. The site was the late home of esteemed author, Flannery O’Connor, and resides along the Georgia fall line, making it a historically significant area that could yield a unique plant community convergence, as well as rare endemic species. This floristic inventory provides baseline data on the species and plant communities of Andalusia for use in future studies regarding the flora of this area. A total of 191 vascular ...


Seed Dispersal Effectiveness In The Penobscot Experimental Forest, Gabrielle Link May 2020

Seed Dispersal Effectiveness In The Penobscot Experimental Forest, Gabrielle Link

Honors College

Previous studies have shown that scatter-hoarding small mammals increase seed germination success through the process of collecting and caching seeds throughout the forest. This study seeks to explore this further by examining how specific cache microsite preferences among these small mammals impacts the germination and growth of northern red oak (Quercus rubra). Seeds were planted in six different microsites across three forest treatments. Germination, seedling height, and herbivory were then monitored over time. We found that microsite did not have a significant effect on germination or height, however microsite did impact herbivory probability, and open microsites made seedlings more vulnerable ...


A Comparative Ecological Study Of Limestone And Dolomite Glades In The Ozark Mountains Of Northwest Arkansas, Brittney Booth May 2020

A Comparative Ecological Study Of Limestone And Dolomite Glades In The Ozark Mountains Of Northwest Arkansas, Brittney Booth

Theses and Dissertations

Glades are one of the many habitats that exist in the Arkansas Ozarks and contribute to the overall biodiversity of the state of Arkansas. For this study, five dolomite glades and five limestone glades in the Ozarks of northwest Arkansas were studied from March to October in the years 2017 and 2018 to determine the similarities or differences that might be present. One hundred and fifteen vascular plant taxa were documented in the dolomite glades and one hundred and three vascular plant taxa were documented in the limestone glades. Forty-six vascular plant taxa were unique to the dolomite glades and ...


Canopy Openness As A Predictor Of Growth For Castanea Dentata Seedlings In The Cumberland Uplands Of Tennessee, Hannah Crawford May 2020

Canopy Openness As A Predictor Of Growth For Castanea Dentata Seedlings In The Cumberland Uplands Of Tennessee, Hannah Crawford

Honors Theses

Castanea dentata growth and reproduction in the forest ecosystem is limited by light. Canopy gaps could be used for restoration efforts; however, the lack of blight resistant planting material has limited what is known about the silvicultural requirements of C. dentata. I studied the survival and growth of chestnut seedlings in various sized light gaps in the Cumberland Uplands in the 2019 season. The Tennessee Chapter of the American Chestnut Foundation previously established Eagle Point Railroad (Cumberland Plateau) and the Starr Farm (Eastern Highland Rim), and I established a site near Barker Pounds trailhead (Cumberland Plateau). Results indicate that canopy ...


Seed Size And Germination, Meredith Cobb, Michaela J. Woods, Ryan W. Mcewan Mar 2020

Seed Size And Germination, Meredith Cobb, Michaela J. Woods, Ryan W. Mcewan

Five Rivers MetroParks Collaboration Data Archive

This dataset encompasses information related to predictors of seed germination from the species Carya laciniosa, Juglans cinerea, and Quercus rubra. Seed sizes were recorded prior to incubation in sand, vermiculite, or without media. Seeds were then germinated with time to germination recorded in this dataset.


Chromosomal Distribution Of Genes Conferring Tolerance To Abiotic Stresses Versus That Of Genes Controlling Resistance To Biotic Stresses In Plants, Richard R.-C. Wang Mar 2020

Chromosomal Distribution Of Genes Conferring Tolerance To Abiotic Stresses Versus That Of Genes Controlling Resistance To Biotic Stresses In Plants, Richard R.-C. Wang

Forage and Range Research Laboratory Publications

Tolerance to abiotic stresses caused by environmental conditions can prevent yield loss in crops for sustaining agricultural productivity [1]. Resistance to biotic stresses caused by diseases and insects can prevent or reduce yield loss in crops [2]. For each crop or plant species, there are many abiotic threats, such as changes in temperature, soil salinity/alkalinity, water shortage, and soil contaminants, as well as biotic challenges from pathogens (bacteria, viruses, and fungi), insects, and nematodes. Plants need to possess genes conferring tolerance to these abiotic stresses to adapt to the changing environment, due to global climate changes, in which they ...


Regional Forest Volume Estimation By Expanding Lidar Samples Using Multi-Sensor Satellite Data, Bo Xie, Chunxiang Cao, Min Xu, Barjeece Bashir, Ramesh P. Singh, Zhibin Huang, Xiaojuan Lin Jan 2020

Regional Forest Volume Estimation By Expanding Lidar Samples Using Multi-Sensor Satellite Data, Bo Xie, Chunxiang Cao, Min Xu, Barjeece Bashir, Ramesh P. Singh, Zhibin Huang, Xiaojuan Lin

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Accurate information regarding forest volume plays an important role in estimating afforestation, timber harvesting, and forest ecological services. Traditionally, operations on forest growing stock volume using field measurements are labor-intensive and time-consuming. Recently, remote sensing technology has emerged as a time-cost efficient method for forest inventory. In the present study, we have adopted three procedures, including samples expanding, feature selection, and results generation and evaluation. Extrapolating the samples from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) scanning is the most important step in satisfying the requirement of sample size for nonparametric methods operation and result in accuracy improvement. Besides, mean decrease Gini ...


Remote Sensing Monitoring Of Vegetation Dynamic Changes After Fire In The Greater Hinggan Mountain Area: The Algorithm And Application For Eliminating Phenological Impacts, Zhibin Huang, Chunxiang Cao, Wei Chen, Min Xu, Yongfeng Dang, Ramesh P. Singh, Barjeece Bashir, Bo Xie, Xiaojuan Lin Jan 2020

Remote Sensing Monitoring Of Vegetation Dynamic Changes After Fire In The Greater Hinggan Mountain Area: The Algorithm And Application For Eliminating Phenological Impacts, Zhibin Huang, Chunxiang Cao, Wei Chen, Min Xu, Yongfeng Dang, Ramesh P. Singh, Barjeece Bashir, Bo Xie, Xiaojuan Lin

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Fires are frequent in boreal forests affecting forest areas. The detection of forest disturbances and the monitoring of forest restoration are critical for forest management. Vegetation phenology information in remote sensing images may interfere with the monitoring of vegetation restoration, but little research has been done on this issue. Remote sensing and the geographic information system (GIS) have emerged as important tools in providing valuable information about vegetation phenology. Based on the MODIS and Landsat time-series images acquired from 2000 to 2018, this study uses the spatio-temporal data fusion method to construct reflectance images of vegetation with a relatively consistent ...


Internet Of Things For Sustainable Forestry, Abdul Salam Jan 2020

Internet Of Things For Sustainable Forestry, Abdul Salam

Faculty Publications

Forests and grasslands play an important role in water and air purification, prevention of the soil erosion, and in provision of habitat to wildlife. Internet of Things has a tremendous potential to play a vital role in the forest ecosystem management and stability. The conservation of species and habitats, timber production, prevention of forest soil degradation, forest fire prediction, mitigation, and control can be attained through forest management using Internet of Things. The use and adoption of IoT in forest ecosystem management is challenging due to many factors. Vast geographical areas and limited resources in terms of budget and equipment ...


A Preliminary Checklist Of Lichens From Kamiak Butte County Park, Washington State, Emma Sell, Amanda Chandler Jan 2020

A Preliminary Checklist Of Lichens From Kamiak Butte County Park, Washington State, Emma Sell, Amanda Chandler

2020 Symposium Posters

The semiarid Palouse ecoregion of North America was once dominated by temperate prairies and connects areas of southeast Washington, north-central Idaho, and northeast Oregon. Transformation of nearly all habitats comprising this ecosystem into agricultural lands has drastically reduced extant native grasslands to small, highly fragmented pieces. These land conversion practices, coupled with the subsequent takeover of invasive plant species, have placed the Palouse ecoregion among the most critically endangered ecosystems in the United States, with < 1% of land remaining that is suitable to host native species. The enormous loss of biodiversity across the Palouse has prompted a need for further study regarding a wide variety of organisms. In particular, lichen diversity of the Palouse ecoregion has never been formally characterized, and there are overall very few detailed studies of lichens throughout eastern Washington. To improve knowledge of Palouse lichen diversity, we first reviewed collection data from historical herbarium specimens via the Consortium of North American Lichen Herbaria (CNALH) database. We then collected lichen voucher specimens from Kamiak Butte County Park (KBCP), one of the largest contiguous natural areas within the Palouse ecoregion as its relatively steep, rocky slopes make it ill-suited for agricultural conversion. KBCP consists of 298 acres of mixed Pinus ponderosa (ponderosa pine) and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas fir) forest and native grassland that rises above the surrounding farmland, as well as an east-west ridgeline ...


Activity Level-Predation Risk Tradeoff In A Tadpole Guild: Implications For Community Organization Along The Hydroperiod Gradient, Nicholas C. Schiwitz, Christopher M. Schalk, Daniel Saenz Jan 2020

Activity Level-Predation Risk Tradeoff In A Tadpole Guild: Implications For Community Organization Along The Hydroperiod Gradient, Nicholas C. Schiwitz, Christopher M. Schalk, Daniel Saenz

Faculty Publications

Increasing activity levels permit greater food intake for use towards growth and reproduction, consequently increasing predation risk via increased detection. Larval anurans are models to examine activity level-predation risk tradeoffs, as they occupy a variety of lentic habitats that impose constraints on the distribution and abundance of species. Ephemeral ponds have a low abundance and diversity of predators and as a result tadpole species tend to have high foraging rates for rapid development. Permanent ponds generally possess a greater diversity and abundance of predators and tadpoles inhabiting these locations tend to have low activity rates or chemical defenses to minimize ...


Senescent Trees Stabilize Aboveground Wood Net Primary Production Immediately After Disturbance, Maxim S. Grigri Jan 2020

Senescent Trees Stabilize Aboveground Wood Net Primary Production Immediately After Disturbance, Maxim S. Grigri

Theses and Dissertations

In the United States, forests sequester 17% of national carbon (C) emissions annually (UGCRP, 2018), however shifting forest disturbances threaten the stability of this essential C sink. Unlike the high severity, stand-replacing disturbances that were widespread a century ago, today’s eastern temperate forests experience frequent low-to-moderate severity disturbances from invasive pests and pathogens with mixed effects on net primary production (NPP). Carbon cycling stability after disturbance has been reported, however, the mechanisms underlying immediate NPP stability or decline are not well understood. Through weekly measurements of production in a landscape scale experiment, we show that the sustained growth of ...


Using Dendrochronology To Create A Timescale Of Succession On Nurse Logs In The Olympic Temperate Rainforest, Sean Grealish Jan 2020

Using Dendrochronology To Create A Timescale Of Succession On Nurse Logs In The Olympic Temperate Rainforest, Sean Grealish

Summer Research

Previous work on the Olympic peninsula in Washington State has shown that recently fallen trees provide a germination location for seeds that cannot do so on the forest floor due to thick moss mats. My field work over two summers dating and surveying nurse logs yielded a crossover at ~70 years where ground mosses start to dominate over tree mosses and seedling abundance begins to decrease.


Leaf Angle And Leaf Stomata Responses To Experimental Drought In Quercus Velutina And Acer Saccharum, Brittany Nichole Casey Jan 2020

Leaf Angle And Leaf Stomata Responses To Experimental Drought In Quercus Velutina And Acer Saccharum, Brittany Nichole Casey

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

The possibility of increased severity and frequency of drought conditions, as a result of global climate variability, greatly complicates our ability to forecast future forest functions such as productivity and carbon sequestration. Assessing how tree species vary in their response to drought can aid in predicting the impact on forest ecosystems as a whole. Throughfall exclusion (TfE) experiments are potentially useful tools to simulate realistic drought conditions within intact forest ecosystems. We employed a TfE experiment during the 2018 growing season within the WV Land Trust’s Elizabeth’s Woods Nature Preserve, near Morgantown, WV, to assess the leaf angle ...


Assessing The Climate Water Balance Model’S Ability To Predict Soil Moisture Variability And Species Distribution Of A Forested Watershed In The Northern Cumberland Plateau, Katherine J. Love Jan 2020

Assessing The Climate Water Balance Model’S Ability To Predict Soil Moisture Variability And Species Distribution Of A Forested Watershed In The Northern Cumberland Plateau, Katherine J. Love

Theses and Dissertations--Forestry and Natural Resources

Spatial patterns of moisture and tree species have been studied using environmental gradients, often represented by terrain attributes in GIS. With climate change, GIS terrain variables, which are static as long as the elevation remains unchanged, will not reflect alterations in temperature, water cycle, and atmospheric conditions. In this thesis, the commonly used terrain variables and climate water balance variables were evaluated and compared for their ability to explain soil moisture and tree species distributions in a forested watershed in the Northern Cumberland Plateau. The results suggest that GIS terrain variables generally perform better than climate water balance variables, however ...


Modeling The Effects Of Global Change On Ecosystem Processes In A Tropical Rainforest, Ann E. Russell, William J. Parton Jr. Jan 2020

Modeling The Effects Of Global Change On Ecosystem Processes In A Tropical Rainforest, Ann E. Russell, William J. Parton Jr.

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Research Highlights: Ongoing land-use change and climate change in wet tropical forests can potentially drive shifts in tree species composition, representing a change in individual species within a functional group, tropical evergreen trees. The impacts on the global carbon cycle are potentially large, but unclear. We explored the differential effects of species within this functional group, in comparison with the effects of climate change, using the Century model as a research tool. Simulating effects of individual tree species on biome-level biogeochemical cycles constituted a novel application for Century. Background and Objectives: A unique, long-term, replicated field experiment containing five evergreen ...


Nutrient Cycling-Tree Species Relationships In Appalachian Forests, Philip Michael Crim Jan 2020

Nutrient Cycling-Tree Species Relationships In Appalachian Forests, Philip Michael Crim

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Since the colonization of North America by Europeans, ecosystems in Appalachia and across the continent have been in a prolonged state of flux. Areas particularly rich in natural resources, such as Appalachia, have historically borne the brunt of these swift changes, often with devastating consequences. Downwind of much of the power generation facilities of the Ohio Valley, Appalachian forests have been geographically predisposed to high rates of acidic deposition, a circumstance mitigated by the passage of Clean Air Legislation beginning in the 1970s. Nevertheless, decades of elevated nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) inputs had a profound impact on the ecology ...


Quantitative And Qualitative Approaches To Assess Tree Vigor And Stand Health In Dry Pine Forests, Nancy Grulke, Craig Bienz, Kate Hrinkevich, Jason Maxfield, Kellie Uyeda Jan 2020

Quantitative And Qualitative Approaches To Assess Tree Vigor And Stand Health In Dry Pine Forests, Nancy Grulke, Craig Bienz, Kate Hrinkevich, Jason Maxfield, Kellie Uyeda

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Despite a critical need to evaluate effectiveness of forest treatments in improving stand health, practitioners lack quantitative, repeatable metrics to assess tree vigor and stand health. We evaluated canopy and whole tree attributes of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. Ex Laws) related to carbon balance, water balance, and susceptibility to insects and pathogens in dry, pine-dominated forest stands during a multi-year drought, an environmental challenge to stand resilience. Metrics of trees in two unmanaged, and seven treated forested stands, in both uplands and lowlands to develop the quantitative approach. Whole tree and crown attributes including needle length and color, branchlet ...


Protecting Biodiversity On National Forests: The Evolution And Implementation Of Forest Planning Regulations, Anna Wearn Jan 2020

Protecting Biodiversity On National Forests: The Evolution And Implementation Of Forest Planning Regulations, Anna Wearn

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

In 2012, the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) promulgated new forest planning regulations that significantly altered national forest management. One of the most controversial and important advancements was the inclusion of what were meant to be stronger biodiversity protections. An analysis of USFS’s rationale in revising the biodiversity regulations provides insights into how to interpret the substantively and procedurally new ecosystem and species protections. Examining this regulatory history reveals three key changes to the manner in which national forests are required to manage and monitor biodiversity: 1) a greater reliance on science to inform planning, 2) a new emphasis ...


Hydrochorous Seed Dispersal In Riparian Forests Altered By Urbanization, Christa Von Behren, J. Alan Yeakley Jan 2020

Hydrochorous Seed Dispersal In Riparian Forests Altered By Urbanization, Christa Von Behren, J. Alan Yeakley

Environmental Science and Management Faculty Publications and Presentations

While riparian habitat alterations from urban stream syndrome are known to affect vegetation establishment and survival, the degree to which riparian seed delivery by hydrochory is affected by urbanization is unclear. We hypothesized that (1) there would be a reduction in the overall number of seeds deposited by streams as watershed urbanization increased; and (2) in the most urbanized watersheds, seeds deposited by water would be predominantly from species with traits favoring dispersal in general, including tall stature and high seed production, and favoring deposition by water in particular, including large seed size and the presence of a dispersal appendage ...