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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Ray Et Al.: Pheromone Of The Velvet Longhorned Beetle Trichoferus Campestris, Ann M. Ray, Joseph A. Francese, Yunfan Zou, Kristopher Watson, Damon J. Crook, Jocelyn G. Millar Dec 2018

Ray Et Al.: Pheromone Of The Velvet Longhorned Beetle Trichoferus Campestris, Ann M. Ray, Joseph A. Francese, Yunfan Zou, Kristopher Watson, Damon J. Crook, Jocelyn G. Millar

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Spotted Wing Drosophila (Drosophila Suzukii) In Arkansas: Winter Morphs, Wild Hosts, And Fungal Control, Rosalee Knipp Dec 2018

Spotted Wing Drosophila (Drosophila Suzukii) In Arkansas: Winter Morphs, Wild Hosts, And Fungal Control, Rosalee Knipp

Theses and Dissertations

Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), or spotted wing drosophila (SWD), is an invasive fruit fly pest that was first found in the United States in 2008. Unlike native Drosophila, SWD females have a serrated ovipositor that allows them to attack ripening fruit. Since its introduction, it is unclear how and where they overwinter in Arkansas, what local hosts they utilize and what potential alternative tactics can be used to combat this pest. In states north of Arkansas, winter morphs (WM) of SWD are larger, darker pigmented, and can survive colder temperatures than SWD flies found in the summer. These WM were found ...


Systems To Attract And Feed Pollinators In Warm-Season Lawns, Michelle Wisdom Dec 2018

Systems To Attract And Feed Pollinators In Warm-Season Lawns, Michelle Wisdom

Theses and Dissertations

Pollinating insects are responsible for the production of many agricultural crops and they require floral resources to fulfill their life-cycle. Ideally, pollinating insects will encounter a diversity of floral resources across their entire season of activity, and those floral resources can include both herbaceous and woody plant species. Managed turfgrass areas have been identified as potential locations for creating pollinator-friendly habitats. In the transition zone, where both warm- and cool-season turfgrass species are present, the persistence of herbaceous plants in warm-season turfgrasses such as bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) and buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides), may be affected not only by the competitive nature ...


26 - Diversity And Abundance Of Invasive Aedes Albopictus, Other Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), And Arthropods In North Georgia., Mason Carlisle, Madison Embrick Nov 2018

26 - Diversity And Abundance Of Invasive Aedes Albopictus, Other Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), And Arthropods In North Georgia., Mason Carlisle, Madison Embrick

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Diversity and Abundance of Invasive Aedes albopictus, Other Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), and Arthropods in North Georgia.

Carlisle M., Embrick M., Lampert E., Sangweme D.

With the increase in invasive species and the increasing numbers of the invasive Culicidae family member Aedes albopictus and the numerous deadly diseases Aedes albopictus can vector, it becomes increasingly important to survey and keep records of local populations and diversity of mosquitoes. We surveyed local culicid populations dissecting the female mosquitoes looking for nematodes to search for Wolbachia, and preserving all the bycatch and using the bycatch as an insight into the population and diversity ...


22 - Bugs In Bugs, Josemaria Garcia Nov 2018

22 - Bugs In Bugs, Josemaria Garcia

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

The primary purpose of the Bugs in Bugs project is to measure a student’s ability to go complete a research report and to observe demonstrations of key fundamental research aspects such as understanding scientific works, collecting and entering data, analyzing and creating graphs, and overall how to write a lab report. Working with Principles of Biology II and Microbiology classes, students were provided with a topic and methodology respective to their class; however, groups within the classes had the freedom to create their own hypotheses and theses, choose how to collect and interpret data, make charts and graphs, and ...


Hexapod Herald - Vol. 30, No. 4, November 2018 Nov 2018

Hexapod Herald - Vol. 30, No. 4, November 2018

Hexapod Herald & Other Entomology Department Newsletters

Abstract: Welcome -- Faculty and Post-Doc News -- Student News -- University of Nebraska Service Awards -- Publications -- Blast from the Past -- Save the Dates -- Busy as a Bee -- Grants -- Meet an Online Student -- Bugfest


Effects Of Coumaphos And Imidacloprid On Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Lifespan And Antioxidant Gene Regulations In Laboratory Experiments, Ales Gregorc, Mohamed Alburaki, Nicholas Rinderer, Blair Sampson, Patricia R. Knight, Shahid Karim, John Adamczyk Oct 2018

Effects Of Coumaphos And Imidacloprid On Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Lifespan And Antioxidant Gene Regulations In Laboratory Experiments, Ales Gregorc, Mohamed Alburaki, Nicholas Rinderer, Blair Sampson, Patricia R. Knight, Shahid Karim, John Adamczyk

Faculty Publications

The main objective of this study was to test comparatively the effects of two common insecticides on honey bee Apis mellifera worker’s lifespan, food consumption, mortality, and expression of antioxidant genes. Newly emerged worker bees were exposed to organophosphate insecticide coumaphos, a neonicotinoid imidacloprid, and their mixtures. Toxicity tests were conducted along with bee midgut immunohistological TUNEL analyses. RT-qPCR assessed the regulation of 10 bee antioxidant genes linked to pesticide toxicity. We tested coumaphos at 92,600 ppb concentration, in combination with 5 and 20 ppb imidacloprid. Coumaphos induced significantly higher bee mortality, which was associated with down regulation ...


A Household Model Of German Cockroach Infestations And Their Effect On Symptoms Of Atopic Asthma, Karen Funderburk Oct 2018

A Household Model Of German Cockroach Infestations And Their Effect On Symptoms Of Atopic Asthma, Karen Funderburk

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Ecological Stoichiometry: What Role Does It Play In The Competition And Spatial Distribution Patterns Of Aedes Albopictus And Aedes Aegypti?, James Deerman Oct 2018

Ecological Stoichiometry: What Role Does It Play In The Competition And Spatial Distribution Patterns Of Aedes Albopictus And Aedes Aegypti?, James Deerman

Master's Theses

Ecological stoichiometry is the balance of chemical substances within animal bodies through interactions and processes within their ecosystem. Though relatively underexplored, it provides a wealth of information linking interactions across different levels of organization. Detritus is the base of the food web within the small aquatic ecosystems occupied by the mosquitoes Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti. Nutrient content of detritus varies, but it can have a negative effect on mosquito growth and survival if nutrient thresholds are not met. I investigated nutrient environments and species abundance in cemetery vases in New Orleans, LA to assess detrital heterogeneity and its effect ...


Dorothy J. Jackson Fres Fls, Scottish Entomologist: A Bibliography, Jack R. Mclachlan Oct 2018

Dorothy J. Jackson Fres Fls, Scottish Entomologist: A Bibliography, Jack R. Mclachlan

Biology and Ecology Faculty Scholarship

Dorothy Jean Jackson FRES FLS (1892-1973) should be familiar to anyone interested in water beetles. She published prolifically on the ecology, distribution, flight capacity, and parasites of water beetles, and made especially important contributions to our knowledge of dytiscids. Here I provide a more extensive bibliography of her work that is almost certainly incomplete, but I think includes most of her scientific output between 1907 and 1973. Her first paper was published when she was 14 years old, and her last was completed by Jack Balfour-Browne and published posthumously.


Identification Of Microbiota Associated With The Ectosymbiotic Community Structure Of The Appalachian Brook Crayfish (Cambarus Bartonii), Matthew M. Cooke 6268927, Luke T. Fischer, Taylor Griffin, Sherrie Jeffers Sep 2018

Identification Of Microbiota Associated With The Ectosymbiotic Community Structure Of The Appalachian Brook Crayfish (Cambarus Bartonii), Matthew M. Cooke 6268927, Luke T. Fischer, Taylor Griffin, Sherrie Jeffers

Montview Liberty University Journal of Undergraduate Research

Microbes play a significant role in ecosystems, effecting the vital functions of other organisms, interspecies relationships, and population sizes. Based upon previous research (Skelton et al., 2016), it has been hypothesized that crayfish symbionts (branchiobdellidans) play a significant role in regulating the amount of microbiota associated with the host. A growing body of knowledge is known regarding both the condition of gill fouling and the annelid worm’s symbiotic relationship with the crayfish (Skelton et al., 2016; Skelton et al., 2016). However, there is little to no evidence available concerning the bacteria’s role in the process (Skelton et al ...


Acarine Biodiversity In Ecuador: Two New Species Of Endoparasitic Chiggers (Acarina: Trombiculidae) From Terrestrial Andean Anurans, Ricardo Guerrero, Mario Humberto Yánez-Muñoz Sep 2018

Acarine Biodiversity In Ecuador: Two New Species Of Endoparasitic Chiggers (Acarina: Trombiculidae) From Terrestrial Andean Anurans, Ricardo Guerrero, Mario Humberto Yánez-Muñoz

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

Two species of endoparasitic chiggers, Vercammenia neotropica n. sp. and Microtrombicula ecuadorensis n. sp., are described, both found in terrestrial anurans of the genus Pristimantis collected in the Andes of Ecuador. A new combination is proposed for Trombicula yorkei Sambon, 1928 as Microtrombicula yorkei (Sambon, 1928) n. comb., and Schoengastia lynni Ewing, 1942 is placed as incertae sedis. This is the first record of species of the genus Vercammenia in the Neotropical region.

Dos especies de ácaros endoparásitos, Vercammenia neotropica n. sp. y Microtrombicula ecuadorensis n. sp., son descritas, ambas encontradas en anuros terrestres del género Pristimantis recolectados en ...


Mechanisms Underlying Freeze Tolerance In The Spring Field Cricket, Gryllus Veletis, Jantina Toxopeus Sep 2018

Mechanisms Underlying Freeze Tolerance In The Spring Field Cricket, Gryllus Veletis, Jantina Toxopeus

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Freeze tolerance has evolved repeatedly across insects, facilitating survival in low temperature environments. Internal ice formation poses several challenges, but the mechanisms that mitigate these challenges in freeze-tolerant insects are not well understood. To better understand how insects survive freezing, I describe a novel laboratory model, the spring field cricket Gryllus veletis (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). Following acclimation to six weeks of decreasing temperature and photoperiod (mimicking autumn), G. veletis juveniles becomes moderately freeze-tolerant, surviving freezing at -8 °C for up to one week, and surviving temperatures as low as -12 °C. Acclimation is associated with increased control of the temperature and ...


Wild, Native Bees And Managed Honey Bees Benefit From Similar Agricultural Land Uses, Elaine Evans, Matthew Smart, Dan Cariveau, Marla Spivak Sep 2018

Wild, Native Bees And Managed Honey Bees Benefit From Similar Agricultural Land Uses, Elaine Evans, Matthew Smart, Dan Cariveau, Marla Spivak

Faculty Publications: Department of Entomology

Although both managed and unmanaged bees are important pollinators of crops and wild plants, efforts to address questions about landscapes that best support pollinators often focus on either wild pollinators or honey bees. This study examined if there was concordance between the success of wild bee communities and managed honey bee colonies at sites varying in floral availability and disturbance level in a predominantly agricultural landscape. We also determined which agricultural land uses best supported wild bee communities. The study area in the state of North Dakota in Northern Great Plains in North America is home to understudied native bee ...


Confirming World-Wide Distribution Of An Agriculturally Important Lacewing, Chrysoperla Zastrowi Sillemi, Using Songs, Morphology, Mitochondrial Gene Sequencing, And Phylogenetic Reconstruction, Zoe Mandese Aug 2018

Confirming World-Wide Distribution Of An Agriculturally Important Lacewing, Chrysoperla Zastrowi Sillemi, Using Songs, Morphology, Mitochondrial Gene Sequencing, And Phylogenetic Reconstruction, Zoe Mandese

Honors Scholar Theses

The Chrysoperla carnea-group of green lacewings is a cryptic species complex. Species within the group are morphologically similar, yet isolated from one another via reproductive mating song. Chrysoperla zastrowi, a species within the carnea-group, is currently described with a distribution ranging from South Africa to the Middle East and India. However, recent collections of carnea-group lacewings from Guatemala and California were preliminarily identified as Chrysoperla zastrowi based upon similarities in their vibrational courtship songs. This analysis aims to place six specimens, collected by collaborators in Guatemala, Armenia, Iran, and California, into a pre-existing phylogeny of the Chrysoperla ...


Nurudea Zhengii Ren, A New Species Of The Rhus Gall Aphids (Aphididae: Eriosomatinae: Fordini) From Eastern China, Zhu-Mei Ren, Xu Su, Carol D. Von Dohlen, Jun Wen Aug 2018

Nurudea Zhengii Ren, A New Species Of The Rhus Gall Aphids (Aphididae: Eriosomatinae: Fordini) From Eastern China, Zhu-Mei Ren, Xu Su, Carol D. Von Dohlen, Jun Wen

Biology Faculty Publications

A new Rhus gall aphid species Nurudea zhengii Ren, sp. nov. collected from the Mountain Qixing in Shangrao County, Jiangxi Province, China is described and illustrated from alate viviparous female. The new species differs from the other Nurudea species in the length and proportion of antennal segments, the structure of antennal secondary sensilla, and the flower-like shape of the galls that are formed on its primary host. Its primary host plant is Rhus hypoleuca, whereas other Nurudea species are on R. chinensis.


The Effects Of Juvenile Exposure To Sub-Lethal Concentrations Of Pesticides On The Adult Reproductive Biology Of The Male Southern House Mosquitoe, Culex Quinquefasciatus, Shiloh Dean Judd Aug 2018

The Effects Of Juvenile Exposure To Sub-Lethal Concentrations Of Pesticides On The Adult Reproductive Biology Of The Male Southern House Mosquitoe, Culex Quinquefasciatus, Shiloh Dean Judd

LSU Master's Theses

Mosquitoes transmit pathogens capable of causing significant diseases, the worst of which can permanently disfigure or kill. Mosquito control efforts can be strengthened by better understanding all aspects of mosquito biology, but there is deficient information regarding sperm production in male mosquitoes. Understanding the sperm production and capacity of vector species may reveal new control strategies.

The goal of this research was to determine if larval exposure to sub-lethal concentrations, defined as killing less than half of the sample population, of pesticides negatively impacts the adult male reproductive health of the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus Say. This study quantified ...


Cover Pages Aug 2018

Cover Pages

The Great Lakes Entomologist

Cover pages for TGLE Vol. 51 Nos. 1 & 2


Cover Art Aug 2018

Cover Art

The Great Lakes Entomologist

Cover art for TGLE Vol. 51 Nos. 1 & 2


Tgle Vol. 51 Nos. 1 & 2 Full Issue Aug 2018

Tgle Vol. 51 Nos. 1 & 2 Full Issue

The Great Lakes Entomologist

Full issue for TGLE Vol. 51 Nos. 1 & 2


Novel Prey Record For Scymnus Caudalis Leconte And First Records Of Four Other Species Of Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) In Wisconsin, U.S.A., Louis S. Hesler, Jedidiah Nixon Aug 2018

Novel Prey Record For Scymnus Caudalis Leconte And First Records Of Four Other Species Of Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) In Wisconsin, U.S.A., Louis S. Hesler, Jedidiah Nixon

The Great Lakes Entomologist

New prey and distribution records are presented for five species of lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Scymnus (Pullus) caudalis LeConte is recorded for the first time preying on Aphis asclepiadis Fitch (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Four other lady beetle species are newly recorded in the state of Wisconsin, U.S.A: Diomus amabilis (LeConte), Diomus terminatus Say, Scymnus (Pullus) uncus Wingo, and Hyperaspidius wolcotti (Nunenmacher). The new state records represent minor to moderate extensions of previously known geographic distributions for these species. In addition, the records emphasize the importance of processing uncurated zoological specimens to provide information about the prey of particular species ...


Dragonfly (Odonata: Corduliidae, Macromiidae, Gomphidae, Aeshnidae) And Damselfly (Odonata: Calopterygidae) Exuviae Observed At Record Heights In Pinus Strobus And Picea Abies Canopies, Madison M. Laughlin, Jonathan G. Martin, Patrick J. Liesch, Erik R. Olson Aug 2018

Dragonfly (Odonata: Corduliidae, Macromiidae, Gomphidae, Aeshnidae) And Damselfly (Odonata: Calopterygidae) Exuviae Observed At Record Heights In Pinus Strobus And Picea Abies Canopies, Madison M. Laughlin, Jonathan G. Martin, Patrick J. Liesch, Erik R. Olson

The Great Lakes Entomologist

Most odonate species do not typically climb higher than 50 cm when choosing an emergence support. We observed multiple species of odonate nymphs using trees as emergence supports at heights greater than 50 cm and up to 4, 6.9, and 14.6 m for Calopteryx maculata (Ebony Jewelwing), Somatochlora minor (Ocellated Emerald), and Didymops transversa (Stream Cruiser), respectively. These heights represent the greatest heights ever documented for odonate nymphs emergence supports. Our research suggests that some species (S. minor; D. transversa) appear to have a greater affinity for climbing to great heights during emergence than others (Dromogomphus spinosus (Black-Shouldered ...


An Inventory Of Cicadellidae, Aphrophoridae, And Delphacidae (Hemiptera) In The Alvar Grasslands Of The Maxton Plains, Michigan, Max W. Spencer, James P. Dunn, Evan M. Szymczak Aug 2018

An Inventory Of Cicadellidae, Aphrophoridae, And Delphacidae (Hemiptera) In The Alvar Grasslands Of The Maxton Plains, Michigan, Max W. Spencer, James P. Dunn, Evan M. Szymczak

The Great Lakes Entomologist

Alvars are rare grassland communities found in the North American Great Lakes Region consisting of thin mineral soil over limestone bedrock and act as refugia for many unique and threatened endemic species. Few studies have catalogued Hemiptera species present in the alvars of the Maxton Plains on Drummond Island, MI. We aimed to add to these species lists, compare species diversity between alvar sites with varying levels of exposed bedrock, and test if an unpaved limestone road running through our sample sites influenced Hemipteran populations. We collected several prairie endemic species of Cicadellidae (Hemiptera), including a new record for the ...


Pentatomidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) Captured On Purple Prism Traps Deployed For Detection Of Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus Planipennis) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) In Minnesota, Daniela T. Pezzini, Mitch Haag, James Walker, Robert L. Koch Aug 2018

Pentatomidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) Captured On Purple Prism Traps Deployed For Detection Of Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus Planipennis) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) In Minnesota, Daniela T. Pezzini, Mitch Haag, James Walker, Robert L. Koch

The Great Lakes Entomologist

The observation of bycatch from insect trapping programs, though often considered bothersome, may hold value for ecological and taxonomic studies. In Minnesota, a large trapping survey consisting of pheromone-baited purple prism traps, has been conducted for early detection of Agrilus planipennis, the emerald ash borer. Stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), which are pests of increasing importance in the North Central U.S., were observed to be captured by these traps. The objective of this study was to use trap bycatch from the A. planipennis traps for further documentation of the abundance and diversity of Pentatomidae in Minnesota. In 2011 and 2012 ...


Intercepted Silvanidae [Insecta: Coleoptera] From The International Falls, Mn [Usa] Port-Of-Entry, Gary D. Ouellette Aug 2018

Intercepted Silvanidae [Insecta: Coleoptera] From The International Falls, Mn [Usa] Port-Of-Entry, Gary D. Ouellette

The Great Lakes Entomologist

Silvanidae species recorded in association with imported commodities, at United States ports-of-entry, have not been comprehensively studied. The present study examines the species of beetles of the family Silvanidae intercepted during agricultural quarantine inspections at the International Falls, MN port-of-entry. A total of 244 beetles representing two subfamilies, three genera, and four species of Silvanidae were collected between June 2016 and June 2017. Taxa were associated with 13 imported commodities and recorded from seven countries of origin. A substantial proportion (97.4%) of the records included Silvanus lewisi Reitter and Ahasverus advena (Waltl), two cosmopolitan species associated with dried stored ...


The History Of Bees By Maja Lunde, Kirsten Schuhmacher Aug 2018

The History Of Bees By Maja Lunde, Kirsten Schuhmacher

The Goose

Book review of Maja Lunde's The History of Bees.


Double-Stranded Rna Binding Protein, Staufen, Is Required For The Initiation Of Rnai In Coleopteran Insects, June-Sun Yoon, Kanakachari Mogilicherla, Dhandapani Gurusamy, Xien Chen, Shankar C. R. R. Chereddy, Subba R. Palli Aug 2018

Double-Stranded Rna Binding Protein, Staufen, Is Required For The Initiation Of Rnai In Coleopteran Insects, June-Sun Yoon, Kanakachari Mogilicherla, Dhandapani Gurusamy, Xien Chen, Shankar C. R. R. Chereddy, Subba R. Palli

Entomology Faculty Publications

RNA interference (RNAi) is being used to develop methods to control pests and disease vectors. RNAi is robust and systemic in coleopteran insects but is quite variable in other insects. The determinants of efficient RNAi in coleopterans, as well as its potential mechanisms of resistance, are not known. RNAi screen identified a double-stranded RNA binding protein (StaufenC) as a major player in RNAi. StaufenC homologs have been identified in only coleopteran insects. Experiments in two coleopteran insects, Leptinotarsa decemlineata and Tribolium castaneum, showed the requirement of StaufenC for RNAi, especially for processing of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to small interfering RNA ...


Japanese Beetles’ Feeding On Milkweed Flowers May Compromise Efforts To Restore Monarch Butterfly Habitat, Adam M. Baker, Daniel A. Potter Aug 2018

Japanese Beetles’ Feeding On Milkweed Flowers May Compromise Efforts To Restore Monarch Butterfly Habitat, Adam M. Baker, Daniel A. Potter

Entomology Faculty Publications

The eastern North American migratory population of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) is in serious decline. Habitat restoration, including adding millions of host plants to compensate for loss of milkweed in US cropland, is a key part of the international conservation strategy to return this iconic butterfly to sustainable status. We report here that Popillia japonica, a polyphagous, invasive beetle, aggregates and feeds on flowers of Asclepias syriaca, the monarch’s most important larval food plant, reducing fruiting and seed set by >90% and extensively damaging milkweed umbels in the field. The beetle’s ongoing incursion into the monarch’s key ...


Revision Of Zosteragathis Sharkey Of Thailand (Hymonoptera, Braconidae, Agathidinae, Agathidini), Michael J. Sharkey, Eric G. Chapman Aug 2018

Revision Of Zosteragathis Sharkey Of Thailand (Hymonoptera, Braconidae, Agathidinae, Agathidini), Michael J. Sharkey, Eric G. Chapman

Entomology Faculty Publications

Based on cladistic analyses recently conducted by Sharkey and Chapman, the genus Zosteragathis Sharkey is revised. Twenty-two species are reported from Thailand, three previously described species, Z. samensis, Z. contrasta and Z. nuichuaensis, and 19 new species, i.e., Z. chaiyaphumensis, Z. eukos, Z. hinensis, Z. hongensis, Z. inthanonensis, Z. krachanensis, Z. lampangensis, Z. lampooensis, Z. luangensis, Z. ngamensis, Z. perknos, Z. petchaburiensis, Z. phahompokensis, Z. phuphanensis, Z. sakaeratensis, Z. sakonensis, Z. samensis, Z. surinensis, Z. taemensis, Z. tonensis. Members of Zosteragathis are known from the Australian, Ethiopian, Oceania, Oriental, and eastern Palaearctic regions.


Flower Visitation In Relation To Pollen And Nectar Nutrition: Implications For Pollinator Habitat And Conservation, Megan E. Leach Aug 2018

Flower Visitation In Relation To Pollen And Nectar Nutrition: Implications For Pollinator Habitat And Conservation, Megan E. Leach

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pollination of both wild and crop plants is at a crossroads; honey bee populations are experiencing losses at a higher rate than ever before, and some native bee species are declining in abundance to the point of being listed as endangered species. A few examples of these threats include pesticide exposure, habitat loss, and climate change. In response to bee population declines, conservation efforts have been initiated to increase habitat quality for bees by planting pollinator reservoirs or gardens. Plants provide nutrition to bees in the form of pollen and nectar. Several studies have shown links between higher nutritional quality ...