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Climate

2013

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Articles 1 - 30 of 32

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Farmer’S Observation On Climate Change Impacts On Maize (Zea Mays) Production In A Selected Agro-Ecological Zone In Ghana, Nama Ama Browne Klutse, Kwadwo Owusu, David Cudjoe Adukpo, Francis Nkrumah, Kwesi Quagraine, Alfred Owusu, William J. Gutowski Dec 2013

Farmer’S Observation On Climate Change Impacts On Maize (Zea Mays) Production In A Selected Agro-Ecological Zone In Ghana, Nama Ama Browne Klutse, Kwadwo Owusu, David Cudjoe Adukpo, Francis Nkrumah, Kwesi Quagraine, Alfred Owusu, William J. Gutowski

Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications

Although maize farmers may not have a clear understanding of climate change, they live close to natural resources and are among the first in perceiving and reacting to environmental changes. They have observed and felt the effects of decreasing rainfall, emphasizing changes in the regularity, length, intensity and timing of rainfall; increasing air temperature, increasing sunshine intensity and seasonal changes in rainfall pattern which is affecting their farming practices. Moreover, farmers are also aware of the interacting effect between bad management practices and changes in climate. For instance, deforestation and clearing of riparian vegetation is considered a major factor increasing ...


Assessing Growth Response To Climate Controls In A Great Basin Artemisia Tridentata Plant Community, Lorenzo F. Apodaca Dec 2013

Assessing Growth Response To Climate Controls In A Great Basin Artemisia Tridentata Plant Community, Lorenzo F. Apodaca

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

An assessment of the growth response of key vegetative species to climatic variability is vital to identifying possible local impacts on ecosystems faced with imminent climate change. With current climate projections in Nevada predicting a shift to an even more arid climate with greater year-to-year variability, the imperative exists to identify the effects of specific climatic controls on plant growth and to research methods to assess large-scale vegetative changes, especially in more remote areas where readily available data sets may be lacking. This study utilized annual growth ring indices constructed from big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentatassp.tridentata) stems collected in Spring ...


Climate Change Projections Of The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (Narccap), L. O. Mearns, S. Sain, L. R. Leung, M. S. Bukovsky, S. Mcginnis, S. Biner, D. Caya, R. W. Arritt, W. Gutowski, Eugene S. Takle, M. Snyder, R. G. Jones, A. M. B. Nunes, S. Tucker, D. Herzmann, L. Mcdaniel, L. Sloan Oct 2013

Climate Change Projections Of The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (Narccap), L. O. Mearns, S. Sain, L. R. Leung, M. S. Bukovsky, S. Mcginnis, S. Biner, D. Caya, R. W. Arritt, W. Gutowski, Eugene S. Takle, M. Snyder, R. G. Jones, A. M. B. Nunes, S. Tucker, D. Herzmann, L. Mcdaniel, L. Sloan

Agronomy Publications

We investigate major results of the NARCCAP multiple regional climate model (RCM) experiments driven by multiple global climate models (GCMs) regarding climate change for seasonal temperature and precipitation over North America. We focus on two major questions: How do the RCM simulated climate changes differ from those of the parent GCMs and thus affect our perception of climate change over North America, and how important are the relative contributions of RCMs and GCMs to the uncertainty (variance explained) for different seasons and variables? The RCMs tend to produce stronger climate changes for precipitation: larger increases in the northern part of ...


Effects Of Ocean Acidification On The Behavior Of Two Marine Invertebrates: A Study Of Predator-Prey Responses Of The Molluscs Conus Marmoreus And Strombus Luhuanus At Elevated-Co2 Conditions, Jennifer Fields Oct 2013

Effects Of Ocean Acidification On The Behavior Of Two Marine Invertebrates: A Study Of Predator-Prey Responses Of The Molluscs Conus Marmoreus And Strombus Luhuanus At Elevated-Co2 Conditions, Jennifer Fields

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Ocean acidification has been affecting the world’s oceans since the introduction of anthropogenic CO2 into the atmosphere during the Industrial Revolution. An increase in CO2 uptake from the atmosphere to the ocean has had a profound impact on not only the water chemistry, but marine organisms as well. Ocean acidification is known to have significant impacts on marine invertebrates in terms of calcification and reproduction; however, effects of increased CO2 on marine invertebrate behavior are vastly unknown. Marine conch gastropods have a modified muscularized foot that allows them to escape quite rapidly when faced with a predator cone shell ...


Incorporating Satellite Derived Cloud Climatologies To Improve High Resolution Interpolation Of Daily Precipitation., Adam M. Wilson, Benoit Parmentier, Brian Mcgill, Rob Guralnick, Walter Jetz Sep 2013

Incorporating Satellite Derived Cloud Climatologies To Improve High Resolution Interpolation Of Daily Precipitation., Adam M. Wilson, Benoit Parmentier, Brian Mcgill, Rob Guralnick, Walter Jetz

Yale Day of Data

Conservation of biodiversity demands comprehension of evolutionary and ecological patterns and processes that occur over vast spatial and temporal scales. A central goal of ecology is to understand the factors that control the spatial distribution of species and this has become even more important in the face of climate change. However, at global scales there can be enormous uncertainty in environmental data used to model species distributions. Even ‘simple’ metrics such as mean annual precipitation are difficult to estimate in areas with few weather stations and available data sets do not quantify uncertainty in these surfaces. We are developing a ...


Feeling The Heat? Substantial Variation In Temperatures Does Not Affect The Proportion Of Males Born In Australia, Barnaby J. Dixson, John Haywood, Philip J. Lester, Diane K. Ormsby Sep 2013

Feeling The Heat? Substantial Variation In Temperatures Does Not Affect The Proportion Of Males Born In Australia, Barnaby J. Dixson, John Haywood, Philip J. Lester, Diane K. Ormsby

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

The global proportion of male births has been shown to vary with climate, with a higher proportion of male births documented in colder climates. Here we examined the hypothesis that ambient temperature predicts fluctuations in the proportion of male births in Australia and within seven Australian states using historical annual data spanning 1910-2009. We predicted that within states with tropical ambient temperatures the proportion of male births would decrease when ambient temperatures are higher. Considering the national composite births for the whole of Australia first, the proportion of males born ranged only from 0.510 to 0.517. We observed ...


Evidence For 20th Century Climate Warming And Wetland Drying In The North American Prairie Pothole Region, Brett A. Werner, W. Carter Johnson, Glenn R. Guntenspergen Sep 2013

Evidence For 20th Century Climate Warming And Wetland Drying In The North American Prairie Pothole Region, Brett A. Werner, W. Carter Johnson, Glenn R. Guntenspergen

Natural Resource Management Faculty Publications

The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America is a globally important resource that provides abundant and valuable ecosystem goods and services in the form of biodiversity, groundwater recharge, water purification, flood attenuation, and water and forage for agriculture. Numerous studies have found these wetlands, which number in the millions, to be highly sensitive to climate variability. Here, we compare wetland conditions between two 30-year periods (1946–1975; 1976–2005) using a hindcast simulation approach to determine if recent climate warming in the region has already resulted in changes in wetland condition. Simulations using the WETLANDSCAPE model show that 20th ...


Ccaat/Enhancer-Binding Protein Delta (C/Ebp-Delta) Expression In Antarctic Fishes: Implications For Cell Cycle And Apoptosis, Isaac Martin Sleadd Aug 2013

Ccaat/Enhancer-Binding Protein Delta (C/Ebp-Delta) Expression In Antarctic Fishes: Implications For Cell Cycle And Apoptosis, Isaac Martin Sleadd

Dissertations and Theses

Chapter 1: Antarctic fishes are extremely cold adapted. Despite their inability to upregulate heat shock proteins, recent studies have demonstrated a capacity for heat response in these animals. A cDNA microarray study looked at the Notothenioid fish Trematomus bernacchii and revealed heat sensitivities for hundreds of genes, two of which code for members of the CCAAT/Enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) family of transcription factors. These molecular switches are best known for their roles in apoptosis, inflammation and cell cycle arrest. This dissertation further elucidates the role of C/EBP-delta in the Antarctic fishes T. bernacchii and Pagothenia borchgrevinki.

Chapter 2 ...


Collaborative Research: Globec Pan-Regional Synthesis: End-To-End Energy Budgets In Us-Globec Regions, Andrew C. Thomas Aug 2013

Collaborative Research: Globec Pan-Regional Synthesis: End-To-End Energy Budgets In Us-Globec Regions, Andrew C. Thomas

University of Maine Office of Research Administration: Grant Reports

The research addresses the overarching question: are marine food webs leading to fisheries controlled from the top-down, the bottom up, or a combination of the two? To address this question we will (1) compare end-to-end energy budgets of the 4 US-GLOBEC study regions in the context of top-down v. bottom-up forcing, (2) assess the skills of the regional models in capturing basic material fluxes, (3) extract diagnostics from the regional models that will be used to evaluate the effects of climate change and fishing pressure across GLOBEC regions and (4) develop quantitative methods to compare the diagnostics. The major successes ...


Systematics, Climate, And Ecology Of Fossil And Extant Nyssa (Nyssaceae, Cornales) And Implications Of Nyssa Grayensis Sp. Nov. From The Gray Fossil Site, Northeast Tennessee, Nathan R. Noll Aug 2013

Systematics, Climate, And Ecology Of Fossil And Extant Nyssa (Nyssaceae, Cornales) And Implications Of Nyssa Grayensis Sp. Nov. From The Gray Fossil Site, Northeast Tennessee, Nathan R. Noll

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Late Hemphillian (latest Miocene or earliest Pliocene, 7-4.5 Ma) Gray Fossil Site in northeastern Tennessee is interpreted to represent a lacustrine paleokarst fed by a river or stream. This research focuses on the morphological and systematic relations of Nyssa endocarps (fruit pits) from the fossil site to extinct and extant Nyssa species. A combination of metric and nonmetric traits allows recognition of a new species: Nyssa grayensis sp. nov. This fossil species shares the most similarities with the extant Nyssa ogeche Bartram ex Marshall from southeast North America and the Eocene fossil Nyssa eolignitica Berry from western Tennessee ...


Reply To “Comments On ‘The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program: Overview Of Phase I Results'”, Linda O. Mearns, Melissa S. Bukovsky, Ruby Leung, Yun Qian, Ray Arritt, William Gutowski, Eugene S. Takle, Sébastien Biner, Daniel Caya, James Correia Jr., Richard Jones, Lisa Sloan, Mark Snyder Jul 2013

Reply To “Comments On ‘The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program: Overview Of Phase I Results'”, Linda O. Mearns, Melissa S. Bukovsky, Ruby Leung, Yun Qian, Ray Arritt, William Gutowski, Eugene S. Takle, Sébastien Biner, Daniel Caya, James Correia Jr., Richard Jones, Lisa Sloan, Mark Snyder

Agronomy Publications

The authors of Mearns et al. (2012) are aware of the role of driving RCMs with reanalyses and have written extensively on the roles of different types of regional climate models (RCMs) simulations (e.g., Giorgi and Mearns 1999; Leung et al. 2003). Thus, we agree that the skill of dynamical downscaling in which global reanalysis is used to provide boundary conditions in general indicates an upper bound of skill compared to dynamical downscaling in which the boundary conditions come from global climate model simulations. This finding has long been established, as global climate model simulations cannot outperform global reanalysis ...


Fisheries Management In A Changing Climate: Lessons From The 2012 Ocean Heat Wave In The Northwest Atlantic., Katherine E. Mills, Andrew Pershing, Curtis J. Brown, Yong Chen, Fu-Sung Chiang, Daniel S. Holland, Sigrid Lehuta, Janet A. Nye, Jenny C. Sun, Andrew C. Thomas, Richard A. Wahle Jun 2013

Fisheries Management In A Changing Climate: Lessons From The 2012 Ocean Heat Wave In The Northwest Atlantic., Katherine E. Mills, Andrew Pershing, Curtis J. Brown, Yong Chen, Fu-Sung Chiang, Daniel S. Holland, Sigrid Lehuta, Janet A. Nye, Jenny C. Sun, Andrew C. Thomas, Richard A. Wahle

Publications

No abstract provided.


Marine Invertebrates: Communities At Risk, Jennifer A. Mather Jun 2013

Marine Invertebrates: Communities At Risk, Jennifer A. Mather

Ecological Impacts of Climate Change Collection

Our definition of the word ‘animal’ centers on vertebrates, yet 99% of the animals on the planet are invertebrates, about which we know little. In addition, although the Census of Marine Life (COML.org) has recently conducted an extensive audit of marine ecosystems, we still do not understand much about the animals of the seas. Surveys of the best-known ecosystems, in which invertebrate populations often play a key role, show that the invertebrate populations are affected by human impact. Coral animals are the foundation of coral reef systems, which are estimated to contain 30% of the species in the ocean ...


Effect Of Continued Nitrogen Enrichment On Greenhouse Gas Emissions From A Wetland Ecosystem In The Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China: A 5 Year Nitrogen Addition Experiment, Changchun Song, Lili Wang, Hanqin Tian, Deyan Liu, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Xiaofeng Xu, Lihua Zhang, Guisheng Yang, Zhongmei Wan Jun 2013

Effect Of Continued Nitrogen Enrichment On Greenhouse Gas Emissions From A Wetland Ecosystem In The Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China: A 5 Year Nitrogen Addition Experiment, Changchun Song, Lili Wang, Hanqin Tian, Deyan Liu, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Xiaofeng Xu, Lihua Zhang, Guisheng Yang, Zhongmei Wan

Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

Mounting evidence supports that wetland ecosystems, one of the largest carbon pools on the earth, are exposed to ample nitrogen (N) additions due to atmospheric deposition or N loading from upstream agricultural fertilizer application. However, our understanding of how N enrichment affects the fluxes of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in wetlands is weak. A 5 year N addition experiment was conducted to examine the responses of CH4 and N2O fluxes as well as ecosystem respiration from wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China, through 2005 to 2009. Four levels of N addition (control, 0 kg N ha−1 yr−1; low-level ...


Rejoinder: Challenge And Opportunity In The Study Of Ungulate Migration Amid Environmental Change, Arthur D. Middleton, Matthew J. Kauffman, Douglas E. Mcwhirter, John G. Cook, Rachel C. Cook, Abigail A. Nelson, Michael D. Jimenez, Robert W. Klaver Jun 2013

Rejoinder: Challenge And Opportunity In The Study Of Ungulate Migration Amid Environmental Change, Arthur D. Middleton, Matthew J. Kauffman, Douglas E. Mcwhirter, John G. Cook, Rachel C. Cook, Abigail A. Nelson, Michael D. Jimenez, Robert W. Klaver

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Increasingly, animals that migrate long distances to exploit seasonal habitats must traverse political boundaries capable of altering the very ecological gradients that promote migratory behavior. This transboundary aspect of migration presents many new challenges and opportunities for research and conservation (e.g., Bolger et al. 2008, Taillon et al. 2012). Work to date has often focused on physical barriers to movement (roads, fences, and housing and energy development) that can threaten migratory populations to varying degrees (Holdo et al. 2011, Sawyer et al. 2013). However, even in the absence of conspicuous barriers, political and jurisdictional boundaries can bring dramatic differences ...


Animal Migration Amid Shifting Patterns Of Phenology And Predation: Lessons From A Yellowstone Elk Herd, Arthur D. Middleton, Matthew J. Kauffman, Douglas E. Mcwhirter, John G. Cook, Rachel C. Cook, Abigali A. Nelson, Michael D. Jimenez, Robert W. Klaver Jun 2013

Animal Migration Amid Shifting Patterns Of Phenology And Predation: Lessons From A Yellowstone Elk Herd, Arthur D. Middleton, Matthew J. Kauffman, Douglas E. Mcwhirter, John G. Cook, Rachel C. Cook, Abigali A. Nelson, Michael D. Jimenez, Robert W. Klaver

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Migration is a striking behavioral strategy by which many animals enhance resource acquisition while reducing predation risk. Historically, the demographic benefits of such movements made migration common, but in many taxa the phenomenon is considered globally threatened. Here we describe a long-term decline in the productivity of elk (Cervus elaphus) that migrate through intact wilderness areas to protected summer ranges inside Yellowstone National Park, USA. We attribute this decline to a long-term reduction in the demographic benefits that ungulates typically gain from migration. Among migratory elk, we observed a 21-year, 70% reduction in recruitment and a 4-year, 19% depression in ...


Integrating, Developing, And Testing Methods To Generate More Cohesive Approaches To Biogeographic Inference, Mallory Elizabeth Eckstut May 2013

Integrating, Developing, And Testing Methods To Generate More Cohesive Approaches To Biogeographic Inference, Mallory Elizabeth Eckstut

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

As a fundamental component of the developing discipline of conservation biogeography, broadscale analyses of biotic assembly and disassembly across multiple temporal and spatial scales provide an enhanced understanding of how geologic transformations and climate oscillations have shaped extant patterns of biodiversity. As with any scientific field, there are limitations in the case of biogeographic historical reconstructions. Historical reconstructions are only as robust as the theoretical underpinnings of the methods of reconstruction (including data collection, quality, analysis, and interpretation). Nevertheless, historical reconstructions of species distributions can help inform our understanding of how species respond to environmental change.

My dissertation takes a ...


Colorado River Cutthroat Habitat Resistance And Resilience To Climate Change, Kate Olsen May 2013

Colorado River Cutthroat Habitat Resistance And Resilience To Climate Change, Kate Olsen

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Colorado River cutthroat trout, Oncorhyncus clarki pleuriticus , occupy less than 12% of their historic range. Restoration and conservation of this species are currently under way across the upper Colorado River basin, but guidance to inform management decisions related to the impacts of climate change on cutthroat is lacking. Shifts in the thermal distribution of freshwater fish have been documented, and will continue to occur as cold water habitat is threatened by warming water temperatures. Coupled air and water temperature data allow for an estimation of potential resistance and resilience to warming, determining the effect that local air has on stream ...


Factors Influencing Geographic Patterns In Diversity Of Forest Bird Communities Of Eastern Connecticut, Usa, Robert J. Craig, Robert W. Klaver May 2013

Factors Influencing Geographic Patterns In Diversity Of Forest Bird Communities Of Eastern Connecticut, Usa, Robert J. Craig, Robert W. Klaver

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

At regional scales, the most important variables associated with diversity are latitudinally-based temperature and net primary productivity, although diversity is also influenced by habitat. We examined bird species richness, community density and community evenness in forests of eastern Connecticut to determine whether: 1) spatial and seasonal patterns exist in diversity, 2) energy explains the greatest proportion of variation in diversity parameters, 3) variation in habitat explains remaining diversity variance, and 4) seasonal shifts in diversity provide clues about how environmental variables shape communities. We sought to discover if our data supported predictions of the species–energy hypothesis. We used the ...


Soil Moisture Recognition And The Spatial Distribution Of Storm Activity In The Mojave Desert Using High-Resolution Aster And Modis Imagery For Thermophysical Mapping, Russell J. Skuse May 2013

Soil Moisture Recognition And The Spatial Distribution Of Storm Activity In The Mojave Desert Using High-Resolution Aster And Modis Imagery For Thermophysical Mapping, Russell J. Skuse

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Climate models suggest that the Mojave Desert ecoregion is vulnerable to becoming drier in the future, and as the human population grows and development increases, environmental stresses will likely increase. Determining the spatial distribution and variation of soil moisture on a regional scale is an essential component to climate change, hydrologic, and habitat analyses. Soil permeability and sediment stability are characteristics that have been shown to be measurable from remote sensing observations. The primary objective of this project is to map the mechanical composition of the surface materials in the Mojave Desert ecoregion with implications for soil permeability, sediment stability ...


The Evaluation Of Water Storage In Death Valley Using Grace Satellite Data, Maile Sweigart May 2013

The Evaluation Of Water Storage In Death Valley Using Grace Satellite Data, Maile Sweigart

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

As drought conditions spread across the United States, concerns over water supplies, water use, and water management policies are growing and possible contributing environmental factors are continually being scrutinized. This thesis examines Death Valley as an analog for Southern Nevada and utilizes NASA EOS data, combined with ancillary climate data, to assess the effect of decadal climate variability on groundwater storage in the Death Valley area. Historical climate data, combined with satellite imagery observations, were compiled and calculated for analyses. Conclusions derived from statistical analyses infer trends between GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellite data and fluctuating levels of ...


Agricultural Advisors: A Receptive Audience For Weather And Climate Information?, Linda Stalker Prokopy, Tonya Haigh, Amber Saylor Mase, Jim Angel, Chad E. Hart, Cody Knutson, Maria Carmen Lemos, Yun-Jia Lo, Jean Mcguire, Lois Wright Morton, Jennifer Perron, Dennis Patrick Todey, Melissa Widhalm Apr 2013

Agricultural Advisors: A Receptive Audience For Weather And Climate Information?, Linda Stalker Prokopy, Tonya Haigh, Amber Saylor Mase, Jim Angel, Chad E. Hart, Cody Knutson, Maria Carmen Lemos, Yun-Jia Lo, Jean Mcguire, Lois Wright Morton, Jennifer Perron, Dennis Patrick Todey, Melissa Widhalm

Economics Publications

As the climate in the midwestern United States becomes increasingly variable because of global climate change, it is critical to provide tools to the agricultural community to ensure adaptability and profitability of agricultural cropping systems. When used by farmers and their advisors, agricultural decision support tools can reduce uncertainty and risks in the planning, operation, and management decisions of the farm enterprise. Agricultural advisors have historically played a key role in providing information and guidance in these decisions. However, little is known about what these advisors know or think about weather and climate information and their willingness to incorporate this ...


Implications For Soil Microbe Research: Investigations Into The Feasibility Of Dna Amplification From Stained Roots And Temporal Patterns In Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Communities., Catherine Ausland Apr 2013

Implications For Soil Microbe Research: Investigations Into The Feasibility Of Dna Amplification From Stained Roots And Temporal Patterns In Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Communities., Catherine Ausland

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are obligate biotrophs that form symbiotic relationships with 80% of vascular plants around the world. Because of their beneficial relationship with plants in almost all terrestrial ecosystems, the implication of utilizing AM fungi in ecological restorations is immense. The following investigations seek to increase knowledge of the community ecology of AM fungi in order to enhance the potential for use of AM in ecological restoration. The first investigation replicated a novel method of AM visualization in plant roots, utilizing ink and vinegar as less destructive staining agents, to determine whether molecular studies could be feasibly performed ...


El Nin˜O Impact On Mollusk Biomineralization: Implications For Trace Element Proxy Reconstructions And The Paleo-Archeological Record, Alberto Pe´Rez-Huerta, Miguel F. Etayo-Cadavid, C Fred T. Andrus, Teresa E. Jeffries, Clifton Watkins, Shane C. Street, Daniel H. Sandweiss Feb 2013

El Nin˜O Impact On Mollusk Biomineralization: Implications For Trace Element Proxy Reconstructions And The Paleo-Archeological Record, Alberto Pe´Rez-Huerta, Miguel F. Etayo-Cadavid, C Fred T. Andrus, Teresa E. Jeffries, Clifton Watkins, Shane C. Street, Daniel H. Sandweiss

Anthropology Faculty Scholarship

Marine macroinvertebrates are ideal sentinel organisms to monitor rapid environmental changes associated with climatic phenomena. These organisms build up protective exoskeletons incrementally by biologically-controlled mineralization, which is deeply rooted in long-term evolutionary processes. Recent studies relating potential rapid environmental fluctuations to climate change, such as ocean acidification, suggest modifications on carbonate biominerals of marine invertebrates. However, the influence of known, and recurrent, climatic events on these biological processes during active mineralization is still insufficiently understood. Analysis of Peruvian cockles from the 1982–83 large magnitude El Nin˜o event shows significant alterations of the chemico-structure of carbonate biominerals. Here, we ...


Climate Change And Agriculture In The United States: Effects And Adaptation, Charles L. Walthall, Christoper J. Anderson, Lance H. Baumgard, Eugene Takle, Lois Wright-Morton, Et Al. Feb 2013

Climate Change And Agriculture In The United States: Effects And Adaptation, Charles L. Walthall, Christoper J. Anderson, Lance H. Baumgard, Eugene Takle, Lois Wright-Morton, Et Al.

Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Reports

No abstract provided.


Fine Scale Climatic And Soil Variability Effects On Plant Species Cover Along The Front Range Of Colorado, Usa, William Frank Preston Cumming Jan 2013

Fine Scale Climatic And Soil Variability Effects On Plant Species Cover Along The Front Range Of Colorado, Usa, William Frank Preston Cumming

Geography Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Fine scale studies are rarely performed to address landscape level responses to microclimatic variability. Is it the timing, distribution, and magnitude of soil temperature and moisture that affects what species emerge each season and, in turn, their resilience to fluctuations in microclimate. For this dissertation research, I evaluated the response of vegetation change to microclimatic variability within two communities over a three year period (2009-2012) utilizing 25 meter transects at two locations along the Front Range of Colorado near Boulder, CO and Golden, CO respectively. To assess microclimatic variability, spatial and temporal autocorrelation analyses were performed with soil temperature and ...


Moving Forward In Global-Change Ecology: Capitalizing On Natural Variability, Inés Ibáñez, Elise S. Gornish, Lauren Buckley, Diane M. Debinski, Jessica Hellmann, Brian Helmuth, Janneke Hillerislambers, Andrew M. Latimer, Abraham J. Miller-Rushing, Maria Uriarte Jan 2013

Moving Forward In Global-Change Ecology: Capitalizing On Natural Variability, Inés Ibáñez, Elise S. Gornish, Lauren Buckley, Diane M. Debinski, Jessica Hellmann, Brian Helmuth, Janneke Hillerislambers, Andrew M. Latimer, Abraham J. Miller-Rushing, Maria Uriarte

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Natural resources managers are being asked to follow practices that accommodate for the impact of climate change on the ecosystems they manage, while global-ecosystems modelers aim to forecast future responses under different climate scenarios. However, the lack of scientific knowledge about short-term ecosystem responses to climate change has made it difficult to define set conservation practices or to realistically inform ecosystem models. Until recently, the main goal for ecologists was to study the composition and structure of communities and their implications for ecosystem function, but due to the probable magnitude and irreversibility of climate-change effects (species extinctions and loss of ...


Changes In Net Ecosystem Production Over The Past 40 Years In Arctic Tundra Ponds Near Barrow, Alaska: Application Of Historic And Modern Techniques, Nickole Ann Miller Jan 2013

Changes In Net Ecosystem Production Over The Past 40 Years In Arctic Tundra Ponds Near Barrow, Alaska: Application Of Historic And Modern Techniques, Nickole Ann Miller

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Arctic environments have gained interest recently due to their sensitivity to climate change. As warming has created longer growing seasons, extended ice-free periods as well as permafrost thaw, the production in freshwater ecosystems has the potential to be greatly impacted. It is hypothesized that as climate change and warming occurs, increases in primary production will occur and ponds will become carbon sinks. Net ecosystem production (NEP) was determined using phytoplankton and periphyton samples collected weekly during the growing season (June - August) from arctic tundra ponds near Barrow, Alaska. Enrichment with 14C was used to determine both weekly photosynthetic rates and ...


A History Of Place: Using Phytolith Analysis To Discern Holocene Vegetation Change On Sanak Island, Western Gulf Of Alaska, Cricket C. Wilbur Jan 2013

A History Of Place: Using Phytolith Analysis To Discern Holocene Vegetation Change On Sanak Island, Western Gulf Of Alaska, Cricket C. Wilbur

Dissertations & Theses

This study investigated a terrestrial climate proxy, phytoliths, as a complimentary approach to documenting the dynamics of present and past vegetation on Sanak Island, the largest island in a small island group in the eastern Aleutian archipelago, and as a new basis by which to interpret Holocene environmental variability in Alaska. A phytolith reference collection was established from 59 selected plant species of maritime tundra belonging to 27 families. The grass species and a sedge species produced abundant phytolith forms whereas the majority of dicotyledons in this study were trace producers of phytoliths. A paleoenvironmental reconstruction from fossil phytoliths recovered ...


Us Food Security And Climate Change: Agricultural Futures, Eugene Takle, David Gustafson, Roger Beachy, Gerald C. Nelson, Daniel Mason-D’Croz, Amanda Palazzo Jan 2013

Us Food Security And Climate Change: Agricultural Futures, Eugene Takle, David Gustafson, Roger Beachy, Gerald C. Nelson, Daniel Mason-D’Croz, Amanda Palazzo

Agronomy Publications

Agreement is developing among agricultural scientists on the emerging inability of agriculture to meet growing global food demands. Changes in trends of weather conditions projected by global climate models will challenge physiological limits of crops and exacerbate the global food challenge by 2050. These climate- and constraint-driven crop production challenges are interconnected within a complex global economy, where diverse factors add to price volatility and food scarcity. Our scenarios of the impact of climate change on food security through 2050 for internationally traded crops show that climate change does not threaten near-term US food security due to the availability of ...