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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

A Small Stem Assay For Chestnut Blight Resistance In Hybrid American Chestnut Trees, Evelyn Odle May 2022

A Small Stem Assay For Chestnut Blight Resistance In Hybrid American Chestnut Trees, Evelyn Odle

Honors Theses

Cryphonectria parasitica (Murr.) Barr is the causal agent for the chestnut blight disease, which was brought to North America in the late 19th century on nursery stock from Japan (Anagnostakis 1987). A pandemic of chestnut blight lasted for the next half century, nearly wiping out all American chestnut trees (Castanea dentata Borkh.). Restoration works to restoring the American chestnut to its native range in North America’s canopy has been going on for the past century. The American Chestnut Foundation has strived to breed a resistant American chestnut by backcross breeding with Chinese species (C. mollissima Blume) since the 1980s ...


Lawrence Kaplan (14 April 1926-6 March 1918), Emily Kaplan May 2022

Lawrence Kaplan (14 April 1926-6 March 1918), Emily Kaplan

Andean Past

This is an appreciation of the life and work of archaeobotanist Lawrence Kaplan, a specialist in domesticated beans.


Regional Plant Community Differences In The Nebraska Sandhills, Travis Millikan May 2022

Regional Plant Community Differences In The Nebraska Sandhills, Travis Millikan

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

The Nebraska Sandhills is very valuable to the state of Nebraska, representing one of the most in-tact and largest grassland ecosystems in temperate regions in the world. Rangeland managers must understand plant community dynamics across the Sandhills to better inform management decisions. The first objective of this study was to evaluate plant community variability on upland Sands ecological sites across different precipitation zones in the Nebraska Sandhills. The second objective of our study was to utilize the Rangeland Analysis Platform (RAP) to examine spatial and temporal variability in biomass production and cover on pastures of ranches analyzed in the first ...


Native And Non-Native Ant Impacts On Soil Microbes, Hannah A. Stewart May 2022

Native And Non-Native Ant Impacts On Soil Microbes, Hannah A. Stewart

Biology Theses

Organisms produce chemical weapons for defense, but target organisms can develop resistance. In their introduced range, non-native species may bring “novel weapons” against which native organisms have not co-evolved resistance. The invasive European fire ant (Myrmica rubra) may have brought antimicrobial secretions to the Northeastern United States that are novel weapons against native fungal and bacterial soil organisms. I hypothesized that M. rubra would better inhibit seed pathogens resulting in greater emergence of native myrmecochorous Viola sororia seeds and, as a side effect, more strongly inhibit arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi than a native seed dispersing ant (Aphaenogaster picea). I also expected ...


Climate Change And Conservation Of Milkweed: Evidence Of Extensive Admixture Between Common Milkweed And Poke Milkweed, Elizabeth Davies May 2022

Climate Change And Conservation Of Milkweed: Evidence Of Extensive Admixture Between Common Milkweed And Poke Milkweed, Elizabeth Davies

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Global climate change can drive many changes in species interactions. One primary way it affects species is by changing climates, causing species to expand their ranges and allowing them to interact with species from whom they were previously isolated. In plants, new species interactions can result in hybridization – the creation of hybrid offspring between two separate species. This hybridization can increase gene flow between the species and lead to introgression, the transfer of genetic material from one species to another through hybrid backcrossing with the parent species. My thesis investigates hybridization in the model system Asclepias (milkweed) by analyzing phenotypic ...


Exploration Of Genes Controlling Grain Yield Heterosis In Hybrid Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) Utilizing 3ʹ Rna Sequencing, Nichole Miller Apr 2022

Exploration Of Genes Controlling Grain Yield Heterosis In Hybrid Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) Utilizing 3ʹ Rna Sequencing, Nichole Miller

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

The implementation and future success of hybrid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is impacted by breeders’ inability to create consistent high yielding, high heterosis hybrids. This research addresses this problem by conducting an exploration of transcriptomes from hybrids and parent lines to determine what genes are active in heterotic or non-heterotic hybrids and how their level of expression can explain the phenotype of grain yield heterosis. Using hybrids that showed positive mid-parent heterosis (MPH), classified as heterotic in our study, and negative or no difference MPH hybrids, classified as non-heterotic, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) potentially related to heterosis and hybrid yield ...


Evaluating Traits Influencing Hybrid Wheat Seed Production Using A Double Haploid Population Derived From Freeman X Camelot, Emre Karahan Apr 2022

Evaluating Traits Influencing Hybrid Wheat Seed Production Using A Double Haploid Population Derived From Freeman X Camelot, Emre Karahan

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Hybrid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars are preferred for their advanced agronomic traits such as a yield improvement increase up to 20%. However, hybrid cultivars remain difficult to produce on a commercial scale due to inadequate pollen dispersal, the closed nature of the wheat floret and the high cost of inducing sterility or restoring fertility in cleistogamous wheat. Redesigning parent-specific traits and understanding their potential interactions with related agronomic traits are needed to breed improved male lines in hybrid seed production fields. To better understand the genetic control of anther extrusion (AE), 174 double haploid lines derived from Freeman (excellent ...


Landscapes Are Cornerstones Of Sustainability Programs, Don Spence Apr 2022

Landscapes Are Cornerstones Of Sustainability Programs, Don Spence

Sustainability Conference

Typical American landscapes are not sustainable in an economic or biological framework. The essence of the idea of sustainable growth and development are centered on the idea that those activities are not degrading natural resources or that they are outstrip budgets. A significant piece of any sustainable management plan is tied to how we manage our landscapes, how we use plants; specifically, how much grass there is, and how many native plants there are. Sustainable landscapes should require less chemical and financial inputs, which in the end, saves money and increases the biological value of the land and creates a ...


Cryptic Hybridization In The Temperate Bamboos: Is Pleioblastus Simonii A Species Of Hybrid Origin?, Morgan Brown Apr 2022

Cryptic Hybridization In The Temperate Bamboos: Is Pleioblastus Simonii A Species Of Hybrid Origin?, Morgan Brown

Theses

Japanese river bamboo (Pleioblastus simonii, ‘medake,’‘kawadake’) is an ecologically important species of temperate bamboo native to Japan. This species is widely known and historically important in Japanese rural farm life. Based on morphological data, Japanese river bamboo is classified in Pleioblastus section Medakea (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) along with five other Japanese species, which are collectively considered to represent a phylogenetically distinct lineage. However, recent studies suggest that Japanese river bamboo may have arisen as a result of previously undetected hybridization (i.e., cryptic hybridization), while also calling into question the diversity of section Medakea. The role of hybridization in natural ...


Molecular Evidence Of Cryptic Hybridization In The Japanese Nezasa Bamboos (Pleioblastus Section Nezasa), Ryan Long Apr 2022

Molecular Evidence Of Cryptic Hybridization In The Japanese Nezasa Bamboos (Pleioblastus Section Nezasa), Ryan Long

Theses

The genus Pleioblastus is a complex group of Southeast Asian temperate bamboos with 7-21 species, depending on taxonomic authority. This study tests the hypothesis that taxonomic complexity in this group is due in part to hybridization and subsequent backcrossing in natural populations, resulting in a reticulate evolutionary history and a contemporary species assemblage that includes cryptic hybrids. This hypothesis is supported by recent research on the temperate bamboos that revealed intergeneric hybrids involving Pleioblastus and other genera of temperate bamboos (Triplett and Clark, 2021). The objective of the current study was to use data from Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP ...


Cattle Diet Selection During The Growing Season On Upland Sandhills Rangelands, Alejandro Orozco-Lopez Apr 2022

Cattle Diet Selection During The Growing Season On Upland Sandhills Rangelands, Alejandro Orozco-Lopez

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

The Sandhills is a diverse and complex ecosystem comprised of different topographic positions (i.e. slopes and interdunes) that influence grazing distribution, plant species composition, and cattle diet selection. The first objective of this study was to evaluate how grazing intensity influences species composition on slopes and interdunes on native rangeland within the Hillside pasture (160 ha) at the UNL Gudmundsen Sandhill’s Laboratory (GSL). The second objective of this study was to evaluate forage quality of individual species from three plant functional groups (i.e. warm-season grasses, cool-season grasses, and forbs/shrubs) on native rangeland within the Hillside pasture ...


Winter Cover Crop Impacts On Weed Dynamics In Eastern And Central Nebraska, Elizabeth Ann Oys Apr 2022

Winter Cover Crop Impacts On Weed Dynamics In Eastern And Central Nebraska, Elizabeth Ann Oys

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Reducing tillage in cropping systems causes weed management to be dependent on chemical and cultural methods for weed control. Over time, herbicide-resistant weeds have developed due to the continuous selection pressures from herbicides, particularly in the Midwest Corn Belt. Integrated weed management strategies, such as cover crops, can be used to mitigate some of these issues. Cover crops are primarily known for their soil health benefits, but there is evidence that cover crops can suppress weeds. However, less research has been done at the field-scale level to address cover crop impacts on the weed seedbank and aboveground weeds during the ...


Effect Of Genetic - Environment Interactions For Grain Yield Trait Of Some Genotypes Of Bread Wheat In Syria, تأثير التفاعل البيئي الوراثي لصفة الغلة الحبية في بعض الطرز الوراثية من القمح الطري في سورية, Abdullatef Al- Assaf, Ahmad Shams Al-Dien Shaaban, Abdallah Elyousef, Walid Alouk Mar 2022

Effect Of Genetic - Environment Interactions For Grain Yield Trait Of Some Genotypes Of Bread Wheat In Syria, تأثير التفاعل البيئي الوراثي لصفة الغلة الحبية في بعض الطرز الوراثية من القمح الطري في سورية, Abdullatef Al- Assaf, Ahmad Shams Al-Dien Shaaban, Abdallah Elyousef, Walid Alouk

Arab Journal of Arid Environments المجلة العربية للبيئات الجافة

The aim of this investigation was to study the effect of GE-interactions of grain yield of bread wheat using the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) model. Twenty-four genotypes of bread wheat were sown at 13 locations for 3 growing seasons (2006/2007, 2007/2008 and 2008/2009). The results showed that main effects due to E, G, and GE interaction were found to be significant (P6 and Douma48114 Results showed the possibility of improvement the selection of bread wheat genotypes by applying AMMI model and GGE Biplot methodology in multi- Environment trails.

هدف البحث لتحليل التفاعل البيئي ...


Developmental Staging And Morphological Comparisons Of Four Fern Gametophyte Species From The Santa Monica Mountains, Tristan Furlong Mar 2022

Developmental Staging And Morphological Comparisons Of Four Fern Gametophyte Species From The Santa Monica Mountains, Tristan Furlong

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

The fern life cycle alternates between two distinct phases: a diploid sporophyte phase consisting of the “adult” fern, and a haploid gametophyte phase. Early events and changes in gametophyte development can have considerable consequences in the morphologies of these different fern species and may facilitate the various adaptive strategies employed by the gametophytes in their different habitats. This study investigates early developmental events in the gametophytes of four different fern species found in the Santa Monica Mountains, Adiantum jordanii (chaparral understory, summer deciduous sporophyte), Woodwardia fimbriata (riparian stream), Dryopteris arguta (chaparral understory, evergreen), and Pentagramma triangularis (chaparral understory, resurrection sporophyte ...


Western Prairie Fringed Orchid Management, Ecology, And Decline At Mormon Island, Andrew J. Caven Mar 2022

Western Prairie Fringed Orchid Management, Ecology, And Decline At Mormon Island, Andrew J. Caven

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

The western prairie fringed orchid (Platanthera praeclara Sheviak & M. L. Bowles; WPFO) was first detected in a vegetative state on Mormon Island in 1978 and identification was confirmed following a mass flowering event in 1982. From a high count of ~60 plants the WPFO slowly declined and has not been observed since 2000 despite flowering season surveys conducted in 15 of the last 20 years. We explore the natural history of the WPFO in the contexts of Mormon Island to establish potential causes for its apparent disappearance and evaluate the possibility it persists in some capacity. Our investigation of secondary data suggests the ...


The Planted Catalog: The Role Of The Botanical Garden In Botany, Douglas Tuers Feb 2022

The Planted Catalog: The Role Of The Botanical Garden In Botany, Douglas Tuers

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

This article will investigate the role of the botanical garden in botany. What its role is and how it fills it. This article will take the Missouri Botanical Garden as a case study, drawing heavily from archival material compromised mostly of letters between Henry Shaw and the prominent botanists of his day. This study also draws on the prominent histories of the Missouri Botanical Garden. The analysis use the philosophical tradition around reference in logic and language. This study argues that the botanical garden is a bridge between locality and herbaria. The order of the flora travels to the locality ...


Spatial Variability Of Leaf Wetness Under Different Soil Water Conditions In Rainfed Jujube (Ziziphus Jujuba Mill.) In The Loess Hilly Region, China, Gao Zhiyong, Wang Xing Feb 2022

Spatial Variability Of Leaf Wetness Under Different Soil Water Conditions In Rainfed Jujube (Ziziphus Jujuba Mill.) In The Loess Hilly Region, China, Gao Zhiyong, Wang Xing

Journal of Arid Land

Leaf wetness provides a wide range of benefits not only to leaves, but also to ecosystems and communities. It regulates canopy eco-hydrological processes and drives spatial differences in hydrological flux. In spite of these functions, little remains known about the spatial distribution of leaf wetness under different soil water conditions. Leaf wetness measurements at the top (180 cm), middle (135 cm), and bottom (85 cm) of the canopy positions of rainfed jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) in the Chinese loess hilly region were obtained along with meteorological and soil water conditions during the growing seasons in 2019 and 2020. Under soil ...


Identification And Characterization Of Active Ingredient Eugenol From Syzygium Aromaticum (Clove Oil) Through Hplc And Its Phytochemical Analysis, Ambreen Kanwal, Saba Irshad, Nimra Akmal, Nayab Batool Rizwi Feb 2022

Identification And Characterization Of Active Ingredient Eugenol From Syzygium Aromaticum (Clove Oil) Through Hplc And Its Phytochemical Analysis, Ambreen Kanwal, Saba Irshad, Nimra Akmal, Nayab Batool Rizwi

Journal of Bioresource Management

Clove, Syzygium aromaticum, is one of the most valuable, ancient and premium essential oil which has been used as source of spice in agro-food industry and therapeutics for centuries. The aim of the present study was to analyze biological activities of clove oil as well as characterization of its active component Eugenol to make it worthwhile for different food and pharmaceutical formulations. Clove oil extraction was performed by Soxhlet method. Its phytochemical analysis showed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, coumarins, steroids, saponnins, and tannins while proteins and leucoanthocyanins were absent in it. DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging assay was performed which ...


Arkansas Cotton Variety Test 2021, F. Bourland, A. Beach, B. Milano, C. Kennedy, L. Martin, B. Robertson Feb 2022

Arkansas Cotton Variety Test 2021, F. Bourland, A. Beach, B. Milano, C. Kennedy, L. Martin, B. Robertson

Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Series

The primary goal of the Arkansas Cotton Variety Test is to provide unbiased data regarding the agronomic performance of cotton varieties and advanced breeding lines in the major cotton-growing areas of Arkansas. This information helps seed companies establish marketing strategies and assists producers in choosing varieties to plant. These annual evaluations will then facilitate the inclusion of new, improved genetic material in Arkansas cotton production. Adaptation of varieties is determined by evaluating the lines at five University of Arkansas System Division of Agriculture research sites (Manila, Keiser, Judd Hill, Marianna, and Rohwer). The 2021 tests at Rohwer were abandoned due ...


Conservation, Comparative Genomics And Species Delimitation Of The Reindeer Lichens (Cladonia), Jordan R. Hoffman Feb 2022

Conservation, Comparative Genomics And Species Delimitation Of The Reindeer Lichens (Cladonia), Jordan R. Hoffman

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The genus Cladonia represents one of the most speciose genera of lichenized fungi, with more than 500 known species encompassing a diverse array of morphologies and habits. These lichens form keystone species in many habitats, serving a variety of ecological roles. However, despite being among of the more well studied lichens, there is much still unknown or under-studied about them. As is the case with most lichen study systems, phylogenetic study has been limited to a small number of partial loci, while adoption of next-generation sequence methods has been slow. As a consequence, there are still knowledge gaps in Cladonia ...


Nikolai Ivanovich Vavilov, James P. Smith Jr Jan 2022

Nikolai Ivanovich Vavilov, James P. Smith Jr

Botanical Studies

No abstract provided.


Richard Evans Schultes, James P. Smith Jr Jan 2022

Richard Evans Schultes, James P. Smith Jr

Botanical Studies

No abstract provided.


Purposeful Use Of Poisonous Plants, James P. Smith Jr Jan 2022

Purposeful Use Of Poisonous Plants, James P. Smith Jr

Botanical Studies

No abstract provided.


Two Hemlocks, James P. Smith Jr Jan 2022

Two Hemlocks, James P. Smith Jr

Botanical Studies

No abstract provided.


Food Plants With Toxic Properties, James P. Smith Jr Jan 2022

Food Plants With Toxic Properties, James P. Smith Jr

Botanical Studies

No abstract provided.


Mechanically Injurious Plants, James P. Smith Jr Jan 2022

Mechanically Injurious Plants, James P. Smith Jr

Botanical Studies

No abstract provided.


Poisonous Plants Of Home And Garden, James P. Smith Jr Jan 2022

Poisonous Plants Of Home And Garden, James P. Smith Jr

Botanical Studies

No abstract provided.


Poisonous Plants: A Glossary Of Commonly Used Terms, James P. Smith Jr Jan 2022

Poisonous Plants: A Glossary Of Commonly Used Terms, James P. Smith Jr

Botanical Studies

No abstract provided.


Maud Gordon Holmes Arboretum List Of Tree Species, Chloe Mokadam Jan 2022

Maud Gordon Holmes Arboretum List Of Tree Species, Chloe Mokadam

Maud Gordon Holmes Arboretum List of Tree Species

A database of tree species that links to descriptions/profiles for over 90 tree species.

The database is also available here: Maud Gordon Holmes Arboretum


Maud Gordon Holmes Arboretum List Of Tree Species, Chloe Mokadam Jan 2022

Maud Gordon Holmes Arboretum List Of Tree Species, Chloe Mokadam

Maud Gordon Holmes Arboretum database

Maud Gordon Holmes Arboretum database of Tree Species.