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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Ghostly Glia, Maria Noterman Aug 2048

Ghostly Glia, Maria Noterman

Synthesis: A Digital Journal of Student Science Communication

This article uses intriguing visuals of glial cells in the brain as an invitation for readers to consider the many crucial functions of these lesser-known partners of neurons.


Co-Expression Of Vegf And Il-6 Family Cytokines Is Associated With Decreased Survival In Her2 Negative Breast Cancer Patients: Subtype-Specific Il-6 Family Cytokine-Mediated Vegf Secretion, Ken Tawara, Hannah Scott, Jacqueline Emathinger, Alex Ide, Ryan Fox, Daniel Greiner, Dollie Lajoie, Danielle Hedeen, Madhuri Nandakumar, Andrew J. Oler, Ryan Holzer, Cheryl Jorcyk Feb 2019

Co-Expression Of Vegf And Il-6 Family Cytokines Is Associated With Decreased Survival In Her2 Negative Breast Cancer Patients: Subtype-Specific Il-6 Family Cytokine-Mediated Vegf Secretion, Ken Tawara, Hannah Scott, Jacqueline Emathinger, Alex Ide, Ryan Fox, Daniel Greiner, Dollie Lajoie, Danielle Hedeen, Madhuri Nandakumar, Andrew J. Oler, Ryan Holzer, Cheryl Jorcyk

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Breast cancer cell-response to inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and oncostatin M (OSM) may affect the course of clinical disease in a cancer subtype-dependent manner. Furthermore, vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF) secretion induced by IL-6 and OSM may also be subtype-dependent. Utilizing datasets from Oncomine, we show that poor survival of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) breast cancer patients is correlated with both high VEGF expression and high cytokine or cytokine receptor expression in tumors. Importantly, epidermal growth factor receptor-negative (HER2-), but not HER2-positive (HER2+), patient survival is significantly lower with high tumor co-expression of VEGF and OSM, OSMRβ ...


Employing Natural History Collections In The Aid Of Conservation: Streamlining An Approach To Model Species Distributions En Masse For The Preservation Of Biodiversity, Alice Fornari Dec 2018

Employing Natural History Collections In The Aid Of Conservation: Streamlining An Approach To Model Species Distributions En Masse For The Preservation Of Biodiversity, Alice Fornari

Master's Projects and Capstones

Using species distribution models (SDMs) in Natural History Collections (NHCs) can influence how humans implement conservation changes in flora and fauna communities and ecosystems. Through the use of legacy data (old NHCs and their associated locality/collection information), data correction (background data or pseudo absences added to presence-only data), and the SDM software, Maxent (and its associated geographic information systems or GIS projected models), it has been shown that it is feasible to create a low budget protocol/setup to project the past, present and future of species population changes. This has been done in the past few decades as ...


The Effects Of Inulin And Galactooligosaccharides On The Production Of Reuterin By Lactobacillus Reuteri, Micah Dwight Forshee Dec 2018

The Effects Of Inulin And Galactooligosaccharides On The Production Of Reuterin By Lactobacillus Reuteri, Micah Dwight Forshee

ELAIA

The microbiome is a dynamic community that can positively and negatively influence host health. Lactobacillus reuteri is a probiotic that has received much attention for its ability to inhibit pathogens such as Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium difficile. It does so by its unique ability to metabolize glycerol into the antimicrobial compound 3-HPA, which is commonly referred to as reuterin. The ability to secrete reuterin is dependent not only on glycerol availability but also the concentration of glucose. In fact, there appears to be a “goldilocks” ratio between glucose and glycerol as either too much or too little glucose ...


Reproductive Life History And Shell Shape Variation Of Three Species Of Elimia (Pleuroceridae) In The Lower Etowah River Basin, Ellen Winant Dec 2018

Reproductive Life History And Shell Shape Variation Of Three Species Of Elimia (Pleuroceridae) In The Lower Etowah River Basin, Ellen Winant

Master of Science in Integrative Biology Theses

Pleurocerid snail diversity in the Southeastern United States is thought to be high, but estimates of overall diversity are compromised by uncertain taxonomy. This is particularly true for the genus Elimia, where reliance on conchological characters described by early naturalists for species designation failed to recognize significant variability in shell morphology. In this study we examine three putative species of Elimia to determine if quantifiable conchological characters are associated with differences in life history characteristics. Individuals of E. modesta, E. carinocostata, and E. cariniferawere collected from nine sites in three streams in the lower Etowah River Basin. Females were ...


The Impact Of Online Homework, Time On Homework, Gender, And Metacognition In Improving Student Achievement In Undergraduate Biology Courses, Donald Bishop Cook Jr Dec 2018

The Impact Of Online Homework, Time On Homework, Gender, And Metacognition In Improving Student Achievement In Undergraduate Biology Courses, Donald Bishop Cook Jr

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

This study sought to address a gap in the literature to determine whether a relationship exists between use of online homework and student achievement in undergraduate biology courses. Previous studies have examined other STEM courses, but few have considered biology. The purpose of the study was to determine whether homework grades in online homework systems can predict student achievement in introductory undergraduate biology courses. This study utilized a correlational analysis by multiple regression using archival data to determine whether final course grades in undergraduate biology courses can be predicted by grades on online homework, time spent on online homework, gender ...


The Effects Of Sexual Dimorphism On Toxic Prey Avoidance In The Chinese Praying Mantis, Tenodera Sinensis, Sophie Podgorski, Emma Swartz, Tisa Steinmeyer, Kayla I. Miller Ph.D. Dec 2018

The Effects Of Sexual Dimorphism On Toxic Prey Avoidance In The Chinese Praying Mantis, Tenodera Sinensis, Sophie Podgorski, Emma Swartz, Tisa Steinmeyer, Kayla I. Miller Ph.D.

Undergraduate Research Symposium (URS)

  • This experiment strives to investigate if sex based behaviors in praying mantid feeding habits hold true when sexual dimorphism is not obvious in juvenile mantids
  • Sensitivity to bitter tastes provides an important means for animals to detect various toxic compounds in food (Wooding et al.2006).
  • In predators, taste sensitivity also allows animals to exploit nutritious but toxic food sources by monitoring the consumption of compounds that may cause illness or death (Wooding et al. 2006).
  • Studies on the Chinese praying mantis, Tenodera sinensis, show that the mantids will wipe their mouths, shake, and reject bitter tasting toxic prey when ...


Community-Scale Water Treatment Systems In The Dominican Republic, Jonathan Racey, Annabelle Papai, Elise Fischer, Becca Johnson Dec 2018

Community-Scale Water Treatment Systems In The Dominican Republic, Jonathan Racey, Annabelle Papai, Elise Fischer, Becca Johnson

Engagement & Service-Learning Summit: Connecting Through Listening & Scholarship

Engagement and Service-Learning Summit: Reciprocal and Sustainable Partnerships


The Study Of Alcoholic Liver Diseases, Seun Emmanuel Owoseni Dec 2018

The Study Of Alcoholic Liver Diseases, Seun Emmanuel Owoseni

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Excessive alcohol consumption is the primary contributing factor in the development of alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). Nicotine contained in tobacco is a major addictive alkaloid, which enhances the effects of ALDs. The major enzyme involved in nicotine metabolism is cytochrome P450 2A5 (CYP2A5) which is produced in the liver. Alcohol can stimulate the CYP2A5 enzyme. We utilized cyp2a5-/- knockout mice in this research to examine the effects of CYP2A5.

The cyp2a5-/- mice and wild-type (WT) mice were fed liquid ethanol diet with or without nicotine to induce ALD. Nicotine enhancing effects on ALD were observed in WT mice but not ...


Diversification Across A Dynamic Landscape: Phylogeography And Riverscape Genetics Of Speckled Dace (Rhinichthys Osculus) In Western North America, Steven Michael Mussmann Dec 2018

Diversification Across A Dynamic Landscape: Phylogeography And Riverscape Genetics Of Speckled Dace (Rhinichthys Osculus) In Western North America, Steven Michael Mussmann

Theses and Dissertations

Evolution occurs at various spatial and temporal scales. For example, speciation may occur in historic time, whereas localized adaptation is more contemporary. Each is required to identify and manage biodiversity. However, the relative abundance of Speckled Dace (Rhinichthys osculus), a small cyprinid fish in western North America (WNA) and the study species for this dissertation, establishes it an atypical conservation target, particularly when contrasted with the profusion of narrowly endemic forms it displays. Yet, the juxtaposition of ubiquity versus endemism provides an ideal model against which to test hypotheses regarding the geomorphic evolution of WNA. More specifically, it also allows ...


Methanogens, Plausible Extraterrestrial Life Forms On Mars, And Their Tolerance To Increasing Concentrations Of Illite Clay, Chandler Kern Dec 2018

Methanogens, Plausible Extraterrestrial Life Forms On Mars, And Their Tolerance To Increasing Concentrations Of Illite Clay, Chandler Kern

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Methanogens, some of Earth’s most primitive prokaryotic organisms, are candidates for possible life forms capable of inhabiting Mars. Specifically, four different species (Methanobacterium formicicum, Methanococcus maripaludis, Methanosarcina barkeri, Methanothermobacter wolfeii) were analyzed for their tolerance to the presence of illite clay. Illite is a crystalline mineral that has been identified from regions of Mars’s surface. Results indicated that all four species grew with some success in the illite at different concentrations. This experimentation with methanogens’ abilities to survive and reproduce in the presence of illite allows for a more accurate understanding of the potential capability of microbial growth ...


Lead Poisoning In Maine's Common Loons: Examining Biological And Social Dimensions, Brooke S. Macdonald Dec 2018

Lead Poisoning In Maine's Common Loons: Examining Biological And Social Dimensions, Brooke S. Macdonald

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Lead poisoning from ingested fishing tackle is a well-documented conservation concern for adult common loons in the Northeastern United States. To mitigate this issue, the state of Maine began implementing restrictions on lead tackle use in 2002, with new legislation added in 2016 and 2017. In addition to legislative action there have been various non-regulatory strategies employed in Maine to help raise awareness, such as the Fish Lead Free campaign. Human behavior is the root cause of lead fishing tackle in aquatic environments, and also can determine the success of legislative and educational efforts. Measuring underlying factors that influence behaviors ...


Blue And Red Light Effects On Stomatal Oscillations, Trevor R. Ballard Dec 2018

Blue And Red Light Effects On Stomatal Oscillations, Trevor R. Ballard

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Plants absorb CO2 through pores in their leaves called stomata, which are known to open and close in response to myriad environmental and physiological triggers. We demonstrate that blue light inhibits stomatal aperture oscillations in both the guard cells and surrounding tissue layers, whereas these oscillations continue under the influence of red light. This observation of blue light behavior agrees with recent research and suggests another physiological pathway for oscillations.


Aspects Of The Reproductive Biology And Growth Of The Mississippi Silvery Minnow, Hybognathus Nuchalis (Agassiz, 1855) (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) From The Pearl River, Louisiana., Arely Ramírez-García, Kyle R. Piller Nov 2018

Aspects Of The Reproductive Biology And Growth Of The Mississippi Silvery Minnow, Hybognathus Nuchalis (Agassiz, 1855) (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) From The Pearl River, Louisiana., Arely Ramírez-García, Kyle R. Piller

Southeastern Fishes Council Proceedings

The reproductive biology and growth of the Mississippi Silvery Minnow, Hybognathus nuchalis, is described from multiple sites in the Pearl River, Louisiana. Individuals were collected from August 2011 to August 2012. Ovarian weights, expressed as a percentage of body weights, peaked in December. Size structure ranged from 29.0 to 60.0 mm SL for females and 25.0 to 56.0 mm SL for males. Mature ova were found from November to January. Females reached first maturity (L50) at 37.0 mm SL and L50 for males is at 41.0 mm SL. Sex ratio (females:males) is biased ...


Shoreline Characterization In The Northern Indian River Lagoon, Melinda Donnelly, Michelle Shaffer, Suzanne Connor, Linda Walters Nov 2018

Shoreline Characterization In The Northern Indian River Lagoon, Melinda Donnelly, Michelle Shaffer, Suzanne Connor, Linda Walters

CEELAB Research Data

The purpose of this project was to evaluate current conditions of estuarine shorelines in the northern section of the Indian River Lagoon system, including Mosquito Lagoon, north Indian River, and Banana River. From January 2016 through June 2018, we evaluated structural and functional characteristics of 374 miles of shoreline, from Ponce Inlet in Volusia County to Sebastian Inlet in Brevard County (11,000+ data points). Hard-armoring accounted for approximately 50% of total shoreline, evenly divided between shoreline with bulkheads (25%) and hardened slopes (25%). Forty-five percent of shoreline without hard-armoring had anthropogenic alterations (i.e. mosquito impoundments, railroads and roadways ...


Molecular Fossils From Phytoplankton Reveal Secular Pco2 Trend Over The Phanerozoic, Caitlyn R. Witkowski, Johan W. H. Weijers, Brian S. Blais, Stefan Schouten, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté Nov 2018

Molecular Fossils From Phytoplankton Reveal Secular Pco2 Trend Over The Phanerozoic, Caitlyn R. Witkowski, Johan W. H. Weijers, Brian S. Blais, Stefan Schouten, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté

Science and Technology Faculty Journal Articles

Past changes in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (PCO2) have had a major impact on earth system dynamics; yet, reconstructing secular trends of past PCO2 remains a prevalent challenge in paleoclimate studies. The current long-term PCO2reconstructions rely largely on the compilation of many different proxies, often with discrepancies among proxies, particularly for periods older than 100 million years (Ma). Here, we reconstructed Phanerozoic PCO2 from a single proxy: the stable carbon isotopic fractionation associated with photosynthesis (Ɛp) that increases as PCO2 increases. This concept has been widely applied to alkenones, but here, we expand ...


The Gut Microbiota Of Cornu Aspersum, Parker Neal Smith, Sarah M. Boomer, Michael Baltzley Nov 2018

The Gut Microbiota Of Cornu Aspersum, Parker Neal Smith, Sarah M. Boomer, Michael Baltzley

PURE Insights

The “Brown Garden Snail,” Cornu aspersum is a widely distributed land snail, whose consumption of soil to acquire calcium results in soil microbes colonizing their gut. While previous work has utilized culture-based approaches to analyze the gut microbiota of C. aspersum, no previous studies have used high throughput DNA sequencing, or examined the changes in the gut microbiota over time in response to antibiotics exposure. In this study, we use 16S amplicon sequencing and fecal plating to characterize the gut microbiota of C. aspersum, and to monitor changes in their microbiota over time after a short penicillin treatment. We found ...


Hitchhiker's Guide To Migration: Effects Of Experimental Parasitic Infection And Other Immune Challenges On Migratory Traits Of Sparrows, Tosha R. Kelly Nov 2018

Hitchhiker's Guide To Migration: Effects Of Experimental Parasitic Infection And Other Immune Challenges On Migratory Traits Of Sparrows, Tosha R. Kelly

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Seasonal migration exposes animals to a variety of habitats and parasites, and if infected migratory birds migrate successfully there is great potential for birds to transport infectious diseases long distances. Our current understanding of whether birds contribute to the spread of disease relies upon observational field studies that are limited in their ability to discern cause from effect. Using captive and field-based experiments for my doctoral research, I answered three research questions: (1) are nocturnal migratory restlessness (Zugunruhe) and body condition affected by mounting an acute phase immune response during migration; (2) what are the impacts of parasitic infection on ...


Discovery Of Unreported Sponge Taxa, With Potential As Species New To Science, From The Chicago Area, Jennifer E. Slate Nov 2018

Discovery Of Unreported Sponge Taxa, With Potential As Species New To Science, From The Chicago Area, Jennifer E. Slate

Faculty Research and Creative Activities Symposium

No abstract provided.


25 Years Of Battling Academic Hegemony, Gender Stereotypes And Political Power: Deconstructing The Mantis Visual System In The Service Of Helping Children, Frederick R. Prete Nov 2018

25 Years Of Battling Academic Hegemony, Gender Stereotypes And Political Power: Deconstructing The Mantis Visual System In The Service Of Helping Children, Frederick R. Prete

Faculty Research and Creative Activities Symposium

No abstract provided.


Modeling Werner Syndrome In Drosophila, Elyse A. Bolterstein, Aaron E. Schirmer Nov 2018

Modeling Werner Syndrome In Drosophila, Elyse A. Bolterstein, Aaron E. Schirmer

Faculty Research and Creative Activities Symposium

No abstract provided.


Metabolic Processing By The Mtorc1 Pathway In The Zebrafish Yolk Cell, Jorge A. Cantu Nov 2018

Metabolic Processing By The Mtorc1 Pathway In The Zebrafish Yolk Cell, Jorge A. Cantu

Faculty Research and Creative Activities Symposium

No abstract provided.


The Development Of Hybrid Lipid-Polymer Nanoparticle Architectures For The Sustained-Release Of Small Hydrophilic Molecules, Keegan Curry, Jill M. Steinbach-Rankins Dr. Nov 2018

The Development Of Hybrid Lipid-Polymer Nanoparticle Architectures For The Sustained-Release Of Small Hydrophilic Molecules, Keegan Curry, Jill M. Steinbach-Rankins Dr.

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Introduction: Polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) have been utilized as drug delivery vehicles for a variety of applications. However, achieving sustained-release of small hydrophilic agents is a primary challenge for their use in prolonged delivery applications.

Objective: This study investigates how novel lipid-polymer hybrid particle architectures can be used to improve the release profile of small hydrophilic encapsulants. Here, PLGA NPs were produced via electrospraying and emulsions. Particles with a core-shell architecture were produced via coaxial electrospraying and the ability of this architecture to sustain release was examined. In addition, we combined polymeric core-shell NPs with a lipid coating to improve biocompatibility ...


Speciation And Hybridization In Jamaican-Endemic Streamertail Hummingbirds (Trochilus Polytmus And T. Scitulus), Caroline D. Judy Nov 2018

Speciation And Hybridization In Jamaican-Endemic Streamertail Hummingbirds (Trochilus Polytmus And T. Scitulus), Caroline D. Judy

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Streamertails hummingbirds (Trochilus polytmus and T. scitulus) are recently diverged sister taxa that appear to have speciated in situ on the island of Jamaica. They are distinguished by male bill color, a secondary sexual trait that is coral red in T. polytmus and jet black in T. scitulus. They hybridize in a narrow zone where their ranges meet in eastern Jamaica. In Chapter 2, I performed a formal population survey of T. scitulus to determine the size of the population, which was unknown. I determined that the total population contains well over 100,000 individuals despite its limited geographic range ...


Derivatives Of A Benzoquinone Acyl Hydrazone With Activity Against Toxoplasma Gondii, A. G. Sanford, T. T. Schulze, L. P. Potluri, G. F. Watson, E. B. Darner, S. J. Zach, R. M. Hemsley, A. I. Wallick, R. C. Warner, S. A. Charman, X. Wang, J. L. Vennerstrom, P. H. Davis Nov 2018

Derivatives Of A Benzoquinone Acyl Hydrazone With Activity Against Toxoplasma Gondii, A. G. Sanford, T. T. Schulze, L. P. Potluri, G. F. Watson, E. B. Darner, S. J. Zach, R. M. Hemsley, A. I. Wallick, R. C. Warner, S. A. Charman, X. Wang, J. L. Vennerstrom, P. H. Davis

Biology Faculty Publications

Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite with global incidence. The acute infection, toxoplasmosis, is treatable but current regimens have poor host tolerance and no cure has been found for latent infections. This work builds upon a previous high throughput screen which identified benzoquinone acyl hydrazone (KG8) as the most promising compound; KG8 displayed potent in vitro activity against T. gondii but only marginal in vivoefficacy in a T. gondii animal model. To define the potential of this new lead compound, we now describe a baseline structure-activity relationship for this chemotype. Several derivatives displayed IC50's comparable to that ...


The Effect Of Multiple Environmental Stressors On The Growth And Toxicity Of The Red Tide Alga Heterosigma Akashiwo, Malihe Mehdizadeh Allaf Nov 2018

The Effect Of Multiple Environmental Stressors On The Growth And Toxicity Of The Red Tide Alga Heterosigma Akashiwo, Malihe Mehdizadeh Allaf

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Heterosigma akashiwo (Y.Hada) Y.Hada ex Y.Hara & M.Chihara is a golden-brown phytoflagellate with high potential to kill fish. These cells create large, nearly mono-specific blooms that persist from weeks to months. Although bloom persistence and frequency remain a mystery, environmental factors such as light, temperature, salinity and CO2 level are proposed as drivers for both bloom initiation and toxicity. As timing and locations of nature blooms are difficult to predict, most of the information on this species comes from laboratory experiments on isolated cells. In this age, when multiple stressors occur simultaneously the traditional “One-factor-at-a-time” (OFAT ...


Environmental Impact- Using Digital Media To Focus Student Learning, Crystal Randall, Sowmya Anjur, Donald Dosch Nov 2018

Environmental Impact- Using Digital Media To Focus Student Learning, Crystal Randall, Sowmya Anjur, Donald Dosch

Faculty Publications & Research

Environmental issues are global challenges that our students will have to address in their future. Addressing these issues through curriculum helps bring purpose to students’ learning. We have developed a capstone project in our introductory biology class that allows students to engage in these issues in a creative and personalized manner, and which asks students to not only address the biology at the core of these issues but also suggest possible solutions to the problem. In this session, we will share how we scaffold our curriculum to prepare students for this experience, as well as show examples of student work.


Engaging Students In Fundamental Biological Concepts Through Un Sustainability Goals, Sowmya Anjur, Donald Dosch Nov 2018

Engaging Students In Fundamental Biological Concepts Through Un Sustainability Goals, Sowmya Anjur, Donald Dosch

Faculty Publications & Research

Advanced Biological Systems is year-long introductory biology course for Juniors at IMSA. It is aligned with the United Nations Sustainable Development goals, the use of which has been identified as an initiative for curriculum development. These goals help to bring purpose to students’ learning. We have identified three of the seventeen goals as guideposts for our curriculum. These are clean water and sanitation, sustainable cities and communities, and good health and well-being. In this presentation, we will share our curriculum development process and examples of instruction linked to these UN goals.


How Does Antibiotic Resistance Spread In Tuberculosis?, Julie A. Spencer Nov 2018

How Does Antibiotic Resistance Spread In Tuberculosis?, Julie A. Spencer

Shared Knowledge Conference

The ancient bacterial disease of tuberculosis (TB) is curable with antibiotics, but according to the World Health Organization, in 2016 over 10 million people became infected with the disease. 600,000 of these cases were resistant to antibiotics, yet the worldwide treatment success rate for drug resistant TB is only 54%. Furthermore, strains exist now that are resistant to all known antibiotics. In the current environment of global travel, this poses a risk for emergent epidemics of drug resistant TB. In this study, I asked: after an antibiotic resistant strain has evolved in someone’s lungs, how does it spread ...


Engage A Voice, Repress Fatigue; The Coincident Evolution Of Hominin Vocalization And A Metabolic Threshold, Galen A. Morton 9935238, Martin L. Morton Nov 2018

Engage A Voice, Repress Fatigue; The Coincident Evolution Of Hominin Vocalization And A Metabolic Threshold, Galen A. Morton 9935238, Martin L. Morton

Shared Knowledge Conference

Physiologically self-protective mechanisms borne from hominin evolutionary history that increase survivability are not unknown to science. In reviewing exercise science literature regarding testing and assessment measures of subjects talking while exercising, a logical question has materialized: To what degree has evolution facilitated synchronization of comfortable oral communication with sustainable exercise intensity? An individual able to engage a voice, represses fatigue. The Talk Test, is a practical strategy whereby a subject deliberately speaks during an exercise protocol. It is a common tool in both kinesiology and clinical fields because it inherently identifies a pivotal metabolic threshold. The coincidence of comfortable ability ...