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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Analysis And Exploration Of Novel Antibiotic-Producing Streptomyces Spp. In Spokane County, Washington, Kyle S. Kramer, Jenifer B. Walke Ph.D May 2020

Analysis And Exploration Of Novel Antibiotic-Producing Streptomyces Spp. In Spokane County, Washington, Kyle S. Kramer, Jenifer B. Walke Ph.D

2020 Symposium Posters

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a US citizen is infected by an antibiotic-resistant pathogen every 11 seconds, and every 15 minutes, a patient dies as a result of these infections. Due to the increasing incidence of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic microbes, the study and exploration of novel antibiotics from novel environments are imperative as infectious diseases are the second leading cause of death in the United States. The purpose of this research is to investigate and analyze antibiotic-producing soil microbes in Spokane County, WA, with hopes of discovering novel antibiotic-producing microbes, specifically Streptomyces species, and explore some of ...


Molecular Docking Study Of Itpa Protein Substrate Complex, Aulane Mpouli May 2020

Molecular Docking Study Of Itpa Protein Substrate Complex, Aulane Mpouli

2020 Symposium Posters

Inosine Triphosphatase (ITPA) is an enzymatic molecule that works to prevent the amassed of an intermediate in the formation of purine nucleotides, Inosine Triphosphate (ITP). DNA consists of purine nucleotides, and its metabolic pathway includes the formation of this intermediate. Overpopulation of ITP causes mutations of DNA leading to cancers, increased Inosine levels in DNA and other immunodeficiencies. In order to regulate the ITP concentration, ITPA binds ITP creating a substrate/enzyme complex. In this study, we used computational docking to explore bound conformation and energy of the binding of ITP to ITPA protein. The docking results reveal how ITPA ...


Crystallization Efforts For An Engineered Nickel-Binding Protein, Gold-Bovine Serum Albumin Nanoclusters, And An Artificial De Novo Tetramer Hydrogenase Mimic, Skyler Crane May 2020

Crystallization Efforts For An Engineered Nickel-Binding Protein, Gold-Bovine Serum Albumin Nanoclusters, And An Artificial De Novo Tetramer Hydrogenase Mimic, Skyler Crane

Honors Theses

Protein crystallization is fundamental to modern research efforts given its ability to determine a protein’s structure as well as the interactions that structure allows and relies upon. This process, though lacking direct application, provides necessary information for subsequent research efforts for which applicationsmay be explored. As such, efforts were taken to crystallize nickel-binding protein (NBP) reengineered from Copper Storage Protein 1 (Csp1) in its apo and metal bound form, Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) in its apo and gold bound form (Au-BSA), and an artificial de novo tetramer hydrogenase mimic peptide to better inform future research actions for these respective ...


The Effects Of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 (Igf-1) And Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptor (Igfr) Regulation On Cognition And Structure Of Astrocytes, Sariya Khan May 2020

The Effects Of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 (Igf-1) And Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptor (Igfr) Regulation On Cognition And Structure Of Astrocytes, Sariya Khan

Honors Theses

Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a neuroendocrine signaling hormone that plays an integral role in bone and tissue growth and development. Inhibition of this hormone is known to disrupt the chemistry of the brain, resulting in cognitive impairments such as those seen in many common neurodegenerative diseases. While much research has been conducted on neurons and their relation with IGF-1, the role of astrocytes still needs to be explored. Our research investigates how astrocytes are affected as a result of IGF-1 regulation. Preliminary studies in our laboratory established a connection between IGF-1 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and in ...


Studies Of Salvinorin-Based Antagonists To Elucidate Pertinent Interactions For Kappa Opioid Receptor Antagonism, Madeline Keane May 2020

Studies Of Salvinorin-Based Antagonists To Elucidate Pertinent Interactions For Kappa Opioid Receptor Antagonism, Madeline Keane

Honors Theses

Opioid abuse, leading to addiction and related deaths, has created a chronic epidemic in the United States for the past 30 years. This crisis has sprung from reliance on the prescription of opioid analgesics as the primary method for the management of pain in the 1990s. At that time, these drugs, specifically Purdue Pharma’s OxyContin, were marketed as non-addictive. Due to this systemic minimization of the addictive properties of opioid analgesics, as prescription rates increased, opioid-related mortality rates climbed. This epidemic continues to be pervasive, as opioid-related overdose resulted in 47,600 deaths in 2017. In addition to the ...


The Raphe-Hippocampal Tract And Its Age Differences: Diffusion Tensor Imaging And Probabilistic Tractography Study, Ashley Sekul May 2020

The Raphe-Hippocampal Tract And Its Age Differences: Diffusion Tensor Imaging And Probabilistic Tractography Study, Ashley Sekul

Honors Theses

The raphe-hippocampal tract links the raphe nuclei to the hippocampus and is responsible for the production of the neurotransmitter serotonin. The hippocampus is key in regulating emotional and stress responses. This study utilized diffusion tensor imaging which uses Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to provide scans of the brain for analyzing differences in the raphe-hippocampal tract as one ages. In this specific study, 491 samples were visually analyzed to gather data about the fractional anisotropy of the raphe nuclei in both male and female brains ranging from 6 to 85 years old. Through the ranking of images, some were discarded, and ...


Glucose Metabolism Of Breast Cancer Sub-Clones That Preferentially Metastasize To The Lungs And Bone, Anna G. Skubiz May 2020

Glucose Metabolism Of Breast Cancer Sub-Clones That Preferentially Metastasize To The Lungs And Bone, Anna G. Skubiz

Honors Theses

Malignant breast cancers exhibit preferential metastasis to bone and lung (1). While changes in gene expression in lung-specific (LM) and bone-specific metastasis (BoM) lines derived from the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer line have been identified, few metabolic genes are differentially expressed; thus it is unknown if tissue-specific metabolic reprogramming occurs. Two hallmarks of cancer cells are an altered metabolic phenotype characterized by enhanced conversion of glucose to lactate in spite of adequate oxygen availability for complete mitochondrial oxidation of this substrate (referred to as aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect) and a greater dependence on glutamine. These changes in primary tumor ...


Breast Cancer Sub-Clones That Metastasize To Lung And Bone Exhibit Different Metabolic Preferences, Mollie Merrell May 2020

Breast Cancer Sub-Clones That Metastasize To Lung And Bone Exhibit Different Metabolic Preferences, Mollie Merrell

Honors Theses

Metastasis is responsible for the majority of cancer related deaths. In breast cancer the lungs and bones are the major sites for metastasis. Previous studies used the metastatic aggressive MDA-MB-231 breast cancer line to isolate sub-clones that preferentially invade the lungs (LM line) or bones (BoM line). While genes associated with the tissue specific metastasis have been identified, it is unknown if metabolic adaptations contribute to the growth of the LM and BoM lines in their respective organs. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that the LM and BoM lines exhibit differences in glucose and glutamine ...


Intrinsic Buffer Hydroxyl Radical Dosimetry For Hydroxyl Radical Protein Footprinting, Addison Roush May 2020

Intrinsic Buffer Hydroxyl Radical Dosimetry For Hydroxyl Radical Protein Footprinting, Addison Roush

Honors Theses

Hydroxyl radical protein footprinting (HRPF) coupled to mass spectrometry is a powerful technique for the analysis of protein topography as it generates covalent mass labels that can survive downstream sample handling, and it is sensitive to the solvent accessibility of amino acid sidechains. Of the multiple platforms for HRPF, fast photochemical oxidation of proteins (FPOP) utilizes a pulsed 248 nm KrF excimer laser to label proteins by photolyzing hydrogen peroxide. FPOP is the most widely used HRPF platform because it labels proteins faster than unfolding can occur. Variations in FPOP sample conditions make it difficult to compare results between experiments ...


Titus Thesis Figures.Docx, Titus Hou May 2020

Titus Thesis Figures.Docx, Titus Hou

Titus Hou

No abstract provided.


Titus Thesis.Docx, Titus Hou May 2020

Titus Thesis.Docx, Titus Hou

Titus Hou

No abstract provided.


Cell Proliferation And Viability Inhibition By Resveratrol On Breast Cancer Cell Lines, Kyle Ford Gordon Jr May 2020

Cell Proliferation And Viability Inhibition By Resveratrol On Breast Cancer Cell Lines, Kyle Ford Gordon Jr

Honors Theses

Antioxidants are well-known for their various health benefits. They are able to protect cells from being damaged by free radicals that are produced by vital biochemical processes. It has long been known that antioxidants are important in our everyday health, but their potential as disease preventers and potential therapeutic agents is a relatively new field of study. Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol and well-known antioxidant, is found in plants, fruits, and products derived from them, like red wine. Resveratrol has been shown to have various properties, including antiaging, anti-aggregation of platelets, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. Because of their many health benefits ...


The Effects Of Largazole, A Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, On Breast Cancer Cell Viability And Metastasis, Hannah Mccowan May 2020

The Effects Of Largazole, A Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, On Breast Cancer Cell Viability And Metastasis, Hannah Mccowan

Honors Theses

Histone deacetylase enzymes modify epigenetic characteristics of a genome by removing acetyl groups from histone proteins in chromatin. Histone deacetylase inhibitors work by stopping this activity which can have various results in a cell including apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and migration. The purpose of these experiments was to see how largazole, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, affected cell viability for breast cancer and associated metastatic cell lines in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. The experiment was completed by setting up two 96-well plates with varying concentrations of largazole and conducting a sulforhodamine viability assay. The specific cell lines used in ...


The Current Neuroscientific Understanding Of Alzheimer's Disease, Rachel A. Brandes May 2020

The Current Neuroscientific Understanding Of Alzheimer's Disease, Rachel A. Brandes

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

Alzheimer’s disease is a degenerative neurological illness characterized by the deterioration of brain regions implicated in memory and cognitive function. While researchers have yet to find a cure or effective treatment, they have gained a better understanding of its pathology and development. Through years of neuroscience research, scientists have discovered much of what happens in the brain during Alzheimer’s disease onset and how this causes its symptoms; many hypotheses regarding this aspect of the illness involve temporal lobe atrophy, neurofibrillary tangles, and amyloid plaques. Although Alzheimer’s disease affects millions of people every day, it seems that most ...


Chemical Tools For Residue-Specific And Secondary Amine Selective Petasis (Sasp) Bioconjugation Of Peptides And Proteins, Yonnette Sim May 2020

Chemical Tools For Residue-Specific And Secondary Amine Selective Petasis (Sasp) Bioconjugation Of Peptides And Proteins, Yonnette Sim

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Chemical protein synthesis is an invaluable tool that enables the construction of novel protein design, incorporation of non-native functionalities, elucidation of structure-function relationships and enable a wide diversity of modifications (such as Post Translation Modification) to study protein functions. Native Chemical Ligation (NCL) in conjunction with Fmoc Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis (SPPS) is the most used method for synthesis of functional peptides and proteins. The synthesis relies on the reaction of a C-terminal peptide thioester and a N-terminal cysteine peptide. Fmoc SPPS of peptide thioester for chemical protein synthesis via NCL is a challenge. Methods that exist for the synthesis ...


Alternative Polyadenylation Modulates Expression Of Pro-Fibrotic Proteins And Contributes To Lung Fibrosis, Junsuk Ko May 2020

Alternative Polyadenylation Modulates Expression Of Pro-Fibrotic Proteins And Contributes To Lung Fibrosis, Junsuk Ko

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic lung disease which affects about 5 to 8 million individuals in the world. Despite the high prevalence, there is currently no cure for IPF, and the cause of this disease is still unclear. Our laboratory and collaborators have shown that nudix hydrolase 21 (NUDT21, which is also known as cleavage factor 25, CFIm25) is a key regulator of alternative polyadenylation (APA). NUDT21 depletion causes 3’UTR shortening via APA leading to enhanced mRNA stability and protein translation. This NUDT21 reduction promotes tumor growth in glioblastoma by enhancing expression of oncogenes. Cancer and IPF ...


Pedagogical Approaches To Enhance Q2s Conversion Teaching And Learning: Application Of The Acue Effective Practice Framework To Upper Division Biochemistry, Jason Burke May 2020

Pedagogical Approaches To Enhance Q2s Conversion Teaching And Learning: Application Of The Acue Effective Practice Framework To Upper Division Biochemistry, Jason Burke

Q2S Enhancing Pedagogy

The Effective Practice Framework course by the Association of College and University Educators (ACUE), and offered through the CSUSB Teaching Resource Center (TRC), was applied to the upper division biochemistry course series (CHEM 436A and 437A) in preparation for the Q2S conversion. This essay includes five reflections on the application of enhanced pedagogical approaches curated from a total of twenty-five. The enhanced pedagogies covered in the course are: designing and effective course and class; establishing a productive learning environment; using active learning techniques; promoting higher-order thinking; and assessing to inform instruction and promote learning. The reflections that follow have been ...


Reversible Inhibition Of Mycobacterial Dnab Protein Splicing By Zinc, Gabrielle Hardison, Gabrielle Hardison May 2020

Reversible Inhibition Of Mycobacterial Dnab Protein Splicing By Zinc, Gabrielle Hardison, Gabrielle Hardison

Honors College Theses

Inteins are emerging as post-translational regulatory elements, undergoing conditional protein splicing in response to a variety of environmental cues. Inteins are seamlessly removed by self-splicing from exteins, or flanking portions of the host protein, which they interrupt. DnaB of Mycobacterium smegmatis, a helicase essential for replication, harbors two inteins known as DnaBi1 and DnaBi2, each with discrete structural characteristics and insertion positions. DnaBi1 was used here to design a reporter system which links splicing with resistance to the antibiotic kanamycin. We built a construct that strictly requires catalytically active DnaBi1 for survival in the presence of kanamycin and used this ...


Effects Of Nicotinamide Riboside And Beta-Hydroxybutyrate On C. Elegans Lifespan, Jeffery Peters May 2020

Effects Of Nicotinamide Riboside And Beta-Hydroxybutyrate On C. Elegans Lifespan, Jeffery Peters

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The nicotinamide riboside (NR) form of vitamin B3and the ketone body ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) are two of the most promising natural compounds yet identified for the treatment of aging and aging-related diseases. Forms of vitamin B3are precursors for the synthesis of the coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(H)) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP(H)). In aged cells levels of NAD+decline, decreasing metabolism and decreasing activity of protective sirtuin protein deacetylases. In aged cells NR, but not more common forms of vitamin B3, boost NAD+levels. BHB is naturally produced by the body when individuals fast ...


Innovative Biological Solutions For Nitrogen Fixation, Mathangi Soundararajan May 2020

Innovative Biological Solutions For Nitrogen Fixation, Mathangi Soundararajan

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Nitrogen is an important part of biological molecules like proteins and DNA and hence is essential for life as we know it. The most commonly found form of nitrogen is dinitrogen gas (N2) in the atmosphere, which is not accessible to most organisms. Conversion of N2 into a usable form (ammonia), occurs through an energy-demanding reaction called nitrogen fixation. As we think about sending humans to Mars, there is a need to develop technologies for nitrogen fixation to produce fertilizer and other valuable compounds to support life in those harsh conditions.

The Haber-Bosch process is used in industries ...


An Extended View Of The Temporal Dynamics Of Caspase Activity During The Extrinsic Pathway Of Apoptosis In Jurkat T-Lymphocytes, Catherine Zwemer May 2020

An Extended View Of The Temporal Dynamics Of Caspase Activity During The Extrinsic Pathway Of Apoptosis In Jurkat T-Lymphocytes, Catherine Zwemer

Student Research Submissions

Apoptosis, a process in which a cell systematically triggers its own death in response to DNA damage or external stimuli, is widely utilized in the body to maintain a homeostatic quantity of cells. Malfunctions in this process can result in numerous consequences, particularly tumor development. For a cell to undergo apoptosis, there are two major pathways, dependent upon the method of induction: the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. The goal of this research is to elucidate the temporal dynamics of apoptosis in Jurkat T-lymphocytes with respect to caspase activity in the extrinsically-activated pathway, using fluorescence microscopy. Microfluidic devices were fabricated from ...


Investigating The Interactions Between Individual Calmodulin And Hiv-1 Protein Domains, Riley K. Kendall, Jerry Larue May 2020

Investigating The Interactions Between Individual Calmodulin And Hiv-1 Protein Domains, Riley K. Kendall, Jerry Larue

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

The World Health Organization found that 37.9 million people were living with HIV by the end of 2018. HIV is a virus that weakens the immune system through viral replication and the destruction of CD4+ T-cells, which are white blood cells that detect infection and make antibodies. A cure for HIV has not yet been discovered. HIV-1 contains a Gag polyprotein which regulates the stages of viral replication. Previous studies suggest that the myristoyl group of a matrix protein peptide found on the Gag polyprotein, MA, forms a complex with a calcium-binding, multifunctional regulatory protein called Calmodulin (CaM). CaM ...


Crosstalk Between Rho-Family Gtpases At The Division Site During Cytokinesis, Emma Nicole Koory May 2020

Crosstalk Between Rho-Family Gtpases At The Division Site During Cytokinesis, Emma Nicole Koory

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Effect Of Charged Lipids On The Ionization Behavior Of Glutamic Acid Containing Transmembrane Helices, Brooke Nunn May 2020

Effect Of Charged Lipids On The Ionization Behavior Of Glutamic Acid Containing Transmembrane Helices, Brooke Nunn

Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Honors Theses

Transmembrane proteins make up critical components of living cells. Protein function can be greatly impacted by the charged state of its respective components, the side chains of amino acid residues. Thus far, in the lipid membrane, little is known about the properties of residues such as glutamic acid. To explore these properties, I have included glutamic acid in a suitable model peptide-lipid system for fundamental biophysical experiments. Within the system, I have placed a glutamic acid residue instead of leucine in the L14 position of the helical hydrophobic peptide GWALP23 (acetyl-GGALWLALALALAL14ALALWLAGA-amide). Substitutions of glutamine and aspartic acid serve ...


Effect Of Ph And Lipid Composition On Membrane-Spanning Helices With Glutamic Acid Examined By Solid-State Nmr, Kelsey Marr May 2020

Effect Of Ph And Lipid Composition On Membrane-Spanning Helices With Glutamic Acid Examined By Solid-State Nmr, Kelsey Marr

Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Honors Theses

Transmembrane proteins constitute about 30% of the proteins in a mammalian cell and are involved in major biological processes. The dynamic properties of membrane proteins and the ionization states of particular side chains are important for biological function. The biophysical properties of membrane proteins nevertheless can be difficult to decode, particularly for glutamic acid in the lipid environment of cell membranes. To study the ionization of glutamic acid in transmembrane peptides, guest glutamic acid residues were substituted into the well-defined model helix of GWALP23 (acetyl-GGAL4WLALALALALAL16ALWLAGA-amide). These guest residues were placed at position L16 or L4 and specific 2H-labeled alanine residues ...


Characterization Of Tmx Transmembrane Protein In Bacillus Subtilis And Its Effects On Antibiotic Resistance, Membrane Permeability, And Membrane Fluidity, Henna Zaver May 2020

Characterization Of Tmx Transmembrane Protein In Bacillus Subtilis And Its Effects On Antibiotic Resistance, Membrane Permeability, And Membrane Fluidity, Henna Zaver

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


A Study Of The Antioxidant Versus Pro-Oxidant Nature Of The Amyloid Beta Peptide And An Analysis Of The Natural Products, Isorhamnetin And Narignenin, As Antioxidants, Kaylee Holmes Apr 2020

A Study Of The Antioxidant Versus Pro-Oxidant Nature Of The Amyloid Beta Peptide And An Analysis Of The Natural Products, Isorhamnetin And Narignenin, As Antioxidants, Kaylee Holmes

Honors Theses

Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder with no cure. Due to the widespread effects of this disease, abundant research efforts have gone towards finding a cure. The amyloid beta (Ab) peptide has been shown to be a potential cause of the disease due to destructive effects on tissues that it can have both by itself and through reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. This study was performed in order to assess the structural properties of Ab42monomers, fibrils and oligomers, to assess the antioxidant versus pro-oxidant behavior of the Ab peptide, and to assess the antioxidant nature of the ...


The Coordinate Actions Of Calcineurin And Hog1 Mediate The Stress Response Through Multiple Nodes Of The Cell Cycle Network, Cassandra M. Leech, Mackenzie J. Flynn, Heather E. Arsenault, Jianhong Ou, Haibo Liu, Lihua Julie Zhu, Jennifer A. Benanti Apr 2020

The Coordinate Actions Of Calcineurin And Hog1 Mediate The Stress Response Through Multiple Nodes Of The Cell Cycle Network, Cassandra M. Leech, Mackenzie J. Flynn, Heather E. Arsenault, Jianhong Ou, Haibo Liu, Lihua Julie Zhu, Jennifer A. Benanti

Open Access Articles

Upon exposure to environmental stressors, cells transiently arrest the cell cycle while they adapt and restore homeostasis. A challenge for all cells is to distinguish between stress signals and coordinate the appropriate adaptive response with cell cycle arrest. Here we investigate the role of the phosphatase calcineurin (CN) in the stress response and demonstrate that CN activates the Hog1/p38 pathway in both yeast and human cells. In yeast, the MAPK Hog1 is transiently activated in response to several well-studied osmostressors. We show that when a stressor simultaneously activates CN and Hog1, CN disrupts Hog1-stimulated negative feedback to prolong Hog1 ...


Mutagenesis Of Claudins To Probe In Vivo Interactions And Assemblies, Currey Zalman, Alex J. Vecchio Apr 2020

Mutagenesis Of Claudins To Probe In Vivo Interactions And Assemblies, Currey Zalman, Alex J. Vecchio

UCARE Research Products

Paracellular transport of solutes and the control of the flow of molecules through the intracellular space in vertebrate epithelia is directed by tight junctions (TJs). Claudins form paracellular barriers and pores that determine tight junction permeability. This investigation attempts to explain the molecular bases for destruction and reconstruction of tight junctions within epithelial cells, occurring via both natural and disease-causing mechanisms. This interdisciplinary research is important in the advancement of our understanding of human biology and health, as different disruptions to epithelial tight junctions are hallmarks of many human diseases. The overall objective was to take previously made Claudin containing ...


Transcriptomic Profiling Reveals Extraordinary Diversity Of Venom Peptides In Unexplored Predatory Gastropods Of The Genus Clavus, Aiping Lu, Maren Watkins, Qing Li, Samuel D. Robinson, Gisela P. Concepcion, Mark Yandell, Zhiping Weng, Baldomero M. Olivera, Helena Safavi-Hemami, Alexander E. Fedosov Apr 2020

Transcriptomic Profiling Reveals Extraordinary Diversity Of Venom Peptides In Unexplored Predatory Gastropods Of The Genus Clavus, Aiping Lu, Maren Watkins, Qing Li, Samuel D. Robinson, Gisela P. Concepcion, Mark Yandell, Zhiping Weng, Baldomero M. Olivera, Helena Safavi-Hemami, Alexander E. Fedosov

Open Access Articles

Predatory gastropods of the superfamily Conoidea number over 12,000 living species. The evolutionary success of this lineage can be explained by the ability of conoideans to produce complex venoms for hunting, defense and competitive interactions. Whereas venoms of cone snails (family Conidae) have become increasingly well studied, the venoms of most other conoidean lineages remain largely uncharacterized. In the present study we present the venom gland transcriptomes of two species of the genus Clavus that belong to the family Drilliidae. Venom gland transcriptomes of two specimens of Clavus canalicularis, and two specimens of Cv. davidgilmouri were analyzed, leading to ...