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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Corn And Soybean Response To Wastewater-Recycled Phosphorus Fertilizers, Shane Ylagan Dec 2020

Corn And Soybean Response To Wastewater-Recycled Phosphorus Fertilizers, Shane Ylagan

Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

The ability to recycle phosphorus (P) from wastewaters could provide a sustainable, continuous source of P that might also help protect surface water quality from P enrichment. The mineral struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O) is an understudied material that can be created from Pcontaining wastewater and has been shown to have agricultural fertilizer value. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of electrochemically precipitated struvite (ECST), chemically precipitated struvite (Crystal Green; CG), diammonium phosphate (DAP), monoammonium phosphate (MAP), rock phosphate (RP), and triple super phosphate (TSP) on corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) response in a 79-day greenhouse ...


Breeding Maize Maternal Haploid Inducers, Henrique Uliana Trentin, Ursula K. Frei, Thomas Lubberstedt May 2020

Breeding Maize Maternal Haploid Inducers, Henrique Uliana Trentin, Ursula K. Frei, Thomas Lubberstedt

Agronomy Publications

Maize doubled haploid (DH) lines are usually created in vivo, through crosses with maternal haploid inducers. These inducers have the inherent ability of generating seeds with haploid embryos when used to pollinate other genotypes. The resulting haploid plants are treated with a doubling agent and self-pollinated, producing completely homozygous seeds. This rapid method of inbred line production reduces the length of breeding cycles and, consequently, increases genetic gain. Such advantages explain the wide adoption of this technique by large, well-established maize breeding programs. However, a slower rate of adoption was observed in medium to small-scale breeding programs. The high price ...


Influence Of Six Herbicides Applied To Silage Corn On Fall Planted Rye And Radish Cover Crop Growth In South Dakota Soils, Sydney Pridie May 2020

Influence Of Six Herbicides Applied To Silage Corn On Fall Planted Rye And Radish Cover Crop Growth In South Dakota Soils, Sydney Pridie

The Journal of Undergraduate Research

Spring preemergence herbicide applications are often used for burndown of existing weeds and residual control, eliminating weed presence during early season crop growth. There has been an increase in the interest in planting cover crops soon after cash crop removal, due to the potential soil and production benefits. However, soil herbicide residuals may result in poor cover crop growth. This study examined the growth of radish (Raphanus sativa) and rye (Secale cereal), species often used as cover crops, in soils that had been treated with residual herbicides about 100 d prior to cover crop planting. The herbicides were applied at ...


Florpyrauxifen-Benzyl Use In Arkansas Rice (Oryza Sativa L.), Hannah Elizabeth Wright May 2020

Florpyrauxifen-Benzyl Use In Arkansas Rice (Oryza Sativa L.), Hannah Elizabeth Wright

Theses and Dissertations

Florpyrauxifen-benzyl is a synthetic auxin herbicide which was commercially released in 2018 to combat troublesome grass, broadleaf, and sedge weed species in rice. Many factors may influence cultivar response to a new herbicide; hence, it is important to understand factors contributing to crop sensitivity to an herbicide in order to make appropriate recommendations. Prior to the onset of this study, research had been conducted on florpyrauxifen-benzyl in a flooded environment; however, none had been executed in a non-flooded environment. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the response of a long-grain variety ‘CL111’, a medium-grain variety ‘CL272’, and a long-grain hybrid ‘CLXL745 ...


Control Of Volunteer Corn In Enlist Corn And Economics Of Herbicide Programs For Weed Control In Conventional And Multiple Herbicide-Resistant Soybean Across Nebraska, Adam M. Striegel May 2020

Control Of Volunteer Corn In Enlist Corn And Economics Of Herbicide Programs For Weed Control In Conventional And Multiple Herbicide-Resistant Soybean Across Nebraska, Adam M. Striegel

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

With commercialization of multiple herbicide-resistant corn and soybean cultivars, producers have new management options for controlling herbicide-resistant weeds and volunteer corn. Corn-on-corn production systems are common in irrigated fields in southcentral Nebraska which can create issues with volunteer corn management in corn fields. Enlist corn contains a new multiple herbicide-resistant trait providing resistance to 2,4-D choline, glyphosate, and the aryloxyphenoxypropionate (FOPs). Field experiments were conducted in 2018 and 2019 at South Central Agricultural Laboratory near Clay Center, Nebraska with the objective to evaluate ACCase-inhibiting herbicides and herbicide application timing on volunteer corn control, Enlist corn injury, and yield. Glyphosate ...


The Economics Of On-Farm Rice Drying In Arkansas, Clayton Parker May 2020

The Economics Of On-Farm Rice Drying In Arkansas, Clayton Parker

Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness Undergraduate Honors Theses

Globally, rice producers are faced with the temporal problem of deciding the optimal time to being rice harvest. When harvested, paddy rice is typically at a moisture content (HMC) between 15 and 22%. Upon delivery, the rice is subsequently dried by the mill to a moisture content (MC) of 12.5%. Riceland Foods Inc., the largest miller of rice in the world, uses a stair-step pricing model to charge farmers to dry in price/unit as the MC of grain decreases from a range of +22% to 13.5%. This study estimates an alternative linear relationship in the stair-step model ...


Wayne E. Sabbe Arkansas Soil Fertility Studies 2019, Nathan A. Slaton May 2020

Wayne E. Sabbe Arkansas Soil Fertility Studies 2019, Nathan A. Slaton

Research Series

Rapid technological changes in crop management and production require that the research efforts be presented in an expeditious manner. The contributions of soil fertility and fertilizers are major production factors in all Arkansas crops. The studies described within will allow producers to compare their practices with the university’s research efforts. Additionally, soil-test data and fertilizer sales are presented to allow comparisons among years, crops, and other areas within Arkansas.


Remediation Strategies To Reduce Heavy Metal Uptake In Lettuce Grown In Contaminated Urban Soil, Ryley Thomas Apr 2020

Remediation Strategies To Reduce Heavy Metal Uptake In Lettuce Grown In Contaminated Urban Soil, Ryley Thomas

UCARE Research Products

Urban soils are increasingly used to produce food for local consumption, which requires at the same time management strategies that prevent the plant uptake of potentially present contaminants. This study was conducted to test different soil amendments for their ability to retain lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) within the soil matrix. The analyzed soil was taken from a potential community garden lot near a railroad in Lincoln, NE where elevated concentrations in Pb and As had been detected. Ponderosa pine biochar and spent coffee grounds were used as soil additives because of their documented chemical reactivity towards soil cations or ...


Considerations For Crop Rotation From Alfalfa To Corn, Earl Creech, Matt Yost, Grant Cardon, Corey Ransom, Jason Clark Apr 2020

Considerations For Crop Rotation From Alfalfa To Corn, Earl Creech, Matt Yost, Grant Cardon, Corey Ransom, Jason Clark

All Current Publications

The importance of rotating out of a declining alfalfa stand is well established. As the alfalfa stand ages, forage yield and quality decline, while weed, insect, and disease pressures increase. Terminating the stand and growing one or more other crops for several (2–3) years allows a grower to press the reset button on a piece of ground. These years of growing another crop will result in more productive alfalfa when a new stand is planted again.


Buffalograss Diversity Assessment, Collin Marshall Apr 2020

Buffalograss Diversity Assessment, Collin Marshall

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Buffalograss [Buchloë dactylodes (Nutt.) Engelm. syn. Bouteloua dactyloides (Nutt.) Columbus] is a low input alternative turfgrass for the Great Plains region. Buffalograss is a dioecious stoloniferous warm season grass with wide variation of valuable traits and is well adapted for use in minimal maintenance landscapes. The obligate outcrossing nature of the species and wide variation of potentially valuable traits make buffalograss a prime candidate for cultivar improvement and genetic study. Limited information is available regarding buffalograss genetics. In effort to expand genetic resources around buffalograss, we developed buffalograss derived simple sequence repeat markers from previously available transcriptomes of buffalograss cultivars ...


Reaction Of Tepary Beans To Eight Virulent Races Of The Rust Pathogen That Overcomes All Known Common Bean Rust Resistance Genes, Santos Barrera Lemus, Prabin Tamang, Carlos A. Urrea, Marcial A. Pastor-Corrales Apr 2020

Reaction Of Tepary Beans To Eight Virulent Races Of The Rust Pathogen That Overcomes All Known Common Bean Rust Resistance Genes, Santos Barrera Lemus, Prabin Tamang, Carlos A. Urrea, Marcial A. Pastor-Corrales

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Bean rust, caused by Uromyces appendiculatus, is a major disease of common and snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) worldwide (Stavely, 1984). Although host resistance is an important component of rust management (Mmbaga et al., 1996), populations of the rust pathogen comprise an extensive and shifting virulence diversity that could render susceptible all known rust resistance genes in common bean. Conversely, it has been suggested that certain tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) accessions are broadly resistant to bean rust (Miklas & Stavely, 1998). The objectives of this study were to verify if tepary beans are resistant to eight races of the bean rust pathogen ...


Extreme Fire As A Management Tool To Combat Regime Shifts In The Range Of The Endangered American Burying Beetle, Alison K. Ludwig, Daniel R. Uden, Dirac Twidwell Apr 2020

Extreme Fire As A Management Tool To Combat Regime Shifts In The Range Of The Endangered American Burying Beetle, Alison K. Ludwig, Daniel R. Uden, Dirac Twidwell

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

This study is focused on the population of federally-endangered American burying beetles in south-central Nebraska. It is focused on changes in land cover over time and at several levels of spatial scale, and how management efforts are impacting both the beetle and a changing landscape. Our findings are applicable to a large portion of the Great Plains, which is undergoing the same shift from grassland to woodland, and to areas where the beetle is still found.


Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Associated With Leaf Rust Resistance In Five Spring Wheat Populations Using Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers, Firdissa E. Bokore, Ron E. Knox, Richard D. Cuthbert, Curtis J. Pozniak, Brent D. Mccallum, Amidou N’Diaye, Ron M. Depauw, Heather L. Campbell, Catherine Munro, Arti Singh, Colin W. Hiebert, Curt A. Mccartney, Andrew G. Sharpe, Asheesh K. Singh, Dean Spaner, D. B. Fowler, Yuefeng Ruan, Samia Berraies, Brad Meyer Apr 2020

Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Associated With Leaf Rust Resistance In Five Spring Wheat Populations Using Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers, Firdissa E. Bokore, Ron E. Knox, Richard D. Cuthbert, Curtis J. Pozniak, Brent D. Mccallum, Amidou N’Diaye, Ron M. Depauw, Heather L. Campbell, Catherine Munro, Arti Singh, Colin W. Hiebert, Curt A. Mccartney, Andrew G. Sharpe, Asheesh K. Singh, Dean Spaner, D. B. Fowler, Yuefeng Ruan, Samia Berraies, Brad Meyer

Agronomy Publications

Growing resistant wheat (Triticum aestivum L) varieties is an important strategy for the control of leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina Eriks. This study sought to identify the chromosomal location and effects of leaf rust resistance loci in five Canadian spring wheat cultivars. The parents and doubled haploid lines of crosses Carberry/AC Cadillac, Carberry/Vesper, Vesper/Lillian, Vesper/Stettler and Stettler/Red Fife were assessed for leaf rust severity and infection response in field nurseries in Canada near Swift Current, SK from 2013 to 2015, Morden, MB from 2015 to 2017 and Brandon, MB in 2016, and in New ...


Fungicide Sensitivity Of Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum Isolates Selected From Five Different States That Use Different Fungicide Treatments, Cristian Wulkop Gil Apr 2020

Fungicide Sensitivity Of Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum Isolates Selected From Five Different States That Use Different Fungicide Treatments, Cristian Wulkop Gil

UCARE Research Products

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a plant pathogenic fungus that causes a disease called white mold that can infect more than 450 plant species including soybeans, dry beans, green beans, canola, and sunflower. This pathogen is capable of up to $252M in losses every year (U.S. Canola Association, 2014). Fungicides are widely used in developed agricultural systems to control disease. However, resistance to the most effective fungicides has emerged and spread in pathogen populations and there have been multiple reports of S. sclerotiorum isolates becoming resistant to certain fungicides. Since different fields in different states use different fungicide treatments on plants ...


Herbicide Injury From Dicamba And 2,4-D: How Much Is Too Much In Lettuce?, Xinzheng Chen, Amit J. Jhala, Stevan Z. Knezevic, Samuel E. Wortman Apr 2020

Herbicide Injury From Dicamba And 2,4-D: How Much Is Too Much In Lettuce?, Xinzheng Chen, Amit J. Jhala, Stevan Z. Knezevic, Samuel E. Wortman

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Off-target herbicide injury from dicamba and 2,4-D is an increasingly common problem for specialty crop growers in the Midwest U.S. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is a common specialty crops grown in Nebraska, but proximity to corn and soybean production leaves growers vulnerable to crop injury and significant economic loss. The goal of this study was to quantify crop injury and yield loss in greenhouse grown lettuce after exposure to simulated sub-lethal drift rates of 2,4-D and dicamba. Sublethal doses were determined based on a percentage of the maximum labeled rate and ranged from 25% to 0.01 ...


Spring Meadow Management Practices: What’S A Rancher To Do?, Tara M. Harms, Jerry D. Volesky, Mitchell B. Stephenson Apr 2020

Spring Meadow Management Practices: What’S A Rancher To Do?, Tara M. Harms, Jerry D. Volesky, Mitchell B. Stephenson

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

• Subirrigated meadows are a valuable forage resource to ranching operations in the Nebraska Sandhills, being used for both hay production and livestock grazing. • The water table of these meadows is within one meter of the soil surface during the growing season. • In some years, wet conditions hinder meadow utilization, resulting in a buildup of standing dead and litter plant material which can lower forage production.

• Investigate if burning and mowing are effective strategies to remove dead plant material from meadows • Determine if burning or mowing interact with grazing to influence end of season forage production

Burning or mowing effectively removes ...


Using Hydrogeophysics & Xrf To Produce A High-Resolution 3-Dimensional Soil Cadmium Map For Evaluating Hybrid Wheat Trials, Thierry Bienvenu, Trenton Franz, Associate Professor Of Hydrogeophysics, Nuwan Wijewardane, Post Doc Research Associate, Yufeng Ge, Associate Professor Apr 2020

Using Hydrogeophysics & Xrf To Produce A High-Resolution 3-Dimensional Soil Cadmium Map For Evaluating Hybrid Wheat Trials, Thierry Bienvenu, Trenton Franz, Associate Professor Of Hydrogeophysics, Nuwan Wijewardane, Post Doc Research Associate, Yufeng Ge, Associate Professor

UCARE Research Products

Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in wheat decreases germination, growth, grain yield, and in higher concentration leads to adverse effects on human health (Liu et al, 2018). Due to wheat cultivars variation in Cd accumulation, wheat breeders aim to select those at low Cd concentration lines in a field. Hence the need to quantify the concentration of Cd at different parts of a field and visually represent on a high resolution Cd distribution map. Various ways to quantify the concentration of soil Cd exist. However, the cost of equipment required make the process quite expensive and labor intensive. This work studied the ...


Developing Alternative Forage Production Strategies For Enhanced Environmental And Economic Resilience On New England Dairy Farms, Samantha Glaze-Corcoran Mar 2020

Developing Alternative Forage Production Strategies For Enhanced Environmental And Economic Resilience On New England Dairy Farms, Samantha Glaze-Corcoran

Doctoral Dissertations

Cover crops are prized for their array of well documented and widely respected ecosystem services. Cover crops are an intrinsic part of building and sustaining soil health and thus the long term productive capacity of agricultural soils. However, effective cover crop adoption on New England dairy farms is lacking, and the benefits of traditional cover crops may be somewhat mismatched to the needs of dairy farms. Harvesting winter hardy small cereal grains for forage can provide practical incentive to farmers to incorporate effective cover crop management as well as provide an economic benefit in the form of additional on-farm forage ...


Impact Of Spontaneous Haploid Genome Doubling In Maize Breeding, Nicholas A. Boerman, Ursula K. Frei, Thomas Lubberstedt Mar 2020

Impact Of Spontaneous Haploid Genome Doubling In Maize Breeding, Nicholas A. Boerman, Ursula K. Frei, Thomas Lubberstedt

Agronomy Publications

Doubled haploid (DH) technology has changed the maize-breeding landscape in recent years. Traditionally, DH production requires the use of chemical doubling agents to induce haploid genome doubling and, subsequently, male fertility. These chemicals can be harmful to humans and the plants themselves, and typically result in a doubling rate of 10%–30%. Spontaneous genome doubling and male fertility of maize haploids, without using chemical doubling agents, have been observed to a limited extent, for nearly 70 years. Rates of spontaneous haploid genome doubling (SHGD) have ranged from less than 5% to greater than 50%. Recently, there has been increased interest ...


Quantitative Inheritance Of Total Anthocyanin Content In The Tassel Of Small-Ear Waxy Corn (Zea Mays Var. Ceratina), P. Duangpapeng, K. Lertrat, K. Lomthaisong, F. S. Aguilar, M. P. Scott, B. Suriharn Mar 2020

Quantitative Inheritance Of Total Anthocyanin Content In The Tassel Of Small-Ear Waxy Corn (Zea Mays Var. Ceratina), P. Duangpapeng, K. Lertrat, K. Lomthaisong, F. S. Aguilar, M. P. Scott, B. Suriharn

Agronomy Publications

Information on the gene effects governing the inheritance of traits is very important for crop breeding and germplasm management. The objective of this study was to estimate genetic effects for total anthocyanin content in the tassel of small-ear waxy corn. Six generations (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC11, and BC12) were developed from two crosses of small-ear waxy corn (TB1 × TW1 and TC1 × TB3). TB1 and TB3 had purple tassels, and TW1 and TC1 had green tassels. All generations of each cross were evaluated under field conditions in the rainy season of 2017 and the dry season of 2017/2018. Season ...


Arkansas Cotton Variety Test 2019, F. Bourland, A. Beach, E. Brown, C. Kennedy, L. Martin, B. Robertson Mar 2020

Arkansas Cotton Variety Test 2019, F. Bourland, A. Beach, E. Brown, C. Kennedy, L. Martin, B. Robertson

Research Series

The primary goal of the Arkansas Cotton Variety Test is to provide unbiased data regarding the agronomic performance of cotton varieties and advanced breeding lines in the major cotton-growing areas of Arkansas. This information helps seed companies establish marketing strategies and assists producers in choosing varieties to plant. These annual evaluations will then facilitate the inclusion of new, improved genetic material in Arkansas cotton production. Adaptation of varieties is determined by evaluating the lines at five University of Arkansas System Division of Agriculture research sites (Manila, Keiser, Judd Hill, Marianna, and Rohwer). Entries in the 2019 Arkansas Cotton Variety Test ...


Rain, Rain, Gone Away. Decreased Growing Season Rainfall For The Dryland Cropping Region Of South-Western Australia, Tim Scanlon, Greg Doncon Feb 2020

Rain, Rain, Gone Away. Decreased Growing Season Rainfall For The Dryland Cropping Region Of South-Western Australia, Tim Scanlon, Greg Doncon

Journal articles

The shift in Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures in 1976 led to a change in rainfall for the broad-scale winter annual grain cropping and pasture region in the south-west of Western Australia (the WA wheatbelt). Agriculture in the eastern part the WA Wheatbelt was particularly sensitive to the change in rainfall because it is a marginal area for agronomic production, with low rainfall before changes in sea surface temperature. A second shift in sea surface temperature occurred in 2000, but there has been no analysis of the resulting impact on rainfall in the eastern WA wheatbelt. An analysis of rainfall ...


Evaluation Of The Functional Role Of The Maize Glossy2 And Glossy2-Like Genes In Cuticular Lipid Deposition, Liza Esther Alexander, Yozo Okazaki, Michael A. Schelling, Aeriel Davis, Xiaobin Zheng, Ludmila Rizhsky, Marna D. Yandeau-Nelson, Kazuki Saito, Basil J. Nikolau Feb 2020

Evaluation Of The Functional Role Of The Maize Glossy2 And Glossy2-Like Genes In Cuticular Lipid Deposition, Liza Esther Alexander, Yozo Okazaki, Michael A. Schelling, Aeriel Davis, Xiaobin Zheng, Ludmila Rizhsky, Marna D. Yandeau-Nelson, Kazuki Saito, Basil J. Nikolau

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Plant epidermal cells express unique molecular machinery that juxtapose the assembly of intracellular lipid components and the unique extracellular cuticular lipids that are unidirectionally secreted to plant surfaces. In maize (Zea mays L.), mutations at the glossy2 (gl2) locus affect the deposition of extracellular cuticular lipids. Sequence-based genome scanning identified a novel gl2 homolog in the maize genome, Gl2-like. Sequence homology identifies that both the Gl2-like and Gl2 genes are members of the BAHD superfamily of acyltransferases, with close sequence homology to the Arabidopsis CER2 gene. Transgenic experiments demonstrate that Gl2-like and Gl2 functionally complement the Arabidopsis cer2 mutation, with ...


Transcriptome And Parasitome Analysis Of Beet Cyst Nematode Heterodera Schachtii, Abdelnaser M. Elashry, Samer S. Habash, Paramasivan Vijayapalani, Nahal Brocke-Ahmadinejad, Roman Blümel, Arun Seetharam, Heiko Schoof, Florian M. W. Grundler Feb 2020

Transcriptome And Parasitome Analysis Of Beet Cyst Nematode Heterodera Schachtii, Abdelnaser M. Elashry, Samer S. Habash, Paramasivan Vijayapalani, Nahal Brocke-Ahmadinejad, Roman Blümel, Arun Seetharam, Heiko Schoof, Florian M. W. Grundler

Office of Biotechnology Publications

Beet cyst nematodes depend on a set of secretory proteins (effectors) for the induction and maintenance of their syncytial feeding sites in plant roots. In order to understand the relationship between the beet cyst nematode H. schachtii and its host, identification of H. schachtii effectors is crucial and to this end, we sequenced a whole animal pre-infective J2-stage transcriptome in addition to pre- and post-infective J2 gland cell transcriptome using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and identified a subset of sequences representing putative effectors. Comparison between the transcriptome of H. schachtii and previously reported related cyst nematodes and root-knot nematodes revealed ...


Growing Torula Yeast (Candida Utilis) For Food Grade Fatty Acids, Zachary Christman Feb 2020

Growing Torula Yeast (Candida Utilis) For Food Grade Fatty Acids, Zachary Christman

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

The focus of this article is the cultivation of a food grade yeast for the production of fatty acids without the restrictions of climate or growing season. Torula yeast (Candida utilis) was selected since it can grow on a wide variety of culture media and has over 60 years of use in the food industry. The fatty acid composition of Candida utilis grown on two different media are presented in this article; the first example using completely synthetic media and another using distiller’s vinasse. Also, the effect of different culturing conditions on the percentage of various fatty acids will ...


Soybean Response To Water: Trait Identification And Prediction, Shawn Jenkins Feb 2020

Soybean Response To Water: Trait Identification And Prediction, Shawn Jenkins

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

The rising demand for soybean [Glycine Max (L.) Merrill] taken in consideration with current climatic trends accentuates the importance of improving soybean seed yield response per unit water (WP). To further our understanding of the quantitative WP trait, a multi-omic approach was implemented for improved trait identification and predictive modeling opportunities. Through the evaluation of two recombinant inbred line populations jointly totaling 439 lines subjected to contrasting irrigation treatments, informative agronomic, phenomic, and genomic associations were identified. Across both populations, relationships were identified between lodging at maturity (r = -0.58, H = 0.86), canopy to air temperature differential at the ...


Enhancing Hybrid Prediction In Pearl Millet Using Genomic And/Or Multi- Environment Phenotypic Information Of Inbreds, Diego Jarquin, Reka Howard, Zhikai Liang, Shashi K. Gupta, James C. Schnable, Jose Crossa Jan 2020

Enhancing Hybrid Prediction In Pearl Millet Using Genomic And/Or Multi- Environment Phenotypic Information Of Inbreds, Diego Jarquin, Reka Howard, Zhikai Liang, Shashi K. Gupta, James C. Schnable, Jose Crossa

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Genomic selection (GS) is an emerging methodology that helps select superior lines among experimental cultivars in plant breeding programs. It offers the opportunity to increase the productivity of cultivars by delivering increased genetic gains and reducing the breeding cycles. This methodology requires inexpensive and sufficiently dense marker information to be successful, and with whole genome sequencing, it has become an important tool in many crops. The recent assembly of the pearl millet genome has made it possible to employ GS models to improve the selection procedure in pearl millet breeding programs. Here, three GS models were implemented and compared using ...


Computer Vision And Machine Learning Enabled Soybean Root Phenotyping Pipeline, Kevin G. Falk, Talukder Z. Jubery, Seyed V. Mirnezami, Kyle A. Parmley, Soumik Sarkar, Arti Singh, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Asheesh K. Singh Jan 2020

Computer Vision And Machine Learning Enabled Soybean Root Phenotyping Pipeline, Kevin G. Falk, Talukder Z. Jubery, Seyed V. Mirnezami, Kyle A. Parmley, Soumik Sarkar, Arti Singh, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Asheesh K. Singh

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Background Root system architecture (RSA) traits are of interest for breeding selection; however, measurement of these traits is difficult, resource intensive, and results in large variability. The advent of computer vision and machine learning (ML) enabled trait extraction and measurement has renewed interest in utilizing RSA traits for genetic enhancement to develop more robust and resilient crop cultivars. We developed a mobile, low-cost, and high-resolution root phenotyping system composed of an imaging platform with computer vision and ML based segmentation approach to establish a seamless end-to-end pipeline - from obtaining large quantities of root samples through image based trait processing and ...


Long-Term Ecological Research In Southern Brazil Grasslands: Effects Of Grazing Exclusion And Deferred Grazing On Plant And Arthropod Communities, Pedro M.A. Ferreira, Bianca O. Andrade, Luciana R. Podgaiski, Amanda C. Dias, Valerio D. Pillar, Gerhard E. Overbeck, Milton De S. Mendonca Jr., Ilsi I. Boldrini Jan 2020

Long-Term Ecological Research In Southern Brazil Grasslands: Effects Of Grazing Exclusion And Deferred Grazing On Plant And Arthropod Communities, Pedro M.A. Ferreira, Bianca O. Andrade, Luciana R. Podgaiski, Amanda C. Dias, Valerio D. Pillar, Gerhard E. Overbeck, Milton De S. Mendonca Jr., Ilsi I. Boldrini

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Grazing exclusion may lead to biodiversity loss and homogenization of naturally heterogeneous and species-rich grassland ecosystems, and these effects may cascade to higher trophic levels and ecosystem properties. Although grazing exclusion has been studied elsewhere, the consequences of alleviating the disturbance regime in grassland ecosystems remain unclear. In this paper, we present results of the first five years of an experiment in native grasslands of southern Brazil. Using a randomized block experimental design, we examined the effects of three grazing treatments on plant and arthropod communities: (i) deferred grazing (i.e., intermittent grazing), (ii) grazing exclusion and (iii) a control ...


Editorial: New Insights Into Mechanisms Of Epigenetic Modifiers In Plant Growth And Development, Ming Luo, Gabino Ríos, Tomasz Jacek Sarnowski, Shoudong Zhang, Nitin Mantri, Jean-Benoit Charron, Marc Libault Jan 2020

Editorial: New Insights Into Mechanisms Of Epigenetic Modifiers In Plant Growth And Development, Ming Luo, Gabino Ríos, Tomasz Jacek Sarnowski, Shoudong Zhang, Nitin Mantri, Jean-Benoit Charron, Marc Libault

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

In eukaryotic cells, chromatin, a highly dynamic nucleoprotein complex, plays a critical role in controlling gene expression notably by regulating the interaction between transcription factors and regulatory elements. The structure of the chromatin is determined by epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and chromatin remodeling. A growing body of evidence indicates that epigenetic regulations are involved in plant adaptation to environmental stresses, and in plant development, including flowering control, fruit and root development, as well as seed maturation and germination. Furthermore, epigenetic mechanisms have the potential to stabilize cell identity and maintain tissue organization. Hence, epigenetic diversity is now ...