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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Corn And Soybean Response To Wastewater-Recycled Phosphorus Fertilizers, Shane Ylagan Dec 2020

Corn And Soybean Response To Wastewater-Recycled Phosphorus Fertilizers, Shane Ylagan

Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

The ability to recycle phosphorus (P) from wastewaters could provide a sustainable, continuous source of P that might also help protect surface water quality from P enrichment. The mineral struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O) is an understudied material that can be created from Pcontaining wastewater and has been shown to have agricultural fertilizer value. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of electrochemically precipitated struvite (ECST), chemically precipitated struvite (Crystal Green; CG), diammonium phosphate (DAP), monoammonium phosphate (MAP), rock phosphate (RP), and triple super phosphate (TSP) on corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) response in a 79-day greenhouse ...


Influence Of Six Herbicides Applied To Silage Corn On Fall Planted Rye And Radish Cover Crop Growth In South Dakota Soils, Sydney Pridie May 2020

Influence Of Six Herbicides Applied To Silage Corn On Fall Planted Rye And Radish Cover Crop Growth In South Dakota Soils, Sydney Pridie

The Journal of Undergraduate Research

Spring preemergence herbicide applications are often used for burndown of existing weeds and residual control, eliminating weed presence during early season crop growth. There has been an increase in the interest in planting cover crops soon after cash crop removal, due to the potential soil and production benefits. However, soil herbicide residuals may result in poor cover crop growth. This study examined the growth of radish (Raphanus sativa) and rye (Secale cereal), species often used as cover crops, in soils that had been treated with residual herbicides about 100 d prior to cover crop planting. The herbicides were applied at ...


Control Of Volunteer Corn In Enlist Corn And Economics Of Herbicide Programs For Weed Control In Conventional And Multiple Herbicide-Resistant Soybean Across Nebraska, Adam M. Striegel May 2020

Control Of Volunteer Corn In Enlist Corn And Economics Of Herbicide Programs For Weed Control In Conventional And Multiple Herbicide-Resistant Soybean Across Nebraska, Adam M. Striegel

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

With commercialization of multiple herbicide-resistant corn and soybean cultivars, producers have new management options for controlling herbicide-resistant weeds and volunteer corn. Corn-on-corn production systems are common in irrigated fields in southcentral Nebraska which can create issues with volunteer corn management in corn fields. Enlist corn contains a new multiple herbicide-resistant trait providing resistance to 2,4-D choline, glyphosate, and the aryloxyphenoxypropionate (FOPs). Field experiments were conducted in 2018 and 2019 at South Central Agricultural Laboratory near Clay Center, Nebraska with the objective to evaluate ACCase-inhibiting herbicides and herbicide application timing on volunteer corn control, Enlist corn injury, and yield. Glyphosate ...


The Economics Of On-Farm Rice Drying In Arkansas, Clayton Parker May 2020

The Economics Of On-Farm Rice Drying In Arkansas, Clayton Parker

Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness Undergraduate Honors Theses

Globally, rice producers are faced with the temporal problem of deciding the optimal time to being rice harvest. When harvested, paddy rice is typically at a moisture content (HMC) between 15 and 22%. Upon delivery, the rice is subsequently dried by the mill to a moisture content (MC) of 12.5%. Riceland Foods Inc., the largest miller of rice in the world, uses a stair-step pricing model to charge farmers to dry in price/unit as the MC of grain decreases from a range of +22% to 13.5%. This study estimates an alternative linear relationship in the stair-step model ...


Remediation Strategies To Reduce Heavy Metal Uptake In Lettuce Grown In Contaminated Urban Soil, Ryley Thomas Apr 2020

Remediation Strategies To Reduce Heavy Metal Uptake In Lettuce Grown In Contaminated Urban Soil, Ryley Thomas

UCARE Research Products

Urban soils are increasingly used to produce food for local consumption, which requires at the same time management strategies that prevent the plant uptake of potentially present contaminants. This study was conducted to test different soil amendments for their ability to retain lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) within the soil matrix. The analyzed soil was taken from a potential community garden lot near a railroad in Lincoln, NE where elevated concentrations in Pb and As had been detected. Ponderosa pine biochar and spent coffee grounds were used as soil additives because of their documented chemical reactivity towards soil cations or ...


Fungicide Sensitivity Of Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum Isolates From Five States With Different Fungicide Treatments, Cristian Wulkop Gil, Edgar Nieto-Lopez, Sydney Everhart Apr 2020

Fungicide Sensitivity Of Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum Isolates From Five States With Different Fungicide Treatments, Cristian Wulkop Gil, Edgar Nieto-Lopez, Sydney Everhart

UCARE Research Products

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a plant pathogenic fungus that causes a disease called white mold that can infect more than 450 plant species including soybeans, dry beans, green beans, canola, and sunflower. This pathogen is capable of up to $252M in losses every year (U.S. Canola Association, 2014). Fungicides are widely used in developed agricultural systems to control disease. However, resistance to the most effective fungicides has emerged and spread in pathogen populations and there have been multiple reports of S. sclerotiorum isolates becoming resistant to certain fungicides. Since different fields in different states use different fungicide treatments on plants ...


Pasture Management To Improve Dry Matter Intake, Marcus F. Rose, Earl Creech, Blair L. Waldron, S. Clay Isom, Michael Peel, Kara Thornton-Kurth, Jacob Hadfield, Kerry A. Rood Apr 2020

Pasture Management To Improve Dry Matter Intake, Marcus F. Rose, Earl Creech, Blair L. Waldron, S. Clay Isom, Michael Peel, Kara Thornton-Kurth, Jacob Hadfield, Kerry A. Rood

All Current Publications

Agricultural producers are constantly looking for ways to maximize returns while reducing input costs. On dairy operations, a move from confinement feeding to pasture grazing offers the potential to reduce costs associated with harvest and storage of feed. In such a transition, producers sometimes report a decline in milk production and growth of livestock—both of which can strongly correlate to dry matter intake. Fortunately, dry matter intake is something that can be influenced by management practices. In this publication, we discuss the pasture management practices to improve dry matter intake.


Buffalograss Diversity Assessment, Collin Marshall Apr 2020

Buffalograss Diversity Assessment, Collin Marshall

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Buffalograss [Buchloë dactylodes (Nutt.) Engelm. syn. Bouteloua dactyloides (Nutt.) Columbus] is a low input alternative turfgrass for the Great Plains region. Buffalograss is a dioecious stoloniferous warm season grass with wide variation of valuable traits and is well adapted for use in minimal maintenance landscapes. The obligate outcrossing nature of the species and wide variation of potentially valuable traits make buffalograss a prime candidate for cultivar improvement and genetic study. Limited information is available regarding buffalograss genetics. In effort to expand genetic resources around buffalograss, we developed buffalograss derived simple sequence repeat markers from previously available transcriptomes of buffalograss cultivars ...


On-Site And External Energy Harvesting In Underground Wireless, Usman Raza, Abdul Salam Apr 2020

On-Site And External Energy Harvesting In Underground Wireless, Usman Raza, Abdul Salam

Faculty Publications

Energy efficiency is vital for uninterrupted long-term operation of wireless underground communication nodes in the field of decision agriculture. In this paper, energy harvesting and wireless power transfer techniques are discussed with applications in underground wireless communications (UWC). Various external wireless power transfer techniques are explored. Moreover, key energy harvesting technologies are presented that utilize available energy sources in the field such as vibration, solar, and wind. In this regard, the Electromagnetic(EM)- and Magnetic Induction(MI)-based approaches are explained. Furthermore, the vibration-based energy harvesting models are reviewed as well. These energy harvesting approaches lead to design of an ...


Reaction Of Tepary Beans To Eight Virulent Races Of The Rust Pathogen That Overcomes All Known Common Bean Rust Resistance Genes, Santos Barrera Lemus, Prabin Tamang, Carlos A. Urrea, Marcial A. Pastor-Corrales Apr 2020

Reaction Of Tepary Beans To Eight Virulent Races Of The Rust Pathogen That Overcomes All Known Common Bean Rust Resistance Genes, Santos Barrera Lemus, Prabin Tamang, Carlos A. Urrea, Marcial A. Pastor-Corrales

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Bean rust, caused by Uromyces appendiculatus, is a major disease of common and snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) worldwide (Stavely, 1984). Although host resistance is an important component of rust management (Mmbaga et al., 1996), populations of the rust pathogen comprise an extensive and shifting virulence diversity that could render susceptible all known rust resistance genes in common bean. Conversely, it has been suggested that certain tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) accessions are broadly resistant to bean rust (Miklas & Stavely, 1998). The objectives of this study were to verify if tepary beans are resistant to eight races of the bean rust pathogen ...


Extreme Fire As A Management Tool To Combat Regime Shifts In The Range Of The Endangered American Burying Beetle, Alison K. Ludwig, Daniel R. Uden, Dirac Twidwell Apr 2020

Extreme Fire As A Management Tool To Combat Regime Shifts In The Range Of The Endangered American Burying Beetle, Alison K. Ludwig, Daniel R. Uden, Dirac Twidwell

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

This study is focused on the population of federally-endangered American burying beetles in south-central Nebraska. It is focused on changes in land cover over time and at several levels of spatial scale, and how management efforts are impacting both the beetle and a changing landscape. Our findings are applicable to a large portion of the Great Plains, which is undergoing the same shift from grassland to woodland, and to areas where the beetle is still found.


Preemergence Herbicide Application Timings: Pros And Cons, Robert G. Hartzler, Meaghan J. B. Anderson, Prashant Jha Apr 2020

Preemergence Herbicide Application Timings: Pros And Cons, Robert G. Hartzler, Meaghan J. B. Anderson, Prashant Jha

Integrated Crop Management News

Preemergence herbicides are the foundation of herbicide-based weed management systems, and effective use of these products is essential to protect crop yields and reduce selection pressure for herbicide resistant weeds. In a perfect world, applying preemergence herbicides immediately after planting would provide the greatest likelihood of maximum performance, but equipment and labor availability limit many farms from using this approach. This article will provide a brief overview of the pros and cons of different application strategies


Are You Planting On A Level Playing Field?, Ryan W. Bergman Apr 2020

Are You Planting On A Level Playing Field?, Ryan W. Bergman

Integrated Crop Management News

Springtime on a farm is typically filled with the hustle and bustle of gearing up for planting season. This is the time of year when most farmers focus on de-winterizing the sprayer, changing oil in the tractors and checking the seed meters on the planter. If you use a field cultivator, it is also important to make sure it is properly adjusted to help provide a uniform seedbed for the upcoming planting season. Whether this is the first season or the thirtieth season for the field cultivator, there are a few items to check before making your way to the ...


Fungicide Sensitivity Of Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum Isolates Selected From Five Different States That Use Different Fungicide Treatments, Cristian Wulkop Gil Apr 2020

Fungicide Sensitivity Of Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum Isolates Selected From Five Different States That Use Different Fungicide Treatments, Cristian Wulkop Gil

UCARE Research Products

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a plant pathogenic fungus that causes a disease called white mold that can infect more than 450 plant species including soybeans, dry beans, green beans, canola, and sunflower. This pathogen is capable of up to $252M in losses every year (U.S. Canola Association, 2014). Fungicides are widely used in developed agricultural systems to control disease. However, resistance to the most effective fungicides has emerged and spread in pathogen populations and there have been multiple reports of S. sclerotiorum isolates becoming resistant to certain fungicides. Since different fields in different states use different fungicide treatments on plants ...


Pesticide Applications – Are You Prepared?, Elizabeth Danielson, Kristine J. P. Schaefer Apr 2020

Pesticide Applications – Are You Prepared?, Elizabeth Danielson, Kristine J. P. Schaefer

Integrated Crop Management News

With the critical need for respirators and other personal protective equipment (PPE) for health care, there is a potential shortage of PPE, particularly N95 respirators, in the marketplace for agriculture and pesticide applications.


Spring Forage Fertilization Considerations, Brian J. Lang, Rebecca K. Vittetoe Apr 2020

Spring Forage Fertilization Considerations, Brian J. Lang, Rebecca K. Vittetoe

Integrated Crop Management News

Fertilization is just as important for forages as it is for row crops to maximize productivity. This article addresses spring fertilization considerations for forage crops and pastures.


Herbicide Injury From Dicamba And 2,4-D: How Much Is Too Much In Lettuce?, Xinzheng Chen, Amit J. Jhala, Stevan Z. Knezevic, Samuel E. Wortman Apr 2020

Herbicide Injury From Dicamba And 2,4-D: How Much Is Too Much In Lettuce?, Xinzheng Chen, Amit J. Jhala, Stevan Z. Knezevic, Samuel E. Wortman

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Off-target herbicide injury from dicamba and 2,4-D is an increasingly common problem for specialty crop growers in the Midwest U.S. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is a common specialty crops grown in Nebraska, but proximity to corn and soybean production leaves growers vulnerable to crop injury and significant economic loss. The goal of this study was to quantify crop injury and yield loss in greenhouse grown lettuce after exposure to simulated sub-lethal drift rates of 2,4-D and dicamba. Sublethal doses were determined based on a percentage of the maximum labeled rate and ranged from 25% to 0.01 ...


Spring Meadow Management Practices: What’S A Rancher To Do?, Tara M. Harms, Jerry D. Volesky, Mitchell B. Stephenson Apr 2020

Spring Meadow Management Practices: What’S A Rancher To Do?, Tara M. Harms, Jerry D. Volesky, Mitchell B. Stephenson

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

• Subirrigated meadows are a valuable forage resource to ranching operations in the Nebraska Sandhills, being used for both hay production and livestock grazing. • The water table of these meadows is within one meter of the soil surface during the growing season. • In some years, wet conditions hinder meadow utilization, resulting in a buildup of standing dead and litter plant material which can lower forage production.

• Investigate if burning and mowing are effective strategies to remove dead plant material from meadows • Determine if burning or mowing interact with grazing to influence end of season forage production

Burning or mowing effectively removes ...


Deadline Waived For Iowa Pesticide Applicators To Renew Certification, Kristine J. P. Schaefer Mar 2020

Deadline Waived For Iowa Pesticide Applicators To Renew Certification, Kristine J. P. Schaefer

Integrated Crop Management News

The Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship (IDALS) has waived the deadline for pesticide applicators to meet recertification requirements, following a proclamation by Iowa Gov. Kim Reynolds March 22.


The Opportunities And Challenges With Hemp, Chad Hart Mar 2020

The Opportunities And Challenges With Hemp, Chad Hart

Integrated Crop Management News

Over the past several years as row crop prices declined, farmers and landowners across the nation have searched for alternative crops that might improve the financial bottom line. With the passage of the 2014 and 2018 farm bills, industrial hemp became one of those possible alternative crops. The 2014 farm bill established industrial hemp (hemp with a tetrahydrocannabinol [THC] concentration of 0.3% or less) as a potential crop, separating it from its illegal relative, marijuana. The 2018 farm bill removed hemp from the list of controlled substances and established hemp as an agricultural commodity, including the provision of crop ...


Terminating Cover Crops This Spring, Meaghan J. B. Anderson, Rebecca K. Vittetoe, Robert G. Hartzler Mar 2020

Terminating Cover Crops This Spring, Meaghan J. B. Anderson, Rebecca K. Vittetoe, Robert G. Hartzler

Integrated Crop Management News

As temperatures warm this spring, cover crop termination is on the to-do list for some Iowa fields. Killing cover crops with herbicides is the most common termination method. The effectiveness of herbicides at terminating a cover crop depends primarily on three things:

1. Cover crop species and growth stage

2. Herbicide and rate used

3. Environment


Recommendations To Achieve High Quality Dry Fertilizer Applications, Ryan W. Bergman Mar 2020

Recommendations To Achieve High Quality Dry Fertilizer Applications, Ryan W. Bergman

Integrated Crop Management News

Claims of poor fertilizer application and visual striping in fields have increased in recent years. This issue impacts all sectors of the supply chain including growers, custom applicators, cooperatives and agribusiness insurance companies. An increase in documented application problems is primarily driven by a broader use of aerial imagery that can easily detect problems and an increase in use of dry nitrogen fertilizers. Cases of poor-quality application are seen less frequently with phosphorus or potassium products than with nitrogen because corn is not as sensitive to varying rates of these nutrients. Prior to applying dry fertilizer, follow these guidelines to ...


Crop Sulfur Fertilization This Spring, John E. Sawyer Mar 2020

Crop Sulfur Fertilization This Spring, John E. Sawyer

Integrated Crop Management News

Significant sulfur (S) deficiency in Iowa crops was first documented about 15 years ago. First identified in alfalfa and then corn and soybean. Since then about 150 trials with corn (along with trials with alfalfa and soybean) have been conducted across the state, with approximately 50% of trials having a statistically significant yield increase. A main reason for the yield response to S in recent years, as compared to many years prior, has been reduction in atmospheric deposition as a result of the Clean Air Act. Other factors for increased S responses include fields with no manure applications, increased crop ...


De Novo Sequencing And Analysis Of Salvia Hispanica Tissue-Specific Transcriptome And Identification Of Genes Involved In Terpenoid Biosynthesis, James Wimberley, Joseph Cahill, Hagop S. Atamian Mar 2020

De Novo Sequencing And Analysis Of Salvia Hispanica Tissue-Specific Transcriptome And Identification Of Genes Involved In Terpenoid Biosynthesis, James Wimberley, Joseph Cahill, Hagop S. Atamian

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Salvia hispanica (commonly known as chia) is gaining popularity worldwide as a healthy food supplement due to its low saturated fatty acid and high polyunsaturated fatty acid content, in addition to being rich in protein, fiber, and antioxidants. Chia leaves contain plethora of secondary metabolites with medicinal properties. In this study, we sequenced chia leaf and root transcriptomes using the Illumina platform. The short reads were assembled into contigs using the Trinity software and annotated against the Uniprot database. The reads were de novo assembled into 103,367 contigs, which represented 92.8% transcriptome completeness and a diverse set of ...


Managing Winter Annual Weeds This Spring, Meaghan J. B. Anderson, Robert G. Hartzler Mar 2020

Managing Winter Annual Weeds This Spring, Meaghan J. B. Anderson, Robert G. Hartzler

Integrated Crop Management News

After another relatively wet fall, late harvest season, and mild winter, early weed management may be important this spring for those who have persistent issues with winter annuals such as field pennycress and horseweed/marestail in no-till. Winter annuals resume growth soon after the arrival of warm temperatures, so as soon as fields are fit, the weeds will be susceptible to spray.


Management Considerations For Slugs: Do Insecticides Work?, Ashley Dean, Erin W. Hodgson Mar 2020

Management Considerations For Slugs: Do Insecticides Work?, Ashley Dean, Erin W. Hodgson

Integrated Crop Management News

With recent weather patterns, specifically high rainfall leading to wet soil conditions, some farmers have experienced damaging populations of slugs in their no-till fields. No-till fields are particularly affected since increased residue provides a stable, cool, and wet environment for these animals that are prone to desiccation (drying out). Oftentimes, farmers wonder if insecticides or seed treatments are effective at managing these noninsect pests. We will discuss management options for slugs in this article.


Legally Operating A Drone In The Agriculture Industry, Ryan W. Bergman Mar 2020

Legally Operating A Drone In The Agriculture Industry, Ryan W. Bergman

Integrated Crop Management News

Drone activity in agriculture continues to increase, and the aerial imagery generated can provide unique insight throughout the crop production season. Over the past decade the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has continued to evolve the requirements for the operation of small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS, UAS, UAV or drones) to create a reasonable legal pathway for use in agriculture.


Management Considerations For Millipedes And Isopods: Do Insecticides Work?, Ashley Dean, Erin W. Hodgson Mar 2020

Management Considerations For Millipedes And Isopods: Do Insecticides Work?, Ashley Dean, Erin W. Hodgson

Integrated Crop Management News

Many states, including Iowa, received a record amount of precipitation in 2019. In fact, the past two growing seasons have been especially wet. Consequently, this has created a number of issues for farmers, including reports of millipedes damaging crops under no-till production in Iowa, which is likely due to a combination of wet conditions and high residue. People that experience millipedes under these conditions frequently ask if insecticides or seed treatments will provide control of these pests. Although millipedes are not insects, they commonly fall under the realm of entomology, alongside many other animals (spiders, centipedes, mites, etc.). We will ...


High Speed Planting Technology, Ryan W. Bergman Mar 2020

High Speed Planting Technology, Ryan W. Bergman

Integrated Crop Management News

Iowa State University (ISU) recently completed a five-year study of high-speed planter equipment in corn and soybeans. The study utilized a 12-row planter equipped with the Precision Planting SpeedTube high speed planter system and a 24-row planter equipped with the John Deere ExactEmerge high speed planter system (Figure 1). Both planters utilized individual row hydraulic downforce and were tested using a side-by-side strip trial experimental design. Each planter was used on approximately 400 acres per year. Additionally, a third planter with a standard drop tube seed delivery system was included in select fields for seed spacing comparisons.


Spring Corn Nitrogen Fertilization Considerations, John E. Sawyer Mar 2020

Spring Corn Nitrogen Fertilization Considerations, John E. Sawyer

Integrated Crop Management News

Perhaps you did not get planned nitrogen (N) applications accomplished last fall. Or you are pondering what the spring 2020 weather conditions might be – another wet spring? Are you are considering use of different products; if so how should they be handled?