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An Analysis Of Mayo Clinic Search Query Logs For Cardiovascular Diseases, Ashutosh Sopan Jadhav, Amit P. Sheth, Jyotishman Pathak Nov 2014

An Analysis Of Mayo Clinic Search Query Logs For Cardiovascular Diseases, Ashutosh Sopan Jadhav, Amit P. Sheth, Jyotishman Pathak

Kno.e.sis Publications

Increasingly, individuals are taking active participation in learning and managing their health by leveraging online resources. Understanding online health information searching behavior can help us to study what health topics users search for and how search queries are formulated. In this work, we analyzed 10 million cardiovascular diseases (CVD) related search queries from MayoClinic.com. We performed semantic analysis on the queries using UMLS MetaMap and analyzed structural and textual properties as well as linguistic characteristics of the queries.


Online Information Searching For Cardiovascular Diseases: An Analysis Of Mayo Clinic Search Query Logs, Ashutosh Sopan Jadhav, Amit P. Sheth, Jyotishman Pathak Nov 2014

Online Information Searching For Cardiovascular Diseases: An Analysis Of Mayo Clinic Search Query Logs, Ashutosh Sopan Jadhav, Amit P. Sheth, Jyotishman Pathak

Kno.e.sis Publications

Since the early 2000’s, Internet usage for health information searching has increased significantly. Studying search queries can help us to understand users “information need” and how do they formulate search queries (“expression of information need”). Although cardiovascular diseases (CVD) affect a large percentage of the population, few studies have investigated how and what users search for CVD. We address this knowledge gap in the community by analyzing a large corpus of 10 million CVD related search queries from MayoClinic.com. Using UMLS MetaMap and UMLS semantic types/concepts, we developed a rule-based approach to categorize the queries into 14 ...


Hundreds Of Scn-Resistant Soybean Varieties Available For 2014, Gregory L. Tylka Oct 2014

Hundreds Of Scn-Resistant Soybean Varieties Available For 2014, Gregory L. Tylka

Integrated Crop Management News

The soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is a serious yield-reducing pathogen of soybeans. It is present in many fields throughout the Midwest, wherever soybeans are grown.

To produce profitable soybean yields in fields infested with SCN, farmers should grow SCN-resistant soybean varieties. SCN-resistant soybeans can produce high yields while keeping SCN population densities from increasing.


Lead Exposure From Aluminum Cookware In Cameroon, Jeffrey D. Weidenhamer, Peter A. Lobunski, Gilbert Kuepouo, Rebecca W. Corbin, Perry Gottesfeld Oct 2014

Lead Exposure From Aluminum Cookware In Cameroon, Jeffrey D. Weidenhamer, Peter A. Lobunski, Gilbert Kuepouo, Rebecca W. Corbin, Perry Gottesfeld

Jeffrey D. Weidenhamer

Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead ...


Dahp Oxime: A Transition State Mimic Inhibitor Of Dahp Synthase, Naresh Balachandran Oct 2014

Dahp Oxime: A Transition State Mimic Inhibitor Of Dahp Synthase, Naresh Balachandran

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

The rise of bacterial infections and increase of antibiotic resistant bacteria has become a major problem in the treatment of bacterial infections. The use and overuse of antibiotics, and the inherent ability of bacteria to adapt to their environment, have lead to the emergence of strains that are resistant to all antibiotics. Ideally, new targets for antibacterial drug therapy would be essential to the virulence of most or all bacteria. That is, antibiotics exploiting these targets would have broad spectrum activity. 3-Deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonate-7- phosphate (DAHP) synthase could be such a target. This enzyme catalyzes the condensation of erythrose 4-phosphate (E4P) and ...


A Characterization Of The Dynamic Interaction Between The Pro-Apoptotic Protein Bid And The Mitochondrial Outer Membrane, Aisha Shamas-Din Ms. Oct 2014

A Characterization Of The Dynamic Interaction Between The Pro-Apoptotic Protein Bid And The Mitochondrial Outer Membrane, Aisha Shamas-Din Ms.

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

Bcl-2 family of proteins regulate apoptosis at the level of the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) through both protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions. While the role of the membrane as the “locus of action” has been recognized, the detailed molecular mechanisms and the consequences of the interactions of Bcl-2 family members with the membrane are yet to be fully understood. The findings presented here focus on the dynamic interactions of Bcl-2 proteins, most notably tBid with the MOM, and their functional significance on mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. We show that the activation of tBid is a multi-step process that is regulated by ...


Investigation Of Competence Heterogeneity In Streptococcus Milleri Group Clinical Isolates, Anne-Marie G. Lacroix Oct 2014

Investigation Of Competence Heterogeneity In Streptococcus Milleri Group Clinical Isolates, Anne-Marie G. Lacroix

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

The Streptococcus Milleri/Anginosus group (SMG) includes Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus intermedius. The SMG is found in healthy individuals but these bacteria are most known clinically for being associated with invasive disease and more recently, airway infections including cystic fibrosis (CF). The SMG like many other streptococci are naturally competent, being able to actively bind, uptake and integrate extracellular DNA. Competence regulation involves a competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) derived from the ComC precursor and a two- component signaling system (a histidine kinase ComD and its response regulator ComE). In this study, I examined the distribution of CSP/ComD sequences ...


The Centennial Of The Smith-Lever Act And Aquaculture Extension, Michael A. Rice Oct 2014

The Centennial Of The Smith-Lever Act And Aquaculture Extension, Michael A. Rice

Michael A Rice

May 8, 2014 marked the centennial of the landmark Smith-Lever Act in the United States that created the Cooperative Extension service at Land Grant Universities nationwide. Major contributors to the 1914 Act were Seaman A. Knapp and Kenyon L. Butterfield. A half century later the Sea Grant College Program was proposed by Athelstan F. Spilhaus expanding Extension programming to the sea. Together these two programs have been a major force in promoting the growth of the aquaculture industry in America.


Silence Is The Loudest Sound, Emma Christian Oct 2014

Silence Is The Loudest Sound, Emma Christian

Honors College

Rhinoceros poaching is an act of killing a rhinoceros in order to take its horn, which is then used for human consumption or for cultural traditions. Both the Asian and the African rhinoceros are targets because of the demand from China, Vietnam, Yemen, and other countries around the world. Traditional Chinese Medicine practice is the main demand for rhinoceros horn and this demand in rhinoceros horn has caused an increase in the black market. Conservation of the rhinoceros is decreasing primarily because the price of rhinoceros horn is more than double the average household income in South Africa, thus making ...


Mindful Eating: Trait And State Mindfulness Predict Healthier Eating Behavior, Christian H. Jordan, Wan Wang, Linda R. Donatoni '10, Brian P. Meier Oct 2014

Mindful Eating: Trait And State Mindfulness Predict Healthier Eating Behavior, Christian H. Jordan, Wan Wang, Linda R. Donatoni '10, Brian P. Meier

Psychology Faculty Publications

Obesity and excess weight are significant societal problems. Mindfulness may encourage healthier weight and eating habits. Across four studies, we found a positive relation between mindfulness and healthier eating. Trait mindfulness was associated with less impulsive eating, reduced calorie consumption, and healthier snack choices. In addition, we found a causal effect of mindfulness on healthier eating. An experimental manipulation of state mindfulness led participants to consume fewer calories in a spontaneous eating task. We also found preliminary evidence that mindfulness affects eating behavior by encouraging attitudinal preferences for healthier foods. Taken together, these results provide strong evidence that mindfulness encourages ...


Diatom Flora In Subterranean Ecosystems: A Review, Elisa Falasco, Luc Ector, Marco Isaia, Carlos E. Wetzel, Lucien Hoffmann, Francesca Bona Sep 2014

Diatom Flora In Subterranean Ecosystems: A Review, Elisa Falasco, Luc Ector, Marco Isaia, Carlos E. Wetzel, Lucien Hoffmann, Francesca Bona

International Journal of Speleology

In scarcity of light and primary producers, subterranean ecosystems are generally extremely oligotrophic habitats, receiving poor supplies of degradable organic matter from the surface. Human direct impacts on cave ecosystems mainly derive from intensive tourism and recreational caving, causing important alterations to the whole subterranean environment. In particular, artificial lighting systems in show caves support the growth of autotrophic organisms (the so-called lampenflora), mainly composed of cyanobacteria, diatoms, chlorophytes, mosses and ferns producing exocellular polymeric substances (EPSs) made of polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. This anionic EPSs matrix mediates to the intercellular communications and participates to the chemical exchanges ...


Niche Differentiation In Meta Bourneti And M. Menardi (Araneae, Tetragnathidae) With Notes On The Life History, Stefano Mammola, Marco Isaia Sep 2014

Niche Differentiation In Meta Bourneti And M. Menardi (Araneae, Tetragnathidae) With Notes On The Life History, Stefano Mammola, Marco Isaia

International Journal of Speleology

Meta menardi and M. bourneti are two species of spiders inhabiting caves and other subterranean habitats. The occurrence of both species within the same cave has never been proved convincingly and several authors hypothesized a complete niche differentiation mainly based on microclimatic conditions.In order to study the apparent niche differentiation of the two species, we studied several populations of M. menardi and M. bourneti occurring in six caves in the Western Italian Alps (NW Italy). A series of squared plots were monitored monthly from March 2012 to February 2013. At each survey, we counted individuals and we collected the ...


Effect Of Recent Historical Events On Migration And Isonymic Stratification Among The Rama Amerindians From Nicaragua, Norberto F. Baldi Aug 2014

Effect Of Recent Historical Events On Migration And Isonymic Stratification Among The Rama Amerindians From Nicaragua, Norberto F. Baldi

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

The Rama Amerindians from southern Nicaragua are one of few indigenous populations inhabiting the east coast and lowlands of southern Central America. Early 18th century ethnohistorical accounts depicted the Rama as a mobile hunter-gatherer and horticulturalists group dispersed in household units along southern Nicaraguan rivers. However, during the 19th and 20th centuries, Rama settlement patterns changed to aggregated communities due to increased competition for local resources resulting from non-indigenous immigration. This study’s objective was to discern the degree of relatedness between and within subdivisions of seven of these communities based on patterns of surname variation and genealogical data. We ...


Pedigree Structure And Kinship Measurements Of A Mid-Michigan Community: A New North American Population Isolate Identified, Joseph D. Bonner, Rachel Fisher, James Klein, Qing Lu, Ellen Wilch, Karen H. Friderici, Jill L. Elfenbein, Debra L. Schutte, Brian C. Schutte Aug 2014

Pedigree Structure And Kinship Measurements Of A Mid-Michigan Community: A New North American Population Isolate Identified, Joseph D. Bonner, Rachel Fisher, James Klein, Qing Lu, Ellen Wilch, Karen H. Friderici, Jill L. Elfenbein, Debra L. Schutte, Brian C. Schutte

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Previous studies identified a cluster of individuals with an autosomal recessive form of deafness that resides in a small region of mid-Michigan. We hypothesized that affected members from this community descend from a defined founder population. Using public records and personal interviews, we constructed a genealogical database that includes the affected individuals and their extended families as descendants of 461 settlers who emigrated from the Eifel region of Germany between 1836 and 1875. The genealogical database represents a 13-generation pedigree that includes 27,747 descendants of these settlers. Among these descendants, 13,784 are presumed living. Many of the extant ...


Did Pre-Clovis People Inhabit The Paisley Caves (And Why Does It Matter)?, Stuart J. Fiedel Aug 2014

Did Pre-Clovis People Inhabit The Paisley Caves (And Why Does It Matter)?, Stuart J. Fiedel

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

The date and processes of initial human colonization of the Americas are crucial issues for the understanding of human biological and cultural development. For example, Soares et al. (2009) cited the American archaeological record to validate their proposed revision of the human mitochondrial molecular clock. Their suggested mutation rate puts the date of rapid expansion of Native American clades at around 13,500–15,000 cal BP. Similarly, Poznik et al. (2013) have used the “high-confidence archaeological dating” of the initial peopling of the Americas to calibrate the rates of both Y-chromosome and mtDNA mutation and thereby to reconcile the ...


Lactase Persistence Variants In Arabia And In The African Arabs, Edita Priehodova, Abdelhay Abdelsawy, Evelyne Heyer, Viktor Cerny Aug 2014

Lactase Persistence Variants In Arabia And In The African Arabs, Edita Priehodova, Abdelhay Abdelsawy, Evelyne Heyer, Viktor Cerny

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Lactase persistence (LP), the state enabling the digestion of milk sugar in adulthood occurs only in some human populations. The convergent and independent origin of this physiological ability in Europe and Africa is linked with animal domestication that had either started in both places independently or had spread from the Near East by acculturation. However, it has recently been shown that at least in its southern parts, the population of Arabia not only has a different LP-associated mutation profile than the rest of Africa and Europe but had also experienced an independent demographic expansion occurring before the Neolithic around the ...


Celiac Disease As A Model For The Evolution Of Multifactorial Disease In Humans, Aaron Sams, John Hawks Aug 2014

Celiac Disease As A Model For The Evolution Of Multifactorial Disease In Humans, Aaron Sams, John Hawks

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Celiac disease (CD) is a multifactorial chronic inflammatory condition that results in injury of the mucosal lining of the small intestine upon ingestion of wheat gluten and related proteins from barley and rye. Although the exact mechanisms leading to CD are not fully understood, the genetic basis of CD has been relatively well characterized. In this review we briefly review the history of discovery, clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and current understanding of the genetics underlying CD risk. Then, we discuss what is known about the current distribution and evolutionary history of genes underlying CD risk in light of other evolutionary models ...


Comparing Partial Least Square Approaches In Gene-Or Region-Based Association Study For Multiple Quantitative Phenotypes, Zhongshang Yuan, Xiaoshuai Zhang, Fangyu Li, Jinghua Zhao, Fuzhong Xue Aug 2014

Comparing Partial Least Square Approaches In Gene-Or Region-Based Association Study For Multiple Quantitative Phenotypes, Zhongshang Yuan, Xiaoshuai Zhang, Fangyu Li, Jinghua Zhao, Fuzhong Xue

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

On thinking quantitatively of complex diseases, there are at least three statistical strategies for association study: single SNP on single trait, gene-or region (with multiple SNPs) on single trait and on multiple traits. The third of which is the most general in dissecting the genetic mechanism underlying complex diseases underpinning multiple quantitative traits. Gene-or region association methods based on partial least square (PLS) approaches have been shown to have apparent power advantage. However, few attempts are developed for multiple quantitative phenotypes or traits underlying a condition or disease, and the performance of various PLS approaches used in association study for ...


Questioning The “Melting Pot”: Analysis Of Alu Inserts In Three Population Samples From Uruguay, Pedro C. Hidalgo, Patricia Mut, Elizabeth Ackermann, Gonzalo Figueiro, Monica Sans Aug 2014

Questioning The “Melting Pot”: Analysis Of Alu Inserts In Three Population Samples From Uruguay, Pedro C. Hidalgo, Patricia Mut, Elizabeth Ackermann, Gonzalo Figueiro, Monica Sans

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

The way that immigrants integrate to recipient societies has been discussed for decades, mainly from the perspective of the social sciences. Uruguay, as other American countries, received different waves of European immigrants, although the details of the process of assimilation, when occurred, are unclear. In this paper, we use genetic markers to understand the process experienced by the Basques, one of the major migration waves that populated Uruguay, and its relation to other immigrants as well as to Native American and African descendants. For this purpose, we analyze the allele frequencies of ten ALU loci (A25, ACE, APOA1, B65, F13B ...


Mitochondrial Dna Variability Among Six South-American Amerindian Villages From The Pano Linguistic Group, Celso T. Mendes-Junior, Aguinaldo L. Simoes Aug 2014

Mitochondrial Dna Variability Among Six South-American Amerindian Villages From The Pano Linguistic Group, Celso T. Mendes-Junior, Aguinaldo L. Simoes

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Although scattered throughout a large geographic area, the members of the Pano linguistic group present strong ethnic, linguistic and cultural homogeneity, a feature that causes them to be considered as components of a same “Pano” tribe. Nevertheless, the genetic homogeneity between Pano villages has not been examined before. To study the genetic structure of the Pano linguistic group, four major Native American mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) founder haplogroups were analyzed in 77 Amerindians from six villages of four Pano tribes (Katukina, Kaxináwa, Marúbo, and Yaminawa) located in the Brazilian Amazon. The central position of these tribes in the continent makes them ...


Phylogeography Of E1b1b1b-M81 Haplogroup And Analysis Of Its Subclades In Morocco, Ahmed Reguig, Nourdin Harich, Abdelhamid Barakat, Hassan Rouba Aug 2014

Phylogeography Of E1b1b1b-M81 Haplogroup And Analysis Of Its Subclades In Morocco, Ahmed Reguig, Nourdin Harich, Abdelhamid Barakat, Hassan Rouba

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

In this work, we have analyzed a total of 295 unrelated Berber-speaking men from the northern, center and southern of Morocco, in order to characterize frequency of E1b1b1b-M81 haplogroup and to refine the phylogeny of its subclades: E1b1b1b1-M107, E1b1b1b2-M183 and E1b1b1b2a-M165. For this purpose, we have typed four biallelic polymorphisms: M81, M107, M183 and M165. As results, a large majority of the Berber-speaking male lineages belong to the Y chromosomal E1b1b1b-M81 haplogroup. The frequency ranged from 79.1 to 98.5% in all localities sampled. Then, the E1b1b1b2-M183 was the most dominant subclade in our samples, which ranged from 65 ...


Human Paternal Lineages, Languages And Environment In The Caucasus, David Tarkhnishvili, Alexander Gavashelishvili, Marine Murtskhvaladze, Mariam Gabelaia, Gigi Tevzadze Aug 2014

Human Paternal Lineages, Languages And Environment In The Caucasus, David Tarkhnishvili, Alexander Gavashelishvili, Marine Murtskhvaladze, Mariam Gabelaia, Gigi Tevzadze

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Publications that describe the human Y-DNA haplogroup composition in different ethnic or linguistic groups and geographic regions provide no explicit explanation of the distribution of human paternal lineages in relation to specific ecological conditions. Our research attempts to address this topic for the Caucasus – a geographic region that encompasses a relatively small area but harbors high linguistic, ethnic, and Y-DNA haplogroup diversity. 224 men that identified themselves as ethnic Georgian were genotyped for Y-chromosome 23 STR markers and assigned to their geographic places of origin. The genotyped data were supplemented with the published data on the haplogroup composition and location ...


Human Diversity In Jordan: Polymorphic Alu Insertions In General Jordanian And Bedouin Groups, Daniela Zanetti, May Sadiq, Robert Carreras-Torres, Omar Khabour, Almuthanna Alkaraki, Esther Esteban, Marc Via, Pedro Moral Aug 2014

Human Diversity In Jordan: Polymorphic Alu Insertions In General Jordanian And Bedouin Groups, Daniela Zanetti, May Sadiq, Robert Carreras-Torres, Omar Khabour, Almuthanna Alkaraki, Esther Esteban, Marc Via, Pedro Moral

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Jordan, located in the Levant region, is a crucial area to investigate human migration between Africa and Eurasia. Even thought, the genetic history of Jordanians is far to be clarified including the origin of the Bedouins today resident in Jordan. Here, we provide new genetic data on autosomal independent markers in two Jordanian population samples (Bedouins and general population) in order to approach the genetic diversity inside this country and to give new information about the genetic position of these populations in the frame of the Mediterranean and Middle East area. The analyzed markers are 18 Alu polymorphic insertions characterized ...


Health Risks Caused By Wireless Technologies, Durreeshahwar Zafarahmed, Qurrat-Ul-Ain Zafarahmed Aug 2014

Health Risks Caused By Wireless Technologies, Durreeshahwar Zafarahmed, Qurrat-Ul-Ain Zafarahmed

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

There are many health issues related to the use of cellular phones, wireless local area networks, and other devices that emit electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Some of these systems have become a part of our daily lives and many of us are in direct or indirect contact for extended period of times with these devices. However, the general public is unaware of the health risks associated with the use of these devices. Our research covers studies done by individuals as well as organizations on the harmful effects on the health of people from these devices and their claims. We also present ...


Chromosome Counts For Packera Paupercula Variety Gypsophila, Chad Larson Aug 2014

Chromosome Counts For Packera Paupercula Variety Gypsophila, Chad Larson

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

New plant species develop when diploid plants (having two sets of chromosomes) spontaneously double their chromosomes and the resulting tetraploids (having four sets of chromosomes) are no longer able to back cross to diploid members of the population. The North American plant species Packera paupercula (balsam-leafed ragwort), is widespread and morphologically diverse. An isolated group of populations from the chalky soils of west-central Alabama was recently named Packera paupercula variety gypsophila (the chalk-loving balsam ragwort). The variety’s large diameter pollen grains suggest it may be tetraploid. This project attempts the first chromosome count for the variety by examining cells ...


Nisin Resistance Of Bacillus Cerus: Preparation Of Nisin, Peter Weber Aug 2014

Nisin Resistance Of Bacillus Cerus: Preparation Of Nisin, Peter Weber

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

Nisin is a peptide that is made by the bacterium Lactococcus lactis. Nisin is a small molecule that kills gram positive bacteria by binding to their membrane and by disrupting the proton motive force. When food is processed it is heated to kill bacteria, but some bacteria still survive. Adding nisin to the food provides a second barrier for the growth of the bacteria. Purified nisin has become quite expensive in the current marketplace. Therefore this study is directed at producing nisin and purifying it. L. lactis was grown in five different media (BHI, BHI + 1% glucose, BHI + 1% sucrose ...


The Innate Immune Response In Eisenia Fetida To Microbial Challenges, Aaron Schindler Aug 2014

The Innate Immune Response In Eisenia Fetida To Microbial Challenges, Aaron Schindler

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

The common earthworm, Eisenia fetida, exhibits a rudimentary immune system. The earthworm needs cellular and chemical responses against a constant microbial exposure from its natural environment. Some cellular and chemical responses are found in the coelomic fluid and have been shown to demonstrate anti-microbial characteristics. This project uses microscopy and modified staining techniques to differentiate and categorize the cellular components found in the coelomic fluid. Following a microbial challenge by Klebsiella pneumoniae, an inflammatory response was initiated. Six groups of earthworms were injected with 0.05 ml of 1.0 x 106 cfu /ml K. pneumoniae on day one and ...


Comparison Of Sequence Alignment Algorithms, Tejas Gandhi Aug 2014

Comparison Of Sequence Alignment Algorithms, Tejas Gandhi

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

The fact that biological sequences can be represented as strings belonging to a finite alphabet (A, C, G, and T for DNA) plays an important role in connecting biology to computer science. String representation allows researchers to apply various string comparison techniques available in computer science. As a result, various applications have been developed that facilitate the task of sequence alignment. The problem of finding sequence alignments consists of finding the best match between two biological sequences. A best match can infer an evolutionary relationship and functional similarity. However, there is a lack of research on how reliable and efficient ...


Jackson Lake Limnology, Wayne Wurtsbaugh Aug 2014

Jackson Lake Limnology, Wayne Wurtsbaugh

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

The limnology of Jackson Lake has been studied very little, despite the fact that it is the uppermost large lake on the headwaters of the Snake River, one of the larger rivers in the country (Hayden 1969). It is also an important fishery, largely for introduced lake trout. In 2014 we took our incoming graduate students to the Jackson Hole and one part of this introductory course focused on the limnology of the lake. Prior to the arrival of the students, a nutrient addition bioassay was initiated to demonstrate an experimental approach to understanding what nutrients might control production processes ...