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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Recent Decline Of Lowland Populations Of The Western Gray Squirrel In The Los Angeles Area Of Southern California, Daniel S. Cooper, Alan Muchlinski Jul 2105

Recent Decline Of Lowland Populations Of The Western Gray Squirrel In The Los Angeles Area Of Southern California, Daniel S. Cooper, Alan Muchlinski

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

We provide an overview of the distribution of lowland and otherwise isolated populations of the western gray squirrel (Sciurus griseus) in the Los Angeles area of southern California, an area that has experienced a recent and ongoing invasion by the non-native eastern fox squirrel (Sciurus niger), an urban-adapted species introduced a century ago. Away from its strongholds in the western Santa Monica Mountains, San Gabriel Mountains, and Santa Ana Mountains, the western gray squirrel is resident locally in both the Santa Susana and the Verdugo Mountains, in Griffith Park, in low hills at the eastern periphery of the San Gabriel ...


An Orange Fluorescent Protein Tagging System For Real-Time Pollen Tracking, J. Rice, R. Mundell, R. Millwood, O. Chambers, L. Abercrombie, H. Davies, C. Stewart Dec 2102

An Orange Fluorescent Protein Tagging System For Real-Time Pollen Tracking, J. Rice, R. Mundell, R. Millwood, O. Chambers, L. Abercrombie, H. Davies, C. Stewart

C. Neal Stewart Jr.

Background Monitoring gene flow could be important for future transgenic crops, such as those producing plant-made-pharmaceuticals (PMPs) in open field production. A Nicotiana hybrid (Nicotiana. tabacum × Nicotiana glauca) shows limited male fertility and could be used as a bioconfined PMP platform. Effective assessment of gene flow from these plants is augmented with methods that utilize fluorescent proteins for transgenic pollen identification. Results We report the generation of a pollen tagging system utilizing an orange fluorescent protein to monitor pollen flow and as a visual assessment of transgene zygosity of the parent plant. This system was created to generate a tagged ...


Effect Of External Energy On The Atomic, Crystalline, And Powder Characteristics Of Antimony And Bismuth Powders, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi Sep 2099

Effect Of External Energy On The Atomic, Crystalline, And Powder Characteristics Of Antimony And Bismuth Powders, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi

Mahendra Kumar Trivedi

Next to atoms and molecules the powders are the smallest state of matter available in high purities and large quantities. The effect of any external energy on the shape, morphology and structure can thus be studied with relative ease. The present investigation deals with the effect of a non-contact external energy on the powders of antimony and bismuth. The characteristics of powders treated by external energy are compared with the as received powders (control). The average particle sizes, d50 and d99, the sizes below which 99% of the particles are present showed significant increase and decrease indicating that the energy ...


The Manuscript Works Of S. Fred Prince (1857-1951), Sarah Burke Cahalan, Jason W. Dean Apr 2018

The Manuscript Works Of S. Fred Prince (1857-1951), Sarah Burke Cahalan, Jason W. Dean

Marian Library/IMRI Faculty Publications

S. Fred Prince, a botanical illustrator and amateur scientist, is a largely unknown artist whose work on the American landscape demonstrates his eligibility to be considered in the lineage of self-taught illustrator-naturalists such as Mark Catesby and Genevieve Jones. In this article, we present a survey of extant Prince materials identified at time of writing, describing their contents and physical characteristics. Beyond this survey and description, we also provide a biographical sketch and timeline of Prince's life.


Potential For Climate Induced Methane Hydrate Dissociation, Graham Macwilliams Jan 2018

Potential For Climate Induced Methane Hydrate Dissociation, Graham Macwilliams

Pomona Senior Theses

Methane hydrates are frozen deposits of methane and water found in high pressure or low temperature sediments. When these deposits destabilize, large quantities of methane can be emitted into the atmosphere. This is significant to climate change because methane has 25 times more greenhouse gas potential than Carbon Dioxide. Worldwide, it is estimated there are between 2500 and 10000 gigatons of methane stored in hydrate deposits. This represents more carbon than all fossil fuels on Earth. It is estimated that between 200 and 2000 gigatons of methane are stored in hydrates in Arctic waters acutely vulnerable to greenhouse warming. Over ...


Altering Oligomerization Of Epha2 Via Mutations In The Intracellular Domain, Ryan W. Lingerak Jan 2018

Altering Oligomerization Of Epha2 Via Mutations In The Intracellular Domain, Ryan W. Lingerak

Honors Research Projects

Eph receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are activated by membrane-bound ligands called ephrins. Eph RTKs are divided into two subclasses, each activated by a specific classes of the ligand ephrin. The overexpression of Eph receptors is correlated to cancer cell metastasis in several different types of cancers. Studies with the EphA2 extracellular domain (ECD) and ephrinA1 ligand have shown that upon binding of ephrin to the receptor, EphA2 undergoes increased oligomerization and activation. This indicates that oligomerization is intimately connected to kinase activity. High resolution crystal structures of the EphA2 ECD have revealed some details of these ligand bound oligomers, as ...


Superresolution Imaging Identifies That Conventional Trafficking Pathways Are Not Essential For Endoplasmic Reticulum To Outer Mitochondrial Membrane Protein Transport., Kyle Salka, Shivaprasad Bhuvanendran, Kassandra Wilson, Petros Bozidis, Mansi Mehta, Kristin Rainey, Hiromi Sesaki, George H Patterson, Jyoti K. Jaiswal, Anamaris M. Colberg-Poley Dec 2017

Superresolution Imaging Identifies That Conventional Trafficking Pathways Are Not Essential For Endoplasmic Reticulum To Outer Mitochondrial Membrane Protein Transport., Kyle Salka, Shivaprasad Bhuvanendran, Kassandra Wilson, Petros Bozidis, Mansi Mehta, Kristin Rainey, Hiromi Sesaki, George H Patterson, Jyoti K. Jaiswal, Anamaris M. Colberg-Poley

Integrative Systems Biology Faculty Publications

Most nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins traffic from the cytosol to mitochondria. Some of these proteins localize at mitochondria-associated membranes (MAM), where mitochondria are closely apposed with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We have previously shown that the human cytomegalovirus signal-anchored protein known as viral mitochondria-localized inhibitor of apoptosis (vMIA) traffics from the ER to mitochondria and clusters at the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM). Here, we have examined the host pathways by which vMIA traffics from the ER to mitochondria and clusters at the OMM. By disruption of phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein 2 (PACS-2), mitofusins (Mfn1/2), and dynamin related protein 1 ...


Tea Induction Of Cyp6a8 Promoter In Drosophila Melanogaster, Fiona Retzer Dec 2017

Tea Induction Of Cyp6a8 Promoter In Drosophila Melanogaster, Fiona Retzer

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Continuous Insulin Pump Therapy On Glycemic Control In Pregnant Type 1 Diabetics, Kimberly Kelsey Dec 2017

The Effects Of Continuous Insulin Pump Therapy On Glycemic Control In Pregnant Type 1 Diabetics, Kimberly Kelsey

Senior Theses and Capstone Projects

Type 1 Diabetics have various ways of managing their diabetes that have been studied for their effectiveness. Pregnancy in the Type 1 Diabetic has been understudied. It is known that Diabetics in general have poorer pregnancy outcomes because of poor glycemic control. This coupled with the fact that the body needs 3-4 times more insulin as pregnancy comes to an end makes managing blood glucose levels challenging for diabetics (Lowdermilk, 2016, p. 689). For the Type 1 Diabetic, there are two main ways to control diabetes: multiple daily injections using at least two type of insulin and continuous subcutaneous insulin ...


Characterisation Of Cold Plasma Treated Beef And Dairy Lipids Using Spectroscopic And Chromatographic Methods, Chaitanya Sarangapani, David Dorran, Julie Dunne, Paula Bourke, Patrick Cullen Nov 2017

Characterisation Of Cold Plasma Treated Beef And Dairy Lipids Using Spectroscopic And Chromatographic Methods, Chaitanya Sarangapani, David Dorran, Julie Dunne, Paula Bourke, Patrick Cullen

Articles

The efficacy of cold plasma for inactivation of food-borne pathogens in foods is established. However, insights on cold plasma-food interactions in terms of quality effects, particularly for oils and fats, are sparse. This study evaluated plasma-induced lipid oxidation of model matrices, namely dairy and meat fats. Product characterisation was performed using FTIR, 1H NMR and chromatographic techniques. The oxidation of lipids by cold plasma followed the Criegee mechanism and typical oxidation products identified included ozonides, aldehydes (hexanal, pentenal, nonanal and nonenal) and carboxylic acids (9-oxononanoic acid, octanoic acid, nonanoic acid), along with hydroperoxides (9- and 13-hydroperoxy-octadecadienoylglycerol species). However, these ...


Rethinking Urban Green Infrastructure As A Means To Promote Avian Conservation, Allen Lau Aug 2017

Rethinking Urban Green Infrastructure As A Means To Promote Avian Conservation, Allen Lau

Master's Projects and Capstones

There is an under-recognized potential for cities to use urban green infrastructure to contribute to avian biodiversity conservation. At the global scale, climate change and growing urbanization are primary global drivers leading to decline and homogenization in world bird populations. Birds are fundamental and intricate species in ecosystems, and even in urban areas, act as indicator and regulator species contributing to healthy ecosystem function. While many cities have recognized the economic and social benefits associated with green spaces, such as the vast benefits ecosystem services provide to the urban dweller, the use of green spaces to concurrently contribute to avian ...


Outcomes Of An Integrated Approach To Speed And Strength Training With An Elite-Level Sprinter, Eric D. Magrum Aug 2017

Outcomes Of An Integrated Approach To Speed And Strength Training With An Elite-Level Sprinter, Eric D. Magrum

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to observe changes in sprint velocity, ground contact time, and peak force demonstrated by a competitive sprinter following an integrated approach to speed development and strength training. As part of an ongoing monitoring procedure the participant completed 20m sprint testing through an optical measurement system and isometric-strength testing before and after each phase of training. Sprint velocity, ground contact time and peak force were analysed using Tau-U, smallest worthwhile and percent change statistics. Results indicate sprinting velocity statistically improved while changes in peak force were practically significant and ground contact time remained trivial throughout ...


Added Sugar Consumption Among College Students, Maram Murad Aug 2017

Added Sugar Consumption Among College Students, Maram Murad

Theses & Dissertations

Added sugar consumption has been increasing in all age groups in the United States and worldwide, with the greatest increase in young adults. College-age years are a critical period in the young adult's life where many habits develop, including nutrition and food choices. An understanding of college-age students’ attitudes and behaviors toward added sugar consumption might help predict added sugar consumption within this population. This was a quantitative study of traditional-aged college students' added sugar consumption through a convenience sample at a private university in San Antonio, TX. A survey was administrated to undergraduate students at different classes. Subjects ...


Ecology Of The Young-Of-The-Year Emerald Shiner (Notropis Atherinoides) In The Upper Niagara River, New York: Growth, Diversity, And Importance As A Forage Species, Jacob L. Cochran Aug 2017

Ecology Of The Young-Of-The-Year Emerald Shiner (Notropis Atherinoides) In The Upper Niagara River, New York: Growth, Diversity, And Importance As A Forage Species, Jacob L. Cochran

Great Lakes Center Masters Theses

The emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides) is a relatively understudied Cyprinid that fills a major keystone role in the Niagara River. Little is known about the emerald shiner’s early life history, such as the ecology of their larval and juvenile stages, which is the focus of this study. In the upper Niagara River, larvae first recruited into sampling gear in early July at a mean water temperature of 23oC, with larvae appearing into August. Young-of-the-year (YOY) emerald shiners grew an average of 1.5 mm and 31.5 mg a week throughout the growing season with condition peaking ...


Phylogenetic Signals In Detoxification Pathways In Cyprinid And Centrarchid Species In Relation To Sensitivity To Environmental Pollutants, Peter Van Den Hurk, Lindsay E. Gerzel, Peter Calomiris, Dennis C. Haney Jul 2017

Phylogenetic Signals In Detoxification Pathways In Cyprinid And Centrarchid Species In Relation To Sensitivity To Environmental Pollutants, Peter Van Den Hurk, Lindsay E. Gerzel, Peter Calomiris, Dennis C. Haney

Publications

Observations in a previous study on biomarker responses in fish collected from urban creeks in Greenville, SC, indicated that there might be considerable differences in the expression of biotransformation enzymes in chub and sunfish species. To further investigate these species differences a dosing experiment was performed in which bluehead and creek chub (Nocomis leptocephalus and Semotilus atromaculatus), and redbreast sunfish, pumpkinseed, and bluegill (Lepomis auritus, L. gibbosus, and L. macrochirus) were injected with benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) as a model compound for common pollutants in urban creeks. Fish were injected with BaP doses of 0, 25 and 50 mg/kg ...


Bridging Post-Wildfire Communication Gaps Between Managers, Researchers, And Local Communities, Including A Biological Soil Crust Case Study, Hilary Louise Whitcomb Jul 2017

Bridging Post-Wildfire Communication Gaps Between Managers, Researchers, And Local Communities, Including A Biological Soil Crust Case Study, Hilary Louise Whitcomb

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Following a wildfire, land management agencies act quickly to protect ecosystem services. We don't currently understand how post-wildfire managers make trade-off decisions in these tight timelines, or if these decisions reflect current science. Using Brunson’s (2014) social-ecological systems multi-scalar model, surveys assessed manager opinions about post-wildfire projects, perceptions of stakeholder opinions, and ability or willingness to consider new science results. Public surveys asked local citizens their opinions about post-wildfire projects. Manager perceptions were measured through semi-structured phone interviews (n = 8) and a structured online survey (n = 256). Public surveys were mailed to 1,000 (971 deliverable, n = 152 ...


Seasonal Development Of The Biological Control Agent Of Dalmatian Toadflax, Mecinus Janthiniformis (Curculionidae: Coleoptera), In Utah: Phenology, Overwintering Success, And Mortality, Samantha A. Willden Jul 2017

Seasonal Development Of The Biological Control Agent Of Dalmatian Toadflax, Mecinus Janthiniformis (Curculionidae: Coleoptera), In Utah: Phenology, Overwintering Success, And Mortality, Samantha A. Willden

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Invasive weeds are threatening ecosystem function and productivity all over the world by outcompeting desirable vegetation and reducing species diversity. One option for long-term control of such weeds is biological control using natural insect enemies. Such a program has been developed for management of Dalmatian toadflax (Linaria dalmatica (L.) Miller (Plantaginaceae)) in North America using a stem-mining weevil, Mecinus janthiniformis Toševski and Caldara (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Although widely effective in northern regions, such as in British Columbia and in the American northwest, this insect has been slow to suppress Dalmatian toadflax in southern most regions of their current range, including areas ...


The Role Of Utah Farmers In Farm To School Programming, John L. Hawley Jul 2017

The Role Of Utah Farmers In Farm To School Programming, John L. Hawley

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Many studies have observed the involvement of stakeholders in farm to school (FTS) programming to further understand their role, yet no study had previously assessed the role of Utah farmers in FTS programming. As a result, the purpose of this research was to describe Utah farmers' role in FTS programming and their interest in institutional marketing of local foods. The researcher sent an online descriptive survey to 5,470 farmers belonging to the Utah Farm Bureau. The survey used Dillman's Tailored Design Method. Of the 184 survey responses received, 143 surveys were usable.

The theory of planned behavior was ...


Maternal Diabetes, Related Biomarkers And Genes, And Risk Of Orofacial Clefts, Tiwaporn Maneerattanasuporn Jul 2017

Maternal Diabetes, Related Biomarkers And Genes, And Risk Of Orofacial Clefts, Tiwaporn Maneerattanasuporn

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Orofacial clefts (OFCs) are among the most common congenital birth defects and are characterized by incomplete development of the lip or the palate or both. The lip and palate develop separately at different times during the first trimester of pregnancy. The etiology of OFCs is multifactorial and includes a combination of genetic and environmental factors. This project aims to examine role of maternal diabetes mellitus in orofacial clefts through studies of medical histories, biomarkers, and genes.

In a study of Utah birth certificates, mothers with pre-existing diabetes and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) had an increased risk of OFCs, and obese ...


Whitetail Deer Carrying Capacity At A Georgia Barrier Island, R. Deffendall, A. Storie, C. W. Belin Jun 2017

Whitetail Deer Carrying Capacity At A Georgia Barrier Island, R. Deffendall, A. Storie, C. W. Belin

Georgia Journal of Science

Whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations of several islands along the Georgia coast have appeared to be in declining health for the past 10 years. Several explanations for this phenomenon have been proposed; however, several researchers have alluded to the over-population of the species. We calculated the carrying capacity of the Skidaway Island State Park (SISP), a portion of Skidaway Island located near the coastal City of Savannah. By determining the amount of biomass produced by several habitats located within the park, and knowing the hectares of these habitats, the total amount of biomass was calculated. Using the caloric requirements of ...


Hematocrit And Hemoglobin Determination In The Mangrove Killifish, Kryptolebias Marmoratus, Nathan B. Shiver, Theresa Grove Jun 2017

Hematocrit And Hemoglobin Determination In The Mangrove Killifish, Kryptolebias Marmoratus, Nathan B. Shiver, Theresa Grove

Georgia Journal of Science

Hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, and mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were determined in the mangrove killifish, Kryptolebias marmoratus, a tropical fish that can undergo emersion for >1 month when they leave the waters of mangrove forests and find refuge in moist, terrestrial habitats. Hematocrit was 27.67% ± 1.22 (mean ± s.e.m.), hemoglobin concentration was 7.41 ± 0.52 g/dL, and MCHC was 26.47 ± 0.93 g/dL. A linear relationship was present between hematocrit and hemoglobin in K. marmoratus (R2 = 0.833; P < 0.001) . A significant correlation between collected blood volume and standard length was present (P = 0.001). Limitations of the assays used to measure hemoglobin and hematocrit in this small fish species are discussed. Hematocrit and hemoglobin concentrations are within ranges determined for other air-breathing fishes and show the feasibility of measuring hematological parameters in this small fish during emersion.


Golden Mouse (Ochrotomys Nuttalli) And White-Footed Mouse (Peromyscus Leucopus) Dietary Resource Partitioning Under Experimental Field Conditions, Alexander D. Wright, Gary W. Barrett Jun 2017

Golden Mouse (Ochrotomys Nuttalli) And White-Footed Mouse (Peromyscus Leucopus) Dietary Resource Partitioning Under Experimental Field Conditions, Alexander D. Wright, Gary W. Barrett

Georgia Journal of Science

Ochrotomys nuttalli and Peromyscus leucopus are two small-mammal species that have similar life histories. This results in a relationship with a high degree of sociality between the two species, including extreme niche overlap. We investigated differences in diet preference and daily caloric intake under experimental field conditions in order to clarify this close relationship. Diets were based on reported food preferences in their natural environment. Five food resources were provided to 20 adult individuals (10 male, 10 female) of each species for three consecutive days. Individuals were contained in separate covered mesocosm tanks located in a riparian forest ecosystem. White-footed ...


A Redescription Of The First Instar Of Rhantus Calidus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) With Notes On Its Biology, B. R. Lemieux, E. H. Barman, B. P. White Jun 2017

A Redescription Of The First Instar Of Rhantus Calidus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) With Notes On Its Biology, B. R. Lemieux, E. H. Barman, B. P. White

Georgia Journal of Science

First instars of Rhantus calidus (Fabricius) representing a Georgia population are described and illustrated. Dimensions are provided along with an analysis of the primary chaetotaxy of legs, head, and last abdominal segment. The presence of first instars at the study site demonstrated that R. calidus either requires or is at least tolerant of warmer temperatures for completion of its life cycle. Habitats with temperatures comparable to this site were likely present in a warm Atlantic coastal enclave during the last glacial maximum (LGM), making it probable that the LGM dytiscid fauna of Georgia included R. calidus.


The Regulatory Reform Recommendations Of The National Performance Review, Jeffrey S. Lubbers Jun 2017

The Regulatory Reform Recommendations Of The National Performance Review, Jeffrey S. Lubbers

Jeffrey Lubbers

Of ten recommendations Mr. Lubbers discusses, several were of particular interest. These include encouraging consensus-based rule making and ADR in enforcement, as well as ranking risks and improving regulatory science.


The Specific Surface Area Values For Iowa Tills, Keith E. Schilling, Brian L. Gedlinske Jun 2017

The Specific Surface Area Values For Iowa Tills, Keith E. Schilling, Brian L. Gedlinske

Brian Gedlinske

Specific surface area is a property used by earth scientists to estimate the proportion of expandable clay minerals in soils. In this study, specific surface area method is shown to compare favorably with standard clay mineralogical techniques in determining gross differences in expandable clay mineral content in tills. The results of over 100 measurements on till samples from Iowa indicate undifferentiated pre-Illinoian tills from southern and southwestern Iowa have the highest specific surface area values of Iowa tills (ranging from nearly 100 to greater than 150 m2/g) and Wisconsinan Dows Formation tills have the lowest average specific surface ...


Location And Efficiency Of The Iowa Feed-Manufacturing Industry, Allan A. Warrack, Lehman B. Fletcher Jun 2017

Location And Efficiency Of The Iowa Feed-Manufacturing Industry, Allan A. Warrack, Lehman B. Fletcher

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The American commercial mixed-feeds industry has experienced rapid growth, especially since World War II. Changes have occurred in the product produced, in the number, size, location, and technology of plants, and in the number, size, and organization of the purchasers of the industry’s products. The purpose of this study was to develop and use an analytical procedure to solve for the efficient number, size, and location of plants in the Iowa feed-manufacturing industry. Such information should assist the industry in adjusting to rapidly changing demand and technology.

The problematical situation out of which the specific objectives emerge is to ...


Plant Availability Of Added Phosphorus In Different Iowa Soils, Oetit Koswara, John J. Hanway Jun 2017

Plant Availability Of Added Phosphorus In Different Iowa Soils, Oetit Koswara, John J. Hanway

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted to study the availability of fertilizer P in 20 samples of different soils representing 10 of the principal soil associations in Iowa.

Ryegrass plants recovered an average of approximately 50 percent of the added fertilizer P during a 385-day cropping period in the greenhouse. It appeared that continued cropping would have resulted in very little additional recovery of the added P. Differences in recovery of the added P from the different soils were relatively small, despite differences in rate of fertilizer addition or differences in soil pH, CaCO3 content, level of available soil ...


Potential Agricultural Production And Resource Use In Iowa, Jerry A. Sharples, Earl O. Heady, Mahmoud M. Sherif Jun 2017

Potential Agricultural Production And Resource Use In Iowa, Jerry A. Sharples, Earl O. Heady, Mahmoud M. Sherif

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The purpose of this study is to estimate the production or supply potential of Iowa agriculture and is part of a regional study designed for this purpose. Two levels of efficiency are examined in the Iowa study, average technical efficiency and advanced technical efficiency. The pattern of output, resources used, and levels of farm income are analyzed under both conditions. This summary, however, refers only to the conditions of advanced technical efficiency.

A representative farm-aggregation model was used in a linear-programming analysis of resource allocation and potential production. Thirty-one Iowa farms (representative of all the commercial crop and livestock farms ...


Projected State And Regional Resource Requirements For Agriculture In The United States In 1980, Leo V. Mayer Jun 2017

Projected State And Regional Resource Requirements For Agriculture In The United States In 1980, Leo V. Mayer

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

This study projects resource requirements for United States agriculture under alternative farm programs and various levels of export demand in 1980. Cropland, man-hours of labor, and capital required to produce each level of output are projected for a farm economy ranging from a free market with no controls on crop production to strict controls on all major crops through acreage quotas. Resource requirements are estimated by first allocating crop production among the various regions o f the United States in a manner to minimize total costs of producing and transporting grain and oilseed crops to the final point of consumption ...


Allocation Of Milk Among Products To Maximize Gross Income Of The Nation's Dairy Farmers Under 1964 Demand Functions, George W. Ladd, Gail E. Updegraff Jun 2017

Allocation Of Milk Among Products To Maximize Gross Income Of The Nation's Dairy Farmers Under 1964 Demand Functions, George W. Ladd, Gail E. Updegraff

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Linear equations of farm level demand were obtained for milk used in six different products. These demand equations were used in several quadratic-programming analyses to determine levels of farm marketings of milk and cream or allocation among products that would have maximized farmers’ cash receipts from marketings of milk and cream in 1964. Each analysis computed farm and retail prices for milk used in various products, quantity used in each product and total cash receipts. In one quadratic program, the solution was unconstrained; i.e., no upper limit was imposed on prices, and no lower limit was imposed on quantities ...