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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Effect Of External Energy On The Atomic, Crystalline, And Powder Characteristics Of Antimony And Bismuth Powders, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi Sep 2099

Effect Of External Energy On The Atomic, Crystalline, And Powder Characteristics Of Antimony And Bismuth Powders, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi

Mahendra Kumar Trivedi

Next to atoms and molecules the powders are the smallest state of matter available in high purities and large quantities. The effect of any external energy on the shape, morphology and structure can thus be studied with relative ease. The present investigation deals with the effect of a non-contact external energy on the powders of antimony and bismuth. The characteristics of powders treated by external energy are compared with the as received powders (control). The average particle sizes, d50 and d99, the sizes below which 99% of the particles are present showed significant increase and decrease indicating that the energy …


The Reveal: A Technical Study And Conservation Treatment Of An Overpaint Portrait, Camille Ferrer Sep 2024

The Reveal: A Technical Study And Conservation Treatment Of An Overpaint Portrait, Camille Ferrer

Art Conservation Master's Projects

A severely damaged 19th-century oil painting depicting a portrait of a woman was treated at Patricia H. and E. Garman Art Conservation Department. A typed letter provided by the owner mentioned that it has been previously restored yet returned with unsatisfactory results. After further examination, the painting appeared to have been previously treated multiple times by different people. There was overpaint distinctly present on the face and later discovered to be present overall. The full state of condition of the painting was initially unknown due to the sum of the surface being overpainted. However, there were evidence of paint loss …


Oil Identification Of Harp Seal And Other Select Marine Mammals, Meghan Pinedo, Deborah A. Duffield, Dalin N. D’Alessandro, Erin R. Price, Edgard O. Espinoza Jun 2024

Oil Identification Of Harp Seal And Other Select Marine Mammals, Meghan Pinedo, Deborah A. Duffield, Dalin N. D’Alessandro, Erin R. Price, Edgard O. Espinoza

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Because of the rich omega-3 fatty acids content, harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) oil is a popular supplement that is packaged as pills in Canada and sold for medicinal purposes, although this practice is banned in the United States. Due to US regulations, it is important to be able to distinguish between fish oil and seal oil, but the taxonomic determination of oils provenance has been a difficult problem to solve. In this study, Direct Analysis in Real Time time-of-flight mass spectrometry (DART TOFMS) was used to analyze the chemotypes of blubber samples collected from seven species of …


Optimization Of Tyrosine Hydroxylase Antibody For Immunohistochemistry Fluorescence Detection In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Madison Thurber May 2024

Optimization Of Tyrosine Hydroxylase Antibody For Immunohistochemistry Fluorescence Detection In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Madison Thurber

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

Dopamine is an important neurotransmitter produced through the catecholamine synthesis pathway that affects brain activity. Unregulated dopamine levels can lead to various diseases such as Parkinson’s Disease or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Optimization of an immunohistochemistry protocol will allow for the quantification of tyrosine hydroxylase antibody, which indirectly allows for dopamine quantification in dopaminergic regions within the brain. However, the antibody concentration to give the optimal signal-to-noise ratio in IHC varies across studies. Through this experiment, I determined the concentration of tyrosine hydroxylase (TyrH) antibody for immunohistochemistry that gave the best signal-to-background noise ratio within several known dopaminergic regions …


Addressing Athletes Coexisting Conditions Of Autism And Depression: Participants Self-Report Decreased Feelings Of Depression Post Exercise, Joshua Sutton, Saundra Shillingstad, Jessica Baldwin May 2024

Addressing Athletes Coexisting Conditions Of Autism And Depression: Participants Self-Report Decreased Feelings Of Depression Post Exercise, Joshua Sutton, Saundra Shillingstad, Jessica Baldwin

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

The goal of this study was to evaluate if exercise would decrease depressive symptoms of participants who reported having coexisting conditions of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and depression. Research has reported that autistic people have increased rates of depression, in comparison to general populations (Unruh et al., 2020). The purpose of this research was to evaluate if exercise would decrease depressive symptoms of the Unified Fitness athlete participants who self-identified as having depressive symptoms and ASD. This research was conducted during the Fall 2023 semester as an extension of the class Kinesiology Practicum, using the University of Nebraska Omaha (UNO) …


The Future Of The Organization Of The Petroleum Exporting Countries, Mikayla Gross May 2024

The Future Of The Organization Of The Petroleum Exporting Countries, Mikayla Gross

Honors Theses

The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is a multinational and intergovernmental organization that dictates the petroleum exportation policies of 13 countries: Algeria, Angola, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, the Republic of the Congo, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Venezuela (About Us, 2023). The mission of OPEC is to ensure a stable supply of petroleum through its shared policies for its Member Countries and consumers (Our Mission, 2023). Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela founded OPEC in 1960 under the foundations and principles that dictated the international world order. Those foundations and principles …


The Role Of Extracellular Vesicles In Immunomodulation During Bovine Pregnancy, Amber E. Thornton May 2024

The Role Of Extracellular Vesicles In Immunomodulation During Bovine Pregnancy, Amber E. Thornton

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Fall 2023 to Present

During pregnancy, the maternal immune system must be altered to protect the partially non-self fetus from attack. Our previous studies show an inflammatory response in the uterus of cows carrying somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), commonly known as cloned, pregnancies due to abnormalities in proteins expressed by placental trophoblast cells. Between 30 and 90 days the rate of pregnancy loss is 50-100% for SCNT compared to 2-10% for artificial insemination (AI) pregnancies. Abnormal communication between the maternal and fetal systems during placentation is a major cause of this loss. The trafficking of extracellular vesicles (EVs), membrane-bound cargo carriers, potentially represents …


Ncaa Di Student-Athletes’ Understanding Of And Attitudes Toward Mental Performance Services, Allison Rudisill May 2024

Ncaa Di Student-Athletes’ Understanding Of And Attitudes Toward Mental Performance Services, Allison Rudisill

Honors Theses

Mental performance services are designed to assist student-athletes with psychological challenges affiliated with performance (McHenry et al., 2022). Currently, only 65 NCAA DI athletic institutions employ a psychological provider, with only 23.2% of those being mental performance consultants (MPCs; Jones et al., 2022). As student athletes are aware of the mental demand of sport (Bemiller & Wrisberg, 2011) and the NCAA begins to bring awareness to the importance of the mental well-being of the athlete (NCAA Transformational Committee, 2023), it is important to understand student athletes’ attitudes toward these services. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to learn about …


Utilizing Biomimicry To Design Sustainable Architecture, Virginia Hammond May 2024

Utilizing Biomimicry To Design Sustainable Architecture, Virginia Hammond

Architecture Undergraduate Honors Theses

Nature has an integral relationship with architecture and serves as a sustainable role model and inspiration for designers. The process of biomimicry in architecture has the potential to produce more sustainable design solutions and foster a connection between humans and nature. Existing biomimetic design projects have varying strengths and weaknesses as examples of the process. Utilizing guidelines and references from key leaders in biomimetic design consultancy (Biomimicry 3.8), selected case studies are assessed for their ability to demonstrate the benefits of this design strategy. Using these evaluations, the case studies are diagrammed and critiqued to determine how new projects could …


Assessing Impact Of Food Structure On Oral Tribology And In-Vitro Digestion Of Dairy Products, Lamis Ali May 2024

Assessing Impact Of Food Structure On Oral Tribology And In-Vitro Digestion Of Dairy Products, Lamis Ali

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Fall 2023 to Present

In this research, we focused on understanding the critical elements impacting consumer experience and the nutritional value of dairy products, specifically their texture, mouthfeel, and protein breakdown in the gastrointestinal tract. Our study aimed to accomplish two main goals. First, we performed analysis of the tribological attributes of various commercially dairy products. The second objective was to investigate the process of disintegration and protein release in selected dairy products.

The study included an assessment of eight dairy products of varied consistencies: solid like cheddar, cheese curd, and parmesan; semi-solid such as cottage cheese, ricotta cheese, and yogurt; and liquid represented …


Characterizing The Role Of Pa5189 Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa In Deletion And Overexpression Mutants, Seh Na Mellick May 2024

Characterizing The Role Of Pa5189 Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa In Deletion And Overexpression Mutants, Seh Na Mellick

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

In the context of rising multidrug resistance in biofilm-forming pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa, this study investigates the role of the understudied transcription factor PA5189 in antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation. PA5189 deletion and overexpression mutants were created in a parent P. aeruginosa strain using pEX18Tc-based recombinant suicide vectors, with genotypic verification of putative triparental conjugants achieved through restriction digestion and PCR. The study revealed that PA5189 overexpression significantly increases resistance to commonly used broad spectrum antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin and imipenem. Additionally, differential expression of PA5189 was found to notably affect biofilm formation, with variations contingent on the nutrient …


The Impact Of Differing Instability Devices On Postural Sway Parameters, Kacey Wallace May 2024

The Impact Of Differing Instability Devices On Postural Sway Parameters, Kacey Wallace

Honors Theses

Single-limb balance training is an integral part of preventing and rehabilitating lower extremity injuries. Practitioners use instability devices to provide a progressive overload to an individual during single-limb balance training sessions. Previous investigations have shown that when using instability devices, differences may or may not exist in postural sway parameters during use depending on the specific devices being assessed. Thus, this investigation sought to examine differences between a commonly used foam pad and a novel instability device (block) in measures of postural sway.

This experiment consisted of 22 healthy individuals with no history of lower extremity injury and neurological disorders. …


Comparison Of Private And Public Lab Fertilizer Recommendation Impacts On Field Crop Production And Soil Test Results, Megan Baker May 2024

Comparison Of Private And Public Lab Fertilizer Recommendation Impacts On Field Crop Production And Soil Test Results, Megan Baker

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Fall 2023 to Present

There are many sources that farmers utilize to determine fertilizer needs for crops such as private and public labs, crop advisors, and fertilizer dealers. In many cases, these sources provide recommendations for a specific crop that can vary greatly, which can lead to large differences in cost. An experiment was established in 2021 with 12 sites across the state of Utah in alfalfa, small grains, and corn to test and compare fertilizer recommendations from five labs. The recommendations tested were from two public labs (Utah State University and the University of Idaho) and three commercial labs located in the Western …


Supporting Text And Data Analysis Across Campus From The Academic Library, Amy Kirchhoff, Hejin Shin Dr. Apr 2024

Supporting Text And Data Analysis Across Campus From The Academic Library, Amy Kirchhoff, Hejin Shin Dr.

Digital Initiatives Symposium

The ability to comprehend and communicate with text-based data is essential to future success in academics and employment, as evidenced in a recent survey from Bloomberg Research Services which shows that nearly 97% of survey respondents now use data analytics in their companies and 58% consider data and text mining a business analytics tool (https://www.sas.com/content/dam/SAS/bp_de/doc/studie/ba-st-the-current-state-of-business-analytics-2317022.pdf). This has fueled a substantial growth in text analysis research (involving the use of technology to analyze un- and semi-structured text data for valuable insights, trends, and patterns) across disciplines and a corresponding demand on academic libraries to support text analysis pedagogy and text analysis …


Non-Native Rhizophora Mangle As Sinks For Coastal Contamination On Moloka’I, Hawai’I, Geoffrey Szafranski, Elise F. Granek, Michelle L. Hladik, Mia Hackett Apr 2024

Non-Native Rhizophora Mangle As Sinks For Coastal Contamination On Moloka’I, Hawai’I, Geoffrey Szafranski, Elise F. Granek, Michelle L. Hladik, Mia Hackett

Environmental Science and Management Faculty Publications and Presentations

Coastal mangrove forests provide a suite of environmental services, including sequestration of anthropogenic contamination. Yet, research lags on the environmental fate and potential human health risks of mangrove-sequestered contaminants in the context of mangrove removal for development and range shifts due to climate change. To address this, we conducted a study on Moloka'i, Hawai'i, comparing microplastic and pesticide contamination in coastal compartments both at areas modified by non-native red mangroves (Rhizophora mangle) and unmodified, open coastline. Sediment, porewater, and mangrove plant tissues were collected to quantify microplastic and pesticide concentrations across ecosystem type. Average microplastics were similar between …


Reliability Of Popliteal Artery Flow-Mediated Dilation In The Seated Position, Taskina Akhter Apr 2024

Reliability Of Popliteal Artery Flow-Mediated Dilation In The Seated Position, Taskina Akhter

Rehabilitation Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is a noninvasive measurement of endothelial function, which is a useful prognostic tool for cardiovascular disease risk. Despite its widespread use since 1992, the reproducibility of FMD varies widely between studies. This variability in reproducibility is especially significant in the case of the popliteal artery due to different methodological approaches. Studies perform popliteal FMD in various body positions, with the prone and seated positions most common. However, no studies have examined the reproducibility of both the seated and prone positions of the popliteal artery FMD. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the test-retest and …


Simultaneous Extraction And Quantitative Analysis Of S-Methyl-L-Cysteine Sulfoxide, Sulforaphane And Glucosinolates In Cruciferous Vegetables By Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry, Armaghan Shafaei, Caroline R. Hill, Jonathan M. Hodgson, Lauren C. Blekkenhorst, Mary C. Boyce Mar 2024

Simultaneous Extraction And Quantitative Analysis Of S-Methyl-L-Cysteine Sulfoxide, Sulforaphane And Glucosinolates In Cruciferous Vegetables By Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry, Armaghan Shafaei, Caroline R. Hill, Jonathan M. Hodgson, Lauren C. Blekkenhorst, Mary C. Boyce

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Sulfur containing compounds including glucosinolates (GLS), sulforaphane (SFN) and S-methyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (SMCSO) have been proposed to be partly responsible for the beneficial health effects of cruciferous vegetables. As such, greater understanding of their measurements within foods is important to estimate intake in humans and to inform dietary intervention studies. Herein is described a simple and sensitive method for simultaneous analysis of 20 GLS, SFN and SMCSO by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Analytes were effectively retained and resolved on an Xbridge C18 column. Detection can be achieved using high resolution or unit resolution mass spectrometry; the latter making the method more …


Investigating The Mechanisms Of Surface Sensing Using Motility Appendages By Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Pa14, Christopher James Geiger Mar 2024

Investigating The Mechanisms Of Surface Sensing Using Motility Appendages By Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Pa14, Christopher James Geiger

Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations

Biofilms are surfaced attached communities of cells encased in an extracellular matrix. The transition from free-swimming planktonic cells to a surface attached biofilm begins with cellular changes that occur after surface contact. This process is known as "surface sensing" and the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 uses its two motility appendages, type IV pili (T4P) and a single, polar flagellum to sense and traverse surfaces. The first cellular changes to occur within this organism upon surface contact is an increase in the second messengers cAMP and cdi- GMP. While the genes involved in surface sensing by P. aeruginosa are known, …


Applicability Of Using Bio-Receptive Concrete For Building Facades In Egypt, Gina Roupheil Feb 2024

Applicability Of Using Bio-Receptive Concrete For Building Facades In Egypt, Gina Roupheil

Theses and Dissertations

The significant increase in carbon dioxide emissions caused by the construction industry is detrimental to our planet. This is rapidly increasing with the urbanization of cities that is gradually taking its toll on the available green spaces, which help in balancing such emissions. Recently, researchers have been trying to make use of bio-receptivity to create biomaterial systems that could be spread on building envelopes and support the growth of small plant species and microorganisms to establish on. Out of those materials, comes the concrete as a promising material for bio-colonization.

Within this context, this study aims at investigating the applicability …


Integrative Genomic Insights Into Coral Resilience: Adaptive And Acclimatory Responses To Seasonal Environmental Shifts, Tasnim Ghanim Feb 2024

Integrative Genomic Insights Into Coral Resilience: Adaptive And Acclimatory Responses To Seasonal Environmental Shifts, Tasnim Ghanim

Theses and Dissertations

Coral reefs, critical to marine biodiversity and coastal protection, face escalating threats from climate change-related phenomena such as ocean warming. This warming is leading to widespread thermal stress that contributes to coral bleaching and infectious disease in corals, leading to the disruption of marine ecosystems and the economies that depend on them. Focusing on the brain coral Platygyra daedalea, known for its thermal resilience in the Persian Arabian Gulf—a region that exemplifies the extreme stressors of climate change—our study aims to dissect the genetic, transcriptomic, and microbiological underpinnings of coral survival in high-temperature environments predicted for the end of …


Biological Stimulants Increase Fertilizer Efficiency And Pasture Legume Content, P. R. Espie, S. Haswell, A. Barton Feb 2024

Biological Stimulants Increase Fertilizer Efficiency And Pasture Legume Content, P. R. Espie, S. Haswell, A. Barton

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

The effects of a soil biological stimulant (SS) and biologically activated reactive phosphate rock (BAP) on pasture yield and botanical composition were examined in a field trial in low-fertility New Zealand rangeland. BAP application significantly increased pasture yield by 60% and BAP plus biostimulant increased yield by 120%. BAP significantly increased resident legume cover by 75% and BAP with biostimulants by 85%. Alfalfa, direct drilled as an indicator test species, increased in establishment from 0 to 3.8 plants m-2 with BAP and to 4.2 plants m-2 with BAP plus biostimulant. Biostimulant applied alone increased yield by 17%, legume cover by …


Uf-Accelerate To Industry (A2i): Bringing Industry Into Academia, J. A. Estrada Feb 2024

Uf-Accelerate To Industry (A2i): Bringing Industry Into Academia, J. A. Estrada

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

University stakeholders are targeting candidates with competency in a wide range of professional skills, including team building and leadership, multi-modal communication, intercultural awareness, emotional intelligence, and mental flexibility. We developed UF-Accelerate to Industry (A2i) to deliver these skills to our graduate students and better prepare them to enter a competitive, rapidly evolving workforce. UF-A2i is delivered as day-long “immersion” events, consisting of presentations, panel discussions, skills workshops, and group projects. All activities are led by industry sponsors or career preparation specialists and are focused on building industry-identified skills that will give attendees a competitive edge in the job market. Since …


The Use Of Livestock Gps Trackers To Determine The Grazing Patterns Of Herded And Free Ranging Cattle In The Communal Rangelands Of The Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, A. Finca, T. C. Zondani, J. T. Tjelele, M. P. Mavuso Feb 2024

The Use Of Livestock Gps Trackers To Determine The Grazing Patterns Of Herded And Free Ranging Cattle In The Communal Rangelands Of The Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, A. Finca, T. C. Zondani, J. T. Tjelele, M. P. Mavuso

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

This study was set in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa which is predominantly rural and where livelihood sustainability is largely dependent on agricultural outputs including livestock production. Land in many of the rural, former homeland areas is held under communal land tenure which means access, utilisation and management is on a collective basis. A number of grazing strategies have been applied over the last hundred years including camp rotational grazing system. However, due to a number of factors including the absence of the communal rangeland and camp boundary fence, most villages do not have a rangeland management strategy …


Preparing Grasslands Scientists For Careers In International Agriculture, M. Eilittä Feb 2024

Preparing Grasslands Scientists For Careers In International Agriculture, M. Eilittä

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Livelihoods of a billion poor people depend on grasslands. Dedicated and trained experts are needed to support grasslands’ sustainable development under increasing pressures in the future. For some grasslands scientists, a career in international agriculture is the principal focus from the start of their education. For others, interest in international agriculture emerges during their careers. All require international opportunities to ensure that their efforts are focused on important priorities, that they understand the environment they work in, and that their professional networks are up to date. This paper reflects on ways for grassland scientists to be engaged in international agriculture …


How ‘Pasture For Life (Championing 100% Pasture-Fed Ruminant Products) Has Taken Off In The Uk – From The Bottom Up!, S. J. Gregson Feb 2024

How ‘Pasture For Life (Championing 100% Pasture-Fed Ruminant Products) Has Taken Off In The Uk – From The Bottom Up!, S. J. Gregson

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Ten years ago Pasture for Life (PfL) was a collection of around 50 UK farmers who were producing high quality ruminant food products wholly from pasture. They were regenerative farming pioneers and PfL was run by volunteers and funded through various grants. In the past two to three years, membership has increased significantly, nearing 1,000 with almost 150 certified Pasture for Life (100% grass-fed). The organisation is now run by a paid executive and is bursting with energy, conversation, and learning. Members are mainly farmers, but also include butchers, chefs, vets, academics and consumers – all keen to champion the …


Rotational Stocking With Virtual Fences: Effects On Grassland Diet Digestibility, Livestock Performance And Stress Levels Of Heifers, N. A. Grinnell, D. Hamidi, M. Komainda, F. Reisch, J. Horn, I. Traulsen, R. Palme, J. Isselstein Feb 2024

Rotational Stocking With Virtual Fences: Effects On Grassland Diet Digestibility, Livestock Performance And Stress Levels Of Heifers, N. A. Grinnell, D. Hamidi, M. Komainda, F. Reisch, J. Horn, I. Traulsen, R. Palme, J. Isselstein

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Virtual fencing is an innovative technology for simplified, less laborious dynamic grazing management and remote animal monitoring. The effect of this novel technology on animal welfare is still a matter of debate. Previous research suggests no differences in stress experience responses of cattle between the two fencing systems on continuously stocked pastures. This study investigated differences in diet organic matter digestibility, livestock performance and fecal cortisol metabolite concentrations of heifers on pastures in a rotational grazing system, fenced with a virtual fence (Nofence, Batnfjordsøra Norway) compared to heifers fenced with a traditional electric wire fence. The study was conducted in …


Bull Value Cow-Q-Lator (Bvcql): What It Is And How To Use It, Matt Stockton, Shannon Sand, Randy Saner Feb 2024

Bull Value Cow-Q-Lator (Bvcql): What It Is And How To Use It, Matt Stockton, Shannon Sand, Randy Saner

Center for Agricultural Profitability

It’s that time of year when commercial ranchers and cattle producers are looking to make bull purchases for their operation. With so many different breeds and types of bulls available, picking the right bull at the right price is not easy. To help in making the best selection possible the University of Nebraska-Lincoln Beef Economics Team created the Bull Value Cow-Q-Lator (BVCQL). This tool can be used to compare your current bull value with up to 10 bulls. The Bull Value Cow-Q-Lator is a spreadsheet available to download at https://cap.unl.edu/livestock/tools.

Each ranch or farm is going to have different …


Biology Department Publications: 2023, Sam Lindgren Feb 2024

Biology Department Publications: 2023, Sam Lindgren

Biology Department Bibliographies

This document is a non-comprehensive list of publications made by graduate students, post-doctoral researchers, and faculty members in the Biology Department in 2023. It indexes those publications available through PubMed and Scopus, and serves as an archival record of the Department’s robust scholarly contributions.


Soil Health Class-2: Soil Ph, Jiyul Chang, Becki Ritter, Dean Feller, Madhav P. Nepal Feb 2024

Soil Health Class-2: Soil Ph, Jiyul Chang, Becki Ritter, Dean Feller, Madhav P. Nepal

iLEARN Teaching Resources

No abstract provided.


Commercially Available Products In Increase Soil Water-Holding Capacity, Shital Poudyal, Jake Powell, Rowe Zwahlen, Grant Cardon Feb 2024

Commercially Available Products In Increase Soil Water-Holding Capacity, Shital Poudyal, Jake Powell, Rowe Zwahlen, Grant Cardon

All Current Publications

Although adding organic matter is traditionally the most effective way to enhance soil water-holding capacity, several commercial products in the market also have the potential to increase soil water-holding capacity. In this fact sheet, we discuss the properties and characteristics of those commercially available products and recommended application rates. We also explore some limitations of using these products.