Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Discipline
Institution
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 76899

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Phytochemical Analysis And Biological Activities Of Cola Nitida Bark, Durand Dah-Nouvlessounon, Laboratoire Baebib, Ufr-Svt, University Of Ouagadougou, Mamoudou H. Dicko Prof., Lamine Baba-Moussa Jan 2031

Phytochemical Analysis And Biological Activities Of Cola Nitida Bark, Durand Dah-Nouvlessounon, Laboratoire Baebib, Ufr-Svt, University Of Ouagadougou, Mamoudou H. Dicko Prof., Lamine Baba-Moussa

Pr. Mamoudou H. DICKO, PhD

The aim of this study is to investigate some biological effects of Cola nitida’s bark after phytochemical screening. The bark was collected, dried, and then powdered for the phytochemical screening and extractions. Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of C. nitida were used in this study. The antibacterial activity was tested on ten reference strains and 28 meat isolated Staphylococcus strains by disc diffusionmethod. The antifungal activity of three fungal strains was determined on the Potato-Dextrose Agar medium mixed with the appropriate extract. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS methods. Our data revealed the presence of various ...


Investigating Genetic Differences Between Strains Of Janthinobacterium Lividum On Salamanders And In Their Environment, Rhiannon E. Black Aug 2016

Investigating Genetic Differences Between Strains Of Janthinobacterium Lividum On Salamanders And In Their Environment, Rhiannon E. Black

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Iowa State Research Farm Reports Available To Public, Mark S. Honeyman Dec 2015

Iowa State Research Farm Reports Available To Public, Mark S. Honeyman

Integrated Crop Management News

There are fourteen Iowa State University Research and Demonstration Farms in Iowa; nine owned by associations (local farmers) and five owned by the university. One responsibility of Iowa State to the associations is to provide an annual farm progress report on the agricultural research and related scientific agriculture activities conducted at the farm as a year-end summary. Those reports, that were made available in the past to the members and others in print form, are now available online to the public athttp://fpr.extension.iastate.edu/ in a new format.


Certified Crop Adviser Exam Review Course Offered By Isu Extension, Brent A. Pringnitz Dec 2015

Certified Crop Adviser Exam Review Course Offered By Isu Extension, Brent A. Pringnitz

Integrated Crop Management News

Individuals planning to become a Certified Crop Adviser (CCA) can attend a two-day ISU Extension course to assist with exam preparation. ISU extension specialists will cover the performance objectives for the exam and provide additional assistance on topic areas of most concern to students. Students will take interactive quizzes during the course and finish with a practice examination.


Commercial Manure Applicator Training Scheduled For Jan. 6, 2011, Angela M. Rieck-Hinz Dec 2015

Commercial Manure Applicator Training Scheduled For Jan. 6, 2011, Angela M. Rieck-Hinz

Integrated Crop Management News

Commercial manure applicators can attend three hours of training on Thursday, Jan. 6, 2011, to meet annual commercial manure applicator certification requirements. Iowa State University (ISU) Extension and the Iowa Department of Natural Resources (DNR) will conduct Commercial Manure Applicator training from 9 a.m. to noon at 75 locations in Iowa, and four locations in surrounding states. Registration begins at 8:30 a.m. There is no fee for the workshop but applicators must register by Dec. 30 with the ISU Extension county office where they plan to attend. A complete list of county extension offices offering this workshop ...


Confinement Site Manure Applicator Workshops Scheduled For 2011, Angela M. Rieck-Hinz Dec 2015

Confinement Site Manure Applicator Workshops Scheduled For 2011, Angela M. Rieck-Hinz

Integrated Crop Management News

Confinement site manure applicators and anyone interested in learning about manure issues should plan to attend a two-hour workshop offered by Iowa State University (ISU) Extension in January or February 2011. These workshops are offered in cooperation with the Iowa Department of Natural Resources (DNR). There is no fee to attend the workshops, but applicators will need to pay certification fees to complete certification requirements.


Improving The Odds: Assessing Bait Availability Before Rodent Eradications To Aid In Selecting Bait Application Rates, Madeleine Pott, Alexander S. Wegmann, Richard Griffiths, Araceli Samaniego-Herrera, Richard J. Cuthbert, M. De L. Brooke, William C. Pitt, Are R. Berentsen, Nick D. Holmes, Gregg R. Howald, Karina Ramos-Rendon, James C. Russell Nov 2015

Improving The Odds: Assessing Bait Availability Before Rodent Eradications To Aid In Selecting Bait Application Rates, Madeleine Pott, Alexander S. Wegmann, Richard Griffiths, Araceli Samaniego-Herrera, Richard J. Cuthbert, M. De L. Brooke, William C. Pitt, Are R. Berentsen, Nick D. Holmes, Gregg R. Howald, Karina Ramos-Rendon, James C. Russell

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Rodent eradications undertaken on tropical islands are more likely to fail than eradications undertaken at higher latitudes. We report on 12 independent rodent eradication projects undertaken on tropical islands that utilized the results of an in situ bait availability study prior to eradication to inform, a priori, the bait application rate selected for the eradication. These projects also monitored bait availability during the eradication. The results from our analysis verified the utility of bait availability studies to future rodent eradication campaigns and confirmed the influence of two environmental factors that can affect bait availability over time: precipitation prior to the ...


Prospective Doctoral Statment For The University Of Southern California's School Of Cinematic Arts Media Arts + Practice Program, Gabriel Leiner Oct 2015

Prospective Doctoral Statment For The University Of Southern California's School Of Cinematic Arts Media Arts + Practice Program, Gabriel Leiner

Gabriel Leiner

After visiting L.A. again and seeing the beautiful fountains on University of Southern California campus I am filled with all kinds of ideas about the future and brimming with energy. To all those at the University of Southern California's Cinematic Arts Department, thanks for reading my ideas over the past couple years and helping me to evolve and become a better person and a better writer. Starting a position as a doctoral student in the Media Arts + Practice Program in 2016 is an exciting opportunity. I've got a really positive outlook about Kiss The Water.


Cold Plasma Inactivation Of Internalised Bacteria And Biofilms For Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium, Listeria Monocytogenes And Escherichia Coli, Dana Ziuzina, Lu Han, Pj Cullen, Paula Bourke Oct 2015

Cold Plasma Inactivation Of Internalised Bacteria And Biofilms For Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium, Listeria Monocytogenes And Escherichia Coli, Dana Ziuzina, Lu Han, Pj Cullen, Paula Bourke

Articles

Microbial biofilms and bacteria internalised in produce tissue may reduce the effectiveness of decontamination methods. In this study, the inactivation efficacy of in-package atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) afterglow was investigated against Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli in the forms of planktonic cultures, biofilms formed on lettuce and associated bacteria internalised in lettuce tissue. Prepared lettuce broth (3%) was inoculated with bacteria resulting in a final concentration of ~ 7.0 log10 CFU/ml. For biofilm formation and internalisation, lettuce pieces (5 × 5 cm) were dip-inoculated in bacterial suspension of ~ 7.0 log10 CFU/ml for 2 h ...


Evaluating Sub-Lethal Effects Of Orchard-Applied Pyrethroids Using Video-Tracking Software To Quantify Honey Bee Behaviors, Erin M. Ingram, Julie Augustin, Marion D. Ellis, Blair Siegfried Sep 2015

Evaluating Sub-Lethal Effects Of Orchard-Applied Pyrethroids Using Video-Tracking Software To Quantify Honey Bee Behaviors, Erin M. Ingram, Julie Augustin, Marion D. Ellis, Blair Siegfried

Faculty Publications: Department of Entomology

Managed honey bee, Apis mellifera L., colonies are contracted to pollinate fruit and nut orchards improving crop quality and yield. Colonies placed in orchards are potentially exposed to pyrethroid insecticides used for broad-spectrum pest control. Pyrethroids have been reported to pose minimal risk to bees due to their low application rates in the field and putative repellent properties. This repellency is believed to alter foraging behavior with the benefit of preventing bees from encountering a lethal dose in the field. However, sub-lethal exposure to pyrethroids may adversely impact bee behavior potentially resulting in social dysfunction or disruption of foraging.

This ...


The Use Of Argumentation In Socio-Scientific Issues: Enhancing Evolutionary Biology Instruction, Heath R. Marchand Aug 2015

The Use Of Argumentation In Socio-Scientific Issues: Enhancing Evolutionary Biology Instruction, Heath R. Marchand

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

With the adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), further emphasis in science education is being placed on preparing students to become more informed voters regarding social, ethical, economic and political topics that affect contemporary society. Parallel to this shift is a stronger emphasis on integrating evolutionary theory as a unifying concept in the biological sciences. Given that evolution is one of the aforementioned topics commonly discussed and debated about in social and political arenas, ensuring that instruction provides students from all backgrounds a comprehensive understanding of its principals is becoming increasingly important in contemporary science education. Chapter II ...


Gut Microbiota Of Migratory Passerines At Stopover, William Lewis Aug 2015

Gut Microbiota Of Migratory Passerines At Stopover, William Lewis

Master's Theses

Although the gut microbiota provides many beneficial functions to animal hosts, relatively little is known about the gut microbiota of passerines. It is likely that gut microbes are especially important during the migratory phase; however gut atrophy experienced during prolonged migratory flight may cause disruptions of the stable microbiota. Fecal samples were collected from several species of passerine after crossing the Gulf of Mexico during spring migration and before crossing during fall, and microbiota communities were analyzed using next-generation sequencing. Despite showing large inter-individual variation, a core microbiota composed largely of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria was identified in all birds. Microbiota ...


Cellular Localization And Metabolomic Analysis Of The Arabidopsis Thaliana Major Intrinsic Protein Nip2;1: A Root-Specific Lactic Acid Transporter Induced In Response To Hypoxic Stress, Taylor K. Fuller Aug 2015

Cellular Localization And Metabolomic Analysis Of The Arabidopsis Thaliana Major Intrinsic Protein Nip2;1: A Root-Specific Lactic Acid Transporter Induced In Response To Hypoxic Stress, Taylor K. Fuller

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


An Investigation Of The Relationship Between A Static Jump Protocol And Squat Strength: A Potential Protocol For Collegiate Strength And Explosive Athlete Monitoring, Cody Haun Aug 2015

An Investigation Of The Relationship Between A Static Jump Protocol And Squat Strength: A Potential Protocol For Collegiate Strength And Explosive Athlete Monitoring, Cody Haun

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between estimated absolute and relative squat strength and a static jump protocol with potential to provide desirable training adaptation data to practitioners in the field of collegiate strength and conditioning. Forty-one young (20.80 ± 2.44 years), healthy volunteers reported estimated back squat 1RM’s based on the most recent training block and completed a static jump protocol. Males (n=19, est. 1RM 141.29 ± 32.02kg) and female (n=22, est. 1RM 71.56 ± 19.64kg) jump data revealed large to very large correlations between squat strength, mean jump ...


A Parallel Algorithm For Compression Of Big Next-Generation Sequencing Datasets, Sandino N. Vargas Perez, Fahad Saeed Aug 2015

A Parallel Algorithm For Compression Of Big Next-Generation Sequencing Datasets, Sandino N. Vargas Perez, Fahad Saeed

Parallel Computing and Data Science Lab Technical Reports

With the advent of high-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques, the amount of data being generated represents challenges including storage, analysis and transport of huge datasets. One solution to storage and transmission of data is compression using specialized compression algorithms. However, these specialized algorithms suffer from poor scalability with increasing size of the datasets and best available solutions can take hours to compress gigabytes of data. In this paper we introduce paraDSRC, a parallel implementation of DSRC algorithm using a message passing model that presents reduction of the compression time complexity by a factor of O(1/p ). Our experimental results ...


The Effect Of Various Body Positions On Performance Of The Isometric Mid-Thigh Pull, George K. Beckham Aug 2015

The Effect Of Various Body Positions On Performance Of The Isometric Mid-Thigh Pull, George K. Beckham

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation was to evaluate the effects of changing body position on the execution of the isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP). Furthermore, while there is evidence to suggest that there is an effect of familiarization on performance of maximal strength tests, there has been no known research evaluating the effect of learning on the IMTP. The effect of familiarization was assessed by evaluating changes in variables obtained from the IMTP. Subjects did not statistically improve over the five IMTP testing sessions, regardless of the body position used, or if subjects had previous experience with weightlifting derivatives. This may ...


Assessing The Urban Forest Values An Institutional Sector Approach, Anthony M. Rodriguez Ph.D. Jul 2015

Assessing The Urban Forest Values An Institutional Sector Approach, Anthony M. Rodriguez Ph.D.

Anthony M Rodriguez Ph.D.

The presentation is an aspect of an ongoing study that demonstrates and maps the urban forest values. Using ARCGIS the paper will model social change and the potential for expanding or not the natural environment focusing on the values and the projected change based on the sectors position in reference to sustainability and more specifically the urban forest as an artifact to foster positive spatial change.


Lionfish As An Example Of Invasive Species Ecology, Jennifer Gardinier, Myra Morgan, Carolina Ramos Jul 2015

Lionfish As An Example Of Invasive Species Ecology, Jennifer Gardinier, Myra Morgan, Carolina Ramos

Lesson Plans

This computational model of lionfish ecology allows students to explore the effects of introducing an invasive species into a previously stable ecosystem. The stable ecosystem is represented by the coral reef habitat and clownfish population. When the lionfish are introduced, the students can graphically visualize the decline in clownfish population and subsequent destruction of the coral reef. By increasing the water temperature by 2 degrees, the students witness the increased reproductive fitness of the lionfish and resulting rapid decline in clownfish population and the coral reef environment. The model generates data which is displayed graphically and used for mathematical modeling ...


Ecology - As I See It, Jane Claire Dirks-Edmunds Jun 2015

Ecology - As I See It, Jane Claire Dirks-Edmunds

Jane Claire Dirks-Edmunds Documents

Dr. Jane Claire Dirks-Edmunds summarizes her research experiences on Saddleback Mountain in Oregon. Several handwritten corrections are included. Dirks-Edmunds began studying the area in 1933 with her advisor at Linfield College, Dr. James A. Macnab. In 1940, the research site was logged and her study switched from detailing an existing Douglas fir community to tracking its regrowth.

Dr. Dirks-Edmunds graduated from Linfield College in 1937; she returned to teach in the Biology department at Linfield from 1941-1974.


Comparison Of Biotic Communities Of The Cedar-Hemlock And Oak-Hickory Associations, Draft Version, Jane Claire Dirks-Edmunds Jun 2015

Comparison Of Biotic Communities Of The Cedar-Hemlock And Oak-Hickory Associations, Draft Version, Jane Claire Dirks-Edmunds

Jane Claire Dirks-Edmunds Documents

This early, typewritten draft of Dr. Jane Claire Dirks-Edmunds's doctoral dissertation contains her edits and notes. Dirks-Edmunds's project compared the Douglas fir forest community on Saddleback Mountain in Oregon to an oak-hickory forest near her graduate school in Illinois.

Dr. Dirks-Edmunds graduated from Linfield College in 1937; she later returned to teach in the Biology department at Linfield from 1941-1974.


Medicinal Plants Of Turmic Valley (Central Karakoram National Park), Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, Sher Wali Khan, Qamar Abbas, Syed Najmul Hassan, Hawas Khan, Azhar Hussain Jun 2015

Medicinal Plants Of Turmic Valley (Central Karakoram National Park), Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, Sher Wali Khan, Qamar Abbas, Syed Najmul Hassan, Hawas Khan, Azhar Hussain

Journal of Bioresource Management

This study was undertaken to enumerate the medicinal plants of the area, find out the conservation status, and record the folk knowledge from the inhabitants of Turmic Valley during 2011-2013. The valley is located in the Rondo division of the District Skardu on the Northeastern side of the Indus River. The detailed information about the local flora regarding medicinal uses was collected from the local herbal healers (Hakeems) and other knowledgeable people. Locally used herbs of the area prevent and cure the people from various diseases such as joint pains, bronchitis, flu and fever, lowering blood pressure, constipation, liver disorders ...


Physico-Chemical Variables And Fish Parasites Of River Neelum Azad Jammu And Kashmir, Pakistan, Nuzhat Shafi, Javed Ayub, Tasleem Akhtar Jun 2015

Physico-Chemical Variables And Fish Parasites Of River Neelum Azad Jammu And Kashmir, Pakistan, Nuzhat Shafi, Javed Ayub, Tasleem Akhtar

Journal of Bioresource Management

The physico-chemical parameters and the fish parasites of the River Neelum were studied at three sampling sites, i.e., Pattika, Tali Mandi, and Domail. Water temperature and rate of flow of water were significantly higher at Domail than Pattika and Tali Mandi. ANOVA showed that dissolved oxygen, total suspended solids, inorganic suspended solids, and organic matter of the bottom mud kept on fluctuating and showed a significant difference between three selected sites. Although, these variables showed variations, they remained within tolerable limits set by WHO. Three species of potentially harmful parasites, i.e., Dactylogyrus vastator, Procamallanus laevionchus, and Argulus foliaceus ...


Assessment Of Fusariotoxins And Toxigenic Potential Of Fusarium Spp. In Maize Grains Collected From Pakistan, Nafeesa Qudsia Hanif, Iffat Tahira, Salma Khatoon, Kishwar Sultana Jun 2015

Assessment Of Fusariotoxins And Toxigenic Potential Of Fusarium Spp. In Maize Grains Collected From Pakistan, Nafeesa Qudsia Hanif, Iffat Tahira, Salma Khatoon, Kishwar Sultana

Journal of Bioresource Management

A total of 65 maize grain samples (Zea Mays L.) collected from cold and hot climatic zones of Pakistan lead to isolation of 10 Fusarium supposing deep freezing method. Occurrence of fusarium spp. was high (75%) in cold climatic zones as compared to hot zones (25%). Fumonisins were recorded in both climatic zones, though their incidence was higher in hot climatic zone (range 4,379-9,990 μg/kg). Incidence of A and B trichothecenes was higher in cool climatic zone. Zearalenone (ZON) with mean level 500 μg/kg was positive in only 10% samples of hot climatic zone. Furthermore, co-contamination ...


Assessment Of Antimicrobial And Antioxidant Activity Of Justicia Californica, Nabeela Shafique, Rizwana Aleem Qureshi Jun 2015

Assessment Of Antimicrobial And Antioxidant Activity Of Justicia Californica, Nabeela Shafique, Rizwana Aleem Qureshi

Journal of Bioresource Management

The present study focused on the exotic plant species Justicia californica, which is a native species of California. Phytochemicalanalysis was performed, which showed the presence of alkaloids, aminoacids, carbohydrates, glycosides, phlobatannins, and tannins in the root extract of J.californica, whereas amino acids, carbohydrates, and tannins were present in leaf and stems extract. In roots, 9.46%, and in leaf and stem, 13.35% flavonoids were found. Phenolics were found to be key phytochemicals, playing a role in antioxidant activity, which are about 8% in the sample of roots and 11.4% in the extract of leaf and stems. The ...


Mesquite (Prosopis Juliflora): Livestock Grazing, Its Toxicity And Management, Kainaat William, Laila Jafri Jun 2015

Mesquite (Prosopis Juliflora): Livestock Grazing, Its Toxicity And Management, Kainaat William, Laila Jafri

Journal of Bioresource Management

Prospis juliflora is an invasive tree native to Northern South America, Central America, and the Caribbean. It has been used as a folk remedy for catarrh, cold, diarrhea, dysentery, excrescences, flu, hoarseness, inflammation, measles, sore throat, and in the healing of wounds. Its antibacterial, antioxidant, antifungal, antitumor, and anthelminitic activities are also reported and it contain phytochemicals such as flavonols, alkaloids, tannins, ellagic acid, glycosides, steroids, and various phenolic compounds. It is reported to be used as feed for cattle worldwide. Low intake of this plant doesn’t affect the health of cattle but excessive intake is harmful and can ...


Growth Inhibiting Effects Of Three Different Plant Extracts On Tribolium Castaneum (Herbst) (Tenebrionidae: Coleoptera), Javed Iqbal Dr, Ghulam Jilani, Muhammad Aslam Jun 2015

Growth Inhibiting Effects Of Three Different Plant Extracts On Tribolium Castaneum (Herbst) (Tenebrionidae: Coleoptera), Javed Iqbal Dr, Ghulam Jilani, Muhammad Aslam

Journal of Bioresource Management

Petroleum ether, acetone and ethanol extracts of neem, sweet flag, and turmeric were evaluated for their growth inhibiting effects on the Tribolium castaneum at the application rate of 1000, 500, 250 and 125 μg/g food media. Petroleum ether extracts showed the lowest number of larvae produced (34.00) in 1000 μg/g neem extract. Acetone extract of sweet flag showed minimum and significantly lower number of larvae produced (8.00) at 1000 μg/g, whereas ethanol extracts of turmeric showed minimum numbers of larvae (106.30) at 1000 μg/g application rate. Maximum inhibition ratio of pupation was found ...


Review: Contribution Of Biotic Agents Of Pakistan In World Agriculture, Mohammad Irshad Jun 2015

Review: Contribution Of Biotic Agents Of Pakistan In World Agriculture, Mohammad Irshad

Journal of Bioresource Management

Biological control has attained immense significance. Biological control is not unknown. It has a past history of successes. Natural control consists of two major components: environmental factors (abiotic) and natural enemies (biotic). Integrated Pest Management or Crop Management is considered a valuable tool in food security. It has not only been used in Pakistan but also Pakistani biotic agents have been used elsewhere in the world giving substantial economic control. These have been mainly used in the USA. With World Trade Organization protocols in operation, biological control will be of much significance. Import and export of natural enemies will be ...


A Review: Antifungal Potentials Of Medicinal Plants, Ghulam Murtaza, Muhammad Mukhtar, Aysha Sarfraz Jun 2015

A Review: Antifungal Potentials Of Medicinal Plants, Ghulam Murtaza, Muhammad Mukhtar, Aysha Sarfraz

Journal of Bioresource Management

Medicinal plants have been widely used to treat a variety of infectious and non-infectious diseases. According to an estimate, 25% of the commonly used medicines contain compounds isolated from plants. Several plants could offer a rich reserve for drug discovery of infectious diseases, particularly in an era when the latest separation techniques are available on one hand, and the human population is challenged by a number of emerging infectious diseases on the other hand. Among several other ailments, fungal infections are posing a great threat to the mankind, as a large number of people suffer from fungal infections worldwide due ...


Use Of Dna Barcoding To Control The Illegal Wildlife Trade: A Cites Case Report From Pakistan, Attika Rehman, Sana Jafar, Naeem Ashraf Raja, Javed Mahar Jun 2015

Use Of Dna Barcoding To Control The Illegal Wildlife Trade: A Cites Case Report From Pakistan, Attika Rehman, Sana Jafar, Naeem Ashraf Raja, Javed Mahar

Journal of Bioresource Management

Illegal wildlife trade is a great threat to the conservation efforts made worldwide to save wildlife species and their parts. Use of molecular methods, including DNA barcoding, is gaining acceptance to detect cross-border movement of endangered species. Here we report the utility of DNA barcoding in the detection of smuggling of an endangered turtle species from Pakistan. The consignment labeled as “fish meat” was intercepted at a Pakistani port and was tested for its source using DNA Barcoding with fish-specific primers. Sequences from the samples from this consignment matched (99%) with those from Lissemys punctata (Indian flap-shelled turtle), a species ...


First Report: Hyphomycetous Fungi From Rawalpindi, Pakistan, Kishwar Sultana, Asmaul Husna, Gulshan Irshad, Mah Noor Jun 2015

First Report: Hyphomycetous Fungi From Rawalpindi, Pakistan, Kishwar Sultana, Asmaul Husna, Gulshan Irshad, Mah Noor

Journal of Bioresource Management

The saprophytic hyphomycetous fungi: Beniowskia sphaeroidea, Graphium putredinis, Phaeoisaria clematidis, and Tilachlidium ramosum were recorded in Rawalpindi from 2008 to 2010. These were studied in the laboratories of PMAS-Arid Agriculture University campus Rawalpindi.