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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Social Sciences, Not Given Dec 2014

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Hundreds Of Scn-Resistant Soybean Varieties Available For 2014, Gregory L. Tylka Oct 2014

Hundreds Of Scn-Resistant Soybean Varieties Available For 2014, Gregory L. Tylka

Integrated Crop Management News

The soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is a serious yield-reducing pathogen of soybeans. It is present in many fields throughout the Midwest, wherever soybeans are grown.

To produce profitable soybean yields in fields infested with SCN, farmers should grow SCN-resistant soybean varieties. SCN-resistant soybeans can produce high yields while keeping SCN population densities from increasing.


Dahp Oxime: A Transition State Mimic Inhibitor Of Dahp Synthase, Naresh Balachandran Oct 2014

Dahp Oxime: A Transition State Mimic Inhibitor Of Dahp Synthase, Naresh Balachandran

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

The rise of bacterial infections and increase of antibiotic resistant bacteria has become a major problem in the treatment of bacterial infections. The use and overuse of antibiotics, and the inherent ability of bacteria to adapt to their environment, have lead to the emergence of strains that are resistant to all antibiotics. Ideally, new targets for antibacterial drug therapy would be essential to the virulence of most or all bacteria. That is, antibiotics exploiting these targets would have broad spectrum activity. 3-Deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonate-7- phosphate (DAHP) synthase could be such a target. This enzyme catalyzes the condensation of erythrose 4-phosphate (E4P) and ...


A Characterization Of The Dynamic Interaction Between The Pro-Apoptotic Protein Bid And The Mitochondrial Outer Membrane, Aisha Shamas-Din Ms. Oct 2014

A Characterization Of The Dynamic Interaction Between The Pro-Apoptotic Protein Bid And The Mitochondrial Outer Membrane, Aisha Shamas-Din Ms.

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

Bcl-2 family of proteins regulate apoptosis at the level of the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) through both protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions. While the role of the membrane as the “locus of action” has been recognized, the detailed molecular mechanisms and the consequences of the interactions of Bcl-2 family members with the membrane are yet to be fully understood. The findings presented here focus on the dynamic interactions of Bcl-2 proteins, most notably tBid with the MOM, and their functional significance on mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. We show that the activation of tBid is a multi-step process that is regulated by ...


Investigation Of Competence Heterogeneity In Streptococcus Milleri Group Clinical Isolates, Anne-Marie G. Lacroix Oct 2014

Investigation Of Competence Heterogeneity In Streptococcus Milleri Group Clinical Isolates, Anne-Marie G. Lacroix

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

The Streptococcus Milleri/Anginosus group (SMG) includes Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus intermedius. The SMG is found in healthy individuals but these bacteria are most known clinically for being associated with invasive disease and more recently, airway infections including cystic fibrosis (CF). The SMG like many other streptococci are naturally competent, being able to actively bind, uptake and integrate extracellular DNA. Competence regulation involves a competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) derived from the ComC precursor and a two- component signaling system (a histidine kinase ComD and its response regulator ComE). In this study, I examined the distribution of CSP/ComD sequences ...


The Centennial Of The Smith-Lever Act And Aquaculture Extension, Michael A. Rice Oct 2014

The Centennial Of The Smith-Lever Act And Aquaculture Extension, Michael A. Rice

Michael A Rice

May 8, 2014 marked the centennial of the landmark Smith-Lever Act in the United States that created the Cooperative Extension service at Land Grant Universities nationwide. Major contributors to the 1914 Act were Seaman A. Knapp and Kenyon L. Butterfield. A half century later the Sea Grant College Program was proposed by Athelstan F. Spilhaus expanding Extension programming to the sea. Together these two programs have been a major force in promoting the growth of the aquaculture industry in America.


Silence Is The Loudest Sound, Emma Christian Oct 2014

Silence Is The Loudest Sound, Emma Christian

Honors College

Rhinoceros poaching is an act of killing a rhinoceros in order to take its horn, which is then used for human consumption or for cultural traditions. Both the Asian and the African rhinoceros are targets because of the demand from China, Vietnam, Yemen, and other countries around the world. Traditional Chinese Medicine practice is the main demand for rhinoceros horn and this demand in rhinoceros horn has caused an increase in the black market. Conservation of the rhinoceros is decreasing primarily because the price of rhinoceros horn is more than double the average household income in South Africa, thus making ...


Diatom Flora In Subterranean Ecosystems: A Review, Elisa Falasco, Luc Ector, Marco Isaia, Carlos E. Wetzel, Lucien Hoffmann, Francesca Bona Sep 2014

Diatom Flora In Subterranean Ecosystems: A Review, Elisa Falasco, Luc Ector, Marco Isaia, Carlos E. Wetzel, Lucien Hoffmann, Francesca Bona

International Journal of Speleology

In scarcity of light and primary producers, subterranean ecosystems are generally extremely oligotrophic habitats, receiving poor supplies of degradable organic matter from the surface. Human direct impacts on cave ecosystems mainly derive from intensive tourism and recreational caving, causing important alterations to the whole subterranean environment. In particular, artificial lighting systems in show caves support the growth of autotrophic organisms (the so-called lampenflora), mainly composed of cyanobacteria, diatoms, chlorophytes, mosses and ferns producing exocellular polymeric substances (EPSs) made of polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. This anionic EPSs matrix mediates to the intercellular communications and participates to the chemical exchanges ...


Niche Differentiation In Meta Bourneti And M. Menardi (Araneae, Tetragnathidae) With Notes On The Life History, Stefano Mammola, Marco Isaia Sep 2014

Niche Differentiation In Meta Bourneti And M. Menardi (Araneae, Tetragnathidae) With Notes On The Life History, Stefano Mammola, Marco Isaia

International Journal of Speleology

Meta menardi and M. bourneti are two species of spiders inhabiting caves and other subterranean habitats. The occurrence of both species within the same cave has never been proved convincingly and several authors hypothesized a complete niche differentiation mainly based on microclimatic conditions.In order to study the apparent niche differentiation of the two species, we studied several populations of M. menardi and M. bourneti occurring in six caves in the Western Italian Alps (NW Italy). A series of squared plots were monitored monthly from March 2012 to February 2013. At each survey, we counted individuals and we collected the ...


Celiac Disease For Kids‏, Suad Fahad Alfuraih Aug 2014

Celiac Disease For Kids‏, Suad Fahad Alfuraih

Suad Fahad AlFuraih

Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder causes an immune reaction that damages the intestines in patients suffering from the disease.


Quest: Creating A Biotechnology Workforce Pipeline, Lynette Hazleton Mph Aug 2014

Quest: Creating A Biotechnology Workforce Pipeline, Lynette Hazleton Mph

Population Health Matters (Formerly Health Policy Newsletter)

No abstract provided.


Submonomer Synthesis And Structure-Activity Relationship Studies Of Azapeptide Inhibitors Of The Insulin Receptor Tyrosine Kinase, Lathamol A. Kurian Aug 2014

Submonomer Synthesis And Structure-Activity Relationship Studies Of Azapeptide Inhibitors Of The Insulin Receptor Tyrosine Kinase, Lathamol A. Kurian

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Azapeptides are a class of peptide mimics (peptidomimetics), which have served as valuable tools for the development of peptide based therapeutic agents. The therapeutic promise of azapeptides has been correlated to its primary sequence modification which translates into bio-active secondary structures that improves the pharmacological properties of the native peptide sequence. More specifically, azapeptides contain a semicarbazide within the peptide backbone which restricts the peptide bond torsion angles (φ, ψ) into pre-organized b-turn secondary structures. Thus, azapeptides have been shown to stabilize bio-active b-turn secondary structures responsible for high affinity and selective binding to a target receptor or ...


Research Posters 2014, Spelman College G-Stem Aug 2014

Research Posters 2014, Spelman College G-Stem

Posters

This document contains 11 research posters from the Research Day 2014 research cohort. Should you seek full-length copies of the research papers, please email the G-STEM program at gstem@spelman.edu as any rights related to research or copyrighting remains with the research sponsors, authors and the host institution for the research and permission for distribution must be granted by each for said request.


Enhancing Global Research And Education In Stem At Spelman College: Abstracts 2013, Spelman College G-Stem Aug 2014

Enhancing Global Research And Education In Stem At Spelman College: Abstracts 2013, Spelman College G-Stem

Abstracts

The abstracts contained within this document represent the research abstracts of 23 Spelman G-STEM Cohort participants from Summer 2013 – Fall 20132.Should you seek full-length copies of the research papers, please email the G-STEM program at gstem@spelman.edu as any rights related to research or copyrighting remains with the research sponsors, authors and the host institution for the research and permission for distribution must be granted by each for said request.


Population Of Northern Leopard Frogs (Rana Pipiens) Migrating Between The Ney Frog Pond And The Minnesota River Valley For Spring Breeding, Rebecca Madison Pollack Aug 2014

Population Of Northern Leopard Frogs (Rana Pipiens) Migrating Between The Ney Frog Pond And The Minnesota River Valley For Spring Breeding, Rebecca Madison Pollack

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

The Northern Leopard Frogs (Rana pipiens) found at the Ney Nature Center (NNC) are particularly important to the NNC, as they are the initial population of frogs found deformed in 1995. As bio-indicators, frog populations can be used to assess the health of their surrounding environment. This study used standard herpetological field methods to gain a population estimate of Northern Leopard Frogs and the migration route used by these frogs as they moved up the bluffs of the Minnesota River Valley from their wintering site to the Ney Frog Pond for spring breeding. The results gathered provide the Ney Environmental ...


Poly(Arginine) Derived Cancer-Targeting Peptides For The Development Of A Cancer-Targeted Gene Therapy Approach In Hepg2 Liver Cancer Cells, Stesha C. Joseph Aug 2014

Poly(Arginine) Derived Cancer-Targeting Peptides For The Development Of A Cancer-Targeted Gene Therapy Approach In Hepg2 Liver Cancer Cells, Stesha C. Joseph

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Cancer is a disease that has eluded medicinal approaches for many years and as a result new and improved therapeutic approaches are in constant demand. Although chemotherapy and radiation treatments have assisted in suppressing the growth of tumors, their poor selectivity and efficacy are major limitations for effective therapy en route towards the development of a cure for the cancer epidemic. With the mission of conquering cancer at heart, researchers have pursued a new form of cancer therapy, aptly named, a cancer targeting approach. This method revolves around the selection of a suitable biomarker, typically a cell surface receptor overexpressed ...


The Impact Of Agriculture On African Civilization In The 21st Century, Andrew S. Targowski Aug 2014

The Impact Of Agriculture On African Civilization In The 21st Century, Andrew S. Targowski

International Conference on African Development

The purpose of this investigation is to define the impact of agriculture on African Civilization in the 21st century. The methodology is based on an interdisciplinary big-picture view of the African Civilizations developments and interdependency. Among the findings are: Sub-Saharan Africa’s only every second individual has an access to clean and enough water and electricity therefore agriculture is not productive and cannot reduce poverty and provide living sustainable environment. Practical implication: To develop agriculture as an economic engine for 65 plus nationally employed in this activity, first one must develop Integrated Infrastructure of Agriculture (IIA) at the level ...


Identification Of Snps In The Coding Region Of Human Mtdna, Cassidy Punt, Elizabeth Smalley Aug 2014

Identification Of Snps In The Coding Region Of Human Mtdna, Cassidy Punt, Elizabeth Smalley

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

Two novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were discovered within the coding region of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 gene of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). mtDNA is of particular importance in forensic analysis as well as in the study of the origin and dispersal of humans. Two segments of the coding region of human mtDNA, as well as the hyper-variable region 2 (HV 2) were selected and sequenced in order to determine if any previously unknown SNPs were present in our test subjects. Target regions were designed to include known SNPs; appropriate primers were developed using the OLIGO 6 Primer Analysis Software ...


The Effect Of Maternal Aldosterone Levels On The Expression Of 11b-Hsd Isoenzymes In Normal And Hypertensive Rat Placentae, Nicole Jorissen Aug 2014

The Effect Of Maternal Aldosterone Levels On The Expression Of 11b-Hsd Isoenzymes In Normal And Hypertensive Rat Placentae, Nicole Jorissen

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

In this project, we developed a Western blotting procedure to semi-quantitate levels of 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 in whole cell extracts. Then, we applied this technique to analyze the effect of reduced maternal aldosterone levels on the expression of 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 isoenzymes in the placental tissue in both normal and hypertensive rats. These enzymes control levels of glucocorticoids which compete for aldosterone’s mineralocorticoid receptor. Overstimulation of this receptor results in hypertension. If aldosterone levels decrease, levels of the enzymes controlling active glucocorticoid concentrations might change to compensate for the lowered aldosterone levels. Decreased placental 11β-HSD2 expression could affect hypertension ...


Characterization Of Fall Leaves As A Source Of Cellulosic Ethanol, Justin Burum Aug 2014

Characterization Of Fall Leaves As A Source Of Cellulosic Ethanol, Justin Burum

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

Ethanol is becoming increasingly popular as a fossil fuel additive or substitute. However, current production of ethanol from corn impacts food prices and appears to have an overall low net yield. New sources need to be identified and new processes developed for ethanol production. Cellulosic ethanol is one such new source. Plant material contains a large amount of cellulose and other polysaccharides which are potential feed stocks for ethanol production. The purpose of this experiment was to characterize the polysaccharide, lignin, and ash content of fall leaves to estimate their potential for ethanol production. A slight modification of the NREL ...


Expression Of 9/13 Hydroperoxide Lyase In Cucumber Leaves, Samee Ranginwala Aug 2014

Expression Of 9/13 Hydroperoxide Lyase In Cucumber Leaves, Samee Ranginwala

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

Fatty Acid 9/13-Hydroperoxide Lyase (9/13-HPL) in the cucumber plant is an enzyme that cleaves either 9- or 13-hydroperoxides of polyunsaturated fatty acids to form volatile C9 or C6 aldehydes respectively. Since these aldehydes may play a role in the plant’s defenses against pathogens (K. Matsui, et. al. Phytochemistry 67 (2006) 649-657), the enzyme is stress induced during vulnerable times such as when the plant is injured. In order to better understand how this enzyme is induced, we have developed a Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction method to quantitate levels of 9/13-HPL mRNA. In initial experiments, the ...


Evaluation Of Pretreatment Methods In The Production Of Ethanol From Cattail Leaves, Kristen Krahmer, Elijah Wreh Aug 2014

Evaluation Of Pretreatment Methods In The Production Of Ethanol From Cattail Leaves, Kristen Krahmer, Elijah Wreh

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

Previous research in this lab indicated that cattails are a potential source of biomass for the production of cellulosic ethanol since their carbohydrate composition is comparable to that of other plants being considered for biofuel production. To further test their viability, we tested various pretreatment methods on dried cattail leaves. Before polysaccharides in plants can be enzymatically hydrolyzed to fermentable sugars, the plant material must be pretreated to render the polysaccharides accessible to the enzymes. The purpose of this project has been to compare the efficiency of sulfuric acid and ammonia pretreatment methods in preparing cattail biomass for ethanol production ...


Biofilm Formation By Escherichia Coli Csga And Fima Mutants, Nicole Snyder, Sean Willaert Aug 2014

Biofilm Formation By Escherichia Coli Csga And Fima Mutants, Nicole Snyder, Sean Willaert

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

Biofilms are a structured community of bacterial cells enclosed in a self-produced polymeric matrix and adherent to an inert or living surface. These structures and the organisms that cause them can pose a very serious problem if they colonize on medical devices. This is because biofilms have the ability to communicate within the colony and with other organisms that might attach to the surface, acting like a community working together. Biofilms allow the organism to be resistant to harsh and unfavorable conditions allowing them to survive longer and spread. Several genes in Escherichia coli (E. coli) have been associated with ...


Predicted Effects Of Gypsy Moth Defoliation And Climate Change On Forest Carbon Dynamics In The New Jersey Pine Barrens, Alec M. Kretchun, Robert M. Scheller, Melissa S. Lucash, Kenneth L. Clark, John Hom, Steve Van Tuyl Aug 2014

Predicted Effects Of Gypsy Moth Defoliation And Climate Change On Forest Carbon Dynamics In The New Jersey Pine Barrens, Alec M. Kretchun, Robert M. Scheller, Melissa S. Lucash, Kenneth L. Clark, John Hom, Steve Van Tuyl

Environmental Science and Management Faculty Publications and Presentations

Disturbance regimes within temperate forests can significantly impact carbon cycling. Additionally, projected climate change in combination with multiple, interacting disturbance effects may disrupt the capacity of forests to act as carbon sinks at large spatial and temporal scales. We used a spatially explicit forest succession and disturbance model, LANDIS-II, to model the effects of climate change, gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) defoliation, and wildfire on the C dynamics of the forests of the New Jersey Pine Barrens over the next century. Climate scenarios were simulated using current climate conditions (baseline), as well as a high emissions scenario (HadCM3 A2 emissions ...


Effect Of Increased Water Temperature On Warm Water Fish Feeding Behavior And Habitat Use, Eric Walberg Aug 2014

Effect Of Increased Water Temperature On Warm Water Fish Feeding Behavior And Habitat Use, Eric Walberg

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

Global warming could cause changes in species behavior and life history. Stream fish may be significantly affected by climate change because individuals are restricted in their movements by water systems and other physical factors, preventing migration to locations more thermally suitable. The effect of warmer waters on stream fish could change behavior and affect the fish species survival and ultimately ecosystem function. During my experiment I observed the effects of increased water temperature on the feeding behavior and habitat use of two native Minnesota fish species, black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus) and black bullhead (Ameiurus melas). An increase of 2oC over ...


Anti-Predator Responses Of Fathead Minnows To Alarm Substance Pheromone, Sarah Thomson Aug 2014

Anti-Predator Responses Of Fathead Minnows To Alarm Substance Pheromone, Sarah Thomson

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

In some fish, alarm substances are released from skin cells when they are bitten by a predator, signaling nearby fish in potential danger. Such anti-predator defenses have been studied in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), and some have hypothesized that the response to the alarm substance is not instinctual, but rather fish must learn to associate it with a predation cue such as motion. The purpose of this study is to detect an effect of conditioning (associating alarm substance with predation threat) on minnow responses to alarm substance. We tested the prediction that conditioned fish would react more strongly to ...


Atrazine Influence On Northern Pike Sperm Motility And Viability In Minnesota, Andy Stevens, Paul Pallardy Aug 2014

Atrazine Influence On Northern Pike Sperm Motility And Viability In Minnesota, Andy Stevens, Paul Pallardy

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

Concern has been noted by fish hatchery biologists with the Department of Natural Resources that southern Minnesota northern pike Esox lucius populations have exhibited reduced hatching rates, a trend not occurring with northern Minnesota pike populations. The chemical atrazine is a frequently used herbicide in Minnesota and has been found to cause gonadal dysgenesis and reproductive development issues in amphibians and fish. Sperm, length, and age data were collected from northern pike in four Minnesota lakes. Water samples were obtained from two of the lakes to test for atrazine. Test results indicated atrazine concentrations <0.05 μg/L which was lower than the detectable limit. Sperm concentrations (#/mL) were not significantly different among lakes (P=0.302). Sperm motility data were significantly different among lakes (P<0.001). A pairwise multiple comparison revealed several noteworthy sperm motility differences; however, due to lack of atrazine detection, we cannot connect these observations to that chemical. Six different multiple and single linear regression analyses were completed to assess sperm concentration and motility based on pike age and length. No significant correlations were detected (P>0.10 and r2 < 0.06 for all regressions). Sperm motility reductions in northern pike could be related to declining populations and warrants further research.


The Abundance And Diversity Of Intestinal Trematodes Collected From Blue Winged Teal And Ring-Neck Ducks Inhabiting Lake Winnibigoshish, Minnesota, Omolayo Ogunnowo Aug 2014

The Abundance And Diversity Of Intestinal Trematodes Collected From Blue Winged Teal And Ring-Neck Ducks Inhabiting Lake Winnibigoshish, Minnesota, Omolayo Ogunnowo

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

This study investigated the abundance and diversity of parasites residing in the digestive tracts of blue winged teal and ring-necked ducks collected at Lake Winnibigoshish, MN. The trematode parasites we focused on in this study were removed from the anterior-most, 15cm segment of the small intestine of 10 individuals of each bird species. The parasites were initially stored in 10% formalin and were subsequently stained with Schneider’s aceto carmine, then mounted on microscope slides for diagnostic purposes. A total of 1605 trematodes were recovered from the birds. We found that blue wing teal and ring-necked ducks tended to contain ...


Culinary Internship And The European Mobility Action Plan Part Two: Towards An Understanding Of The Culinary Life And Internship, Frank Cullen Aug 2014

Culinary Internship And The European Mobility Action Plan Part Two: Towards An Understanding Of The Culinary Life And Internship, Frank Cullen

Articles

In the context of the paper, the role of part two is to provide an overview of culinary life and of the many celebrated chefs who travelled to gain culinary experience before Erasmus funding was available for internship. I also use this paper to provide a synopsis of kitchen systems and present a review of studies related to internship. I attempt to provide some insight into internship and culinary practice in order to augment the understanding of culinary internship. This paper commences with a short review of Georges Auguste Escoffier, one of the most celebrated chefs of all time and ...


Transcriptional Regulation Of Peptidylarginine Deiminase Type Iv: Implications For Rheumatoid Arthritis, Ali Abbas Aug 2014

Transcriptional Regulation Of Peptidylarginine Deiminase Type Iv: Implications For Rheumatoid Arthritis, Ali Abbas

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

High titers of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies have been detected in sera of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, implicating citrullinating enzymes in the pathogenesis of RA. Peptidylarginine deiminase type IV (PAD4) is a member of the PAD family of enzymes that catalyze the post- translational modification of arginine to citrulline and has been linked with RA. However, little is known about its transcriptional regulation. Therefore, our aim was to determine how transcription of PAD4 is activated in the myeloid lineage. Using bioinformatics, a potential nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) binding site was identified on the PAD4 promoter. Luciferase assays were used to ...