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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Recent Decline Of Lowland Populations Of The Western Gray Squirrel In The Los Angeles Area Of Southern California, Daniel S. Cooper, Alan Muchlinski Jul 2105

Recent Decline Of Lowland Populations Of The Western Gray Squirrel In The Los Angeles Area Of Southern California, Daniel S. Cooper, Alan Muchlinski

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

We provide an overview of the distribution of lowland and otherwise isolated populations of the western gray squirrel (Sciurus griseus) in the Los Angeles area of southern California, an area that has experienced a recent and ongoing invasion by the non-native eastern fox squirrel (Sciurus niger), an urban-adapted species introduced a century ago. Away from its strongholds in the western Santa Monica Mountains, San Gabriel Mountains, and Santa Ana Mountains, the western gray squirrel is resident locally in both the Santa Susana and the Verdugo Mountains, in Griffith Park, in low hills at the eastern periphery of the San Gabriel ...


An Orange Fluorescent Protein Tagging System For Real-Time Pollen Tracking, J. Rice, R. Mundell, R. Millwood, O. Chambers, L. Abercrombie, H. Davies, C. Stewart Dec 2102

An Orange Fluorescent Protein Tagging System For Real-Time Pollen Tracking, J. Rice, R. Mundell, R. Millwood, O. Chambers, L. Abercrombie, H. Davies, C. Stewart

C. Neal Stewart Jr.

Background Monitoring gene flow could be important for future transgenic crops, such as those producing plant-made-pharmaceuticals (PMPs) in open field production. A Nicotiana hybrid (Nicotiana. tabacum × Nicotiana glauca) shows limited male fertility and could be used as a bioconfined PMP platform. Effective assessment of gene flow from these plants is augmented with methods that utilize fluorescent proteins for transgenic pollen identification. Results We report the generation of a pollen tagging system utilizing an orange fluorescent protein to monitor pollen flow and as a visual assessment of transgene zygosity of the parent plant. This system was created to generate a tagged ...


Effect Of External Energy On The Atomic, Crystalline, And Powder Characteristics Of Antimony And Bismuth Powders, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi Sep 2099

Effect Of External Energy On The Atomic, Crystalline, And Powder Characteristics Of Antimony And Bismuth Powders, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi

Mahendra Kumar Trivedi

Next to atoms and molecules the powders are the smallest state of matter available in high purities and large quantities. The effect of any external energy on the shape, morphology and structure can thus be studied with relative ease. The present investigation deals with the effect of a non-contact external energy on the powders of antimony and bismuth. The characteristics of powders treated by external energy are compared with the as received powders (control). The average particle sizes, d50 and d99, the sizes below which 99% of the particles are present showed significant increase and decrease indicating that the energy ...


The Manuscript Works Of S. Fred Prince (1857-1951), Sarah Burke Cahalan, Jason W. Dean Apr 2018

The Manuscript Works Of S. Fred Prince (1857-1951), Sarah Burke Cahalan, Jason W. Dean

Marian Library/IMRI Faculty Publications

S. Fred Prince, a botanical illustrator and amateur scientist, is a largely unknown artist whose work on the American landscape demonstrates his eligibility to be considered in the lineage of self-taught illustrator-naturalists such as Mark Catesby and Genevieve Jones. In this article, we present a survey of extant Prince materials identified at time of writing, describing their contents and physical characteristics. Beyond this survey and description, we also provide a biographical sketch and timeline of Prince's life.


Altering Oligomerization Of Epha2 Via Mutations In The Intracellular Domain, Ryan W. Lingerak Jan 2018

Altering Oligomerization Of Epha2 Via Mutations In The Intracellular Domain, Ryan W. Lingerak

Honors Research Projects

Eph receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are activated by membrane-bound ligands called ephrins. Eph RTKs are divided into two subclasses, each activated by a specific classes of the ligand ephrin. The overexpression of Eph receptors is correlated to cancer cell metastasis in several different types of cancers. Studies with the EphA2 extracellular domain (ECD) and ephrinA1 ligand have shown that upon binding of ephrin to the receptor, EphA2 undergoes increased oligomerization and activation. This indicates that oligomerization is intimately connected to kinase activity. High resolution crystal structures of the EphA2 ECD have revealed some details of these ligand bound oligomers, as ...


Potential For Climate Induced Methane Hydrate Dissociation, Graham Macwilliams Jan 2018

Potential For Climate Induced Methane Hydrate Dissociation, Graham Macwilliams

Pomona Senior Theses

Methane hydrates are frozen deposits of methane and water found in high pressure or low temperature sediments. When these deposits destabilize, large quantities of methane can be emitted into the atmosphere. This is significant to climate change because methane has 25 times more greenhouse gas potential than Carbon Dioxide. Worldwide, it is estimated there are between 2500 and 10000 gigatons of methane stored in hydrate deposits. This represents more carbon than all fossil fuels on Earth. It is estimated that between 200 and 2000 gigatons of methane are stored in hydrates in Arctic waters acutely vulnerable to greenhouse warming. Over ...


Superresolution Imaging Identifies That Conventional Trafficking Pathways Are Not Essential For Endoplasmic Reticulum To Outer Mitochondrial Membrane Protein Transport., Kyle Salka, Shivaprasad Bhuvanendran, Kassandra Wilson, Petros Bozidis, Mansi Mehta, Kristin Rainey, Hiromi Sesaki, George H Patterson, Jyoti K. Jaiswal, Anamaris M. Colberg-Poley Dec 2017

Superresolution Imaging Identifies That Conventional Trafficking Pathways Are Not Essential For Endoplasmic Reticulum To Outer Mitochondrial Membrane Protein Transport., Kyle Salka, Shivaprasad Bhuvanendran, Kassandra Wilson, Petros Bozidis, Mansi Mehta, Kristin Rainey, Hiromi Sesaki, George H Patterson, Jyoti K. Jaiswal, Anamaris M. Colberg-Poley

Integrative Systems Biology Faculty Publications

Most nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins traffic from the cytosol to mitochondria. Some of these proteins localize at mitochondria-associated membranes (MAM), where mitochondria are closely apposed with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We have previously shown that the human cytomegalovirus signal-anchored protein known as viral mitochondria-localized inhibitor of apoptosis (vMIA) traffics from the ER to mitochondria and clusters at the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM). Here, we have examined the host pathways by which vMIA traffics from the ER to mitochondria and clusters at the OMM. By disruption of phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein 2 (PACS-2), mitofusins (Mfn1/2), and dynamin related protein 1 ...


Tea Induction Of Cyp6a8 Promoter In Drosophila Melanogaster, Fiona Retzer Dec 2017

Tea Induction Of Cyp6a8 Promoter In Drosophila Melanogaster, Fiona Retzer

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Continuous Insulin Pump Therapy On Glycemic Control In Pregnant Type 1 Diabetics, Kimberly Kelsey Dec 2017

The Effects Of Continuous Insulin Pump Therapy On Glycemic Control In Pregnant Type 1 Diabetics, Kimberly Kelsey

Senior Theses and Capstone Projects

Type 1 Diabetics have various ways of managing their diabetes that have been studied for their effectiveness. Pregnancy in the Type 1 Diabetic has been understudied. It is known that Diabetics in general have poorer pregnancy outcomes because of poor glycemic control. This coupled with the fact that the body needs 3-4 times more insulin as pregnancy comes to an end makes managing blood glucose levels challenging for diabetics (Lowdermilk, 2016, p. 689). For the Type 1 Diabetic, there are two main ways to control diabetes: multiple daily injections using at least two type of insulin and continuous subcutaneous insulin ...


Characterisation Of Cold Plasma Treated Beef And Dairy Lipids Using Spectroscopic And Chromatographic Methods, Chaitanya Sarangapani, David Dorran, Julie Dunne, Paula Bourke, Patrick Cullen Nov 2017

Characterisation Of Cold Plasma Treated Beef And Dairy Lipids Using Spectroscopic And Chromatographic Methods, Chaitanya Sarangapani, David Dorran, Julie Dunne, Paula Bourke, Patrick Cullen

Articles

The efficacy of cold plasma for inactivation of food-borne pathogens in foods is established. However, insights on cold plasma-food interactions in terms of quality effects, particularly for oils and fats, are sparse. This study evaluated plasma-induced lipid oxidation of model matrices, namely dairy and meat fats. Product characterisation was performed using FTIR, 1H NMR and chromatographic techniques. The oxidation of lipids by cold plasma followed the Criegee mechanism and typical oxidation products identified included ozonides, aldehydes (hexanal, pentenal, nonanal and nonenal) and carboxylic acids (9-oxononanoic acid, octanoic acid, nonanoic acid), along with hydroperoxides (9- and 13-hydroperoxy-octadecadienoylglycerol species). However, these ...


Endothelial Cells, Bennie Liu Nov 2017

Endothelial Cells, Bennie Liu

Bennie Liu

Endothelial cells form the inner lining of a blood vessel and provides an anticoagulant barrier between the vessel wall and blood. Endothelial cells also generate an antithrombotic surface that facilitates transit of plasma and cellular constituents throughout the vasculature. As a selective permeability barrier, the endothelial cell is a unique multifunctional cell with critical basal and inducible metabolic and synthetic functions. The endothelial cell reacts with physical and chemical stimuli within the circulation and regulates hemostasis, vasomotor tone, and immune and inflammatory responses. In addition, the endothelial cell is pivotal in angiogenesis and vasculogenesis.


Building Academic/Practitioner Teams For Human Rights Projects: Examples, Lessons Learned, And Pitfalls To Avoid, Theresa Harris Nov 2017

Building Academic/Practitioner Teams For Human Rights Projects: Examples, Lessons Learned, And Pitfalls To Avoid, Theresa Harris

The Social Practice of Human Rights: Charting the Frontiers of Research and Advocacy

Academics are increasingly interested in getting out of their classrooms and labs to contribute their knowledge, expertise, and resources to help communities develop evidence-based policies. In addition to post-election initiatives such as the March for Science and 314 Action, many academics are joining “without borders”-type programs and organizations that connect academics with opportunities to volunteer their time and talents for “social good.”

One of the longest-running of these is On-call Scientists, an initiative of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) that connects human rights organizations with pro bono scientists across all fields — life, physical, behavioral, and ...


Characterization Of A Novel Mitochondrial Plasmid In Brassica, Mackenzie Strehle Oct 2017

Characterization Of A Novel Mitochondrial Plasmid In Brassica, Mackenzie Strehle

UCARE Research Products

Possessing some of the largest and most complex genomes of any eukaryotic organelles, plant mitochondria are notorious for their rapidly rearranging genetic framework. In addition to containing a large and complex mitochondrial genome, the mitochondria of several plants in the genus Brassica have also been shown to contain an independent, self-replicating linear plasmid. Interestingly, the plasmid appears to be able to move independently between the cytoplasm and the mitochondria, and it can be paternally inherited, unlike the rest of the mitochondrial genome. The plasmid also has features similar to those of adenoviruses, including terminal inverted repeats and covalently bound proteins ...


Pertinacity Volume 3 Issue 1, Yuri Hosokawa Oct 2017

Pertinacity Volume 3 Issue 1, Yuri Hosokawa

Pertinacity

Pertinacity is a biannual magazine that features stories and reports on recent Korey Stringer Institute’s initiatives.


Farm-Scale Testing Of Soybean Peroxidase And Calcium Peroxide For Surficial Swine Manure Treatment And Mitigation Of Odorous Vocs, Ammonia And Hydrogen Sulfide Emissions, Devin L. Maurer, Jacek A. Koziel, Kelsey Bruning, David B. Parker Oct 2017

Farm-Scale Testing Of Soybean Peroxidase And Calcium Peroxide For Surficial Swine Manure Treatment And Mitigation Of Odorous Vocs, Ammonia And Hydrogen Sulfide Emissions, Devin L. Maurer, Jacek A. Koziel, Kelsey Bruning, David B. Parker

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The swine industry, regulatory agencies, and the public are interested in farm-tested methods for controlling gaseous emissions from swine barns. In earlier lab- and pilot-scale studies, a renewable catalyst consisting of soybean peroxidase (SBP) mixed with calcium peroxide (CaO2) was found to be effective in mitigating gaseous emissions from swine manure. Thus, a farm-scale experiment was conducted at the university's 178-pig, shallow-pit, mechanically-ventilated swine barn to evaluate SBP/CaO2 as a surficial manure pit additive under field conditions. The SBP was applied once at the beginning of the 42-day experiment at an application rate of 2.28 ...


The Role Of Glutamate Neurotransmission In The Ventral Tegmental Area In The Expression Of Conditioned Approach Learning, Priscila Hachimine-Merli Sep 2017

The Role Of Glutamate Neurotransmission In The Ventral Tegmental Area In The Expression Of Conditioned Approach Learning, Priscila Hachimine-Merli

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Conditioned stimuli (CSs) come to function as CSs by acquiring the capacity to activate the same mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) neurons activated by primary rewards, producing conditioned activation of these neurons and their associated motivational states. This model stipulates that CSs activate mesocorticolimbic DA systems through the activation of glutamate receptors on DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). We tested the hypothesis that glutamate receptor stimulation in the VTA is necessary for the expression of conditioned approach. Rats were tested in a conditioned approach protocol that consisted of 7 consecutive conditioning sessions (light presentations and food were paired), one ...


Regulation Of The Amyloid Precursor Protein By Prostaglandin J2, A Mediator Of Inflammation: Relevance To Alzheimer’S Disease, Teneka L. Jean-Louis Sep 2017

Regulation Of The Amyloid Precursor Protein By Prostaglandin J2, A Mediator Of Inflammation: Relevance To Alzheimer’S Disease, Teneka L. Jean-Louis

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Inflammation plays a major role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Investigating how specific mediators of inflammation contribute to neurodegeneration in AD is crucial. Our studies focused on cyclooxygenases, which are key enzymes in inflammation and highly relevant to AD. Cyclooxygenases (COX -1, constitutive; COX-2, inducible) have emerged as important determinants of AD pathogenesis and progression. COX-2 is highly induced in AD, correlating with AD severity, and COX-1 is also involved in AD. Cyclooxygenases are the rate-limiting enzymes that convert arachidonic acid into prostaglandins (PGs), the principal mediators of CNS neuroinflammation.

The overall GOAL of these studies was to address the ...


Effects Of Salinity And Wet–Dry Treatments On C And N Dynamics In Coastal-Forested Wetland Soils: Implications Of Sea Level Rise, Xijun Liu, Alexander Ruecker, Bo Song, William H. Conner, Alex T. Chow Sep 2017

Effects Of Salinity And Wet–Dry Treatments On C And N Dynamics In Coastal-Forested Wetland Soils: Implications Of Sea Level Rise, Xijun Liu, Alexander Ruecker, Bo Song, William H. Conner, Alex T. Chow

Publications

Forested wetlands dominated by baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) and water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica) are commonly found in coastal regions of the southeastern United States. Global climate change and in particular sea level rise will alter the frequency and magnitude of wet/dry periods and salinity levels in these ecosystems. Soil microcosm experiments were set up to identify the effects of water level variations (0.4–3.0 g-water g-soil−1) and salinity changes (0, 1 and 5 ppt of NaCl) on greenhouse gas emissions (CH4, CO2, and N2O) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) characteristics from forested wetland soils. Our results indicate ...


Can Students Flourish In Engineering Classrooms?, Peggy Boylan-Ashraf, Steven A. Freeman, Mack C. Shelley, Özgür Keleş Aug 2017

Can Students Flourish In Engineering Classrooms?, Peggy Boylan-Ashraf, Steven A. Freeman, Mack C. Shelley, Özgür Keleş

Steven A. Freeman

This study investigated the role of a new paradigm in teaching large introductory, fundamental engineering mechanics (IFEM) courses that combined student-centered learning pedagogies and supplemental learning resources. Demographic characteristics in this study included a total of 405 students, of whom 347 (85.7%) are males and 58 are (14.3%) females. The students’ majors included aerospace engineering, agricultural engineering, civil engineering, construction engineering, industrial engineering, materials engineering, and mechanical engineering.
Results of this study, as tested using an independent samples t-test, validated using a nonparametric independent samples test, and a general linear multivariate model analysis, indicated overwhelmingly that there is ...


Calibration Of Soil Compaction Behavior Using Discrete Element Method (Dem), Mohammad A. Sadek, Mehari Tekeste, Mojtaba Naderi Aug 2017

Calibration Of Soil Compaction Behavior Using Discrete Element Method (Dem), Mohammad A. Sadek, Mehari Tekeste, Mojtaba Naderi

Mehari Tekeste

Soil compaction has potential to reduce crop yield by resisting seed germination and root growth. Modern agricultural farm equipment is getting bigger in size and axle weight that could cause excessive soil compaction. Natures of soil compaction in agricultural fields are not predictable because of non-homogeneous soil condition, and inconsistent wheel trafficking in the field. In this study predicting soil compaction behaviour will be studied for under different three soil moisture using Discrete Element Method (DEM). Discrete Element Method (DEM) is capable to simulate the elastic-plastic soil compaction behavior. Selection of appropriate DEM contact model and calibration of the DEM ...


Discrete Element Modeling (Dem) Of Cone Penetration Testing On Soil With Varying Relative Soil Density, Zamir Syed, Mehari Tekeste, Thomas Way Aug 2017

Discrete Element Modeling (Dem) Of Cone Penetration Testing On Soil With Varying Relative Soil Density, Zamir Syed, Mehari Tekeste, Thomas Way

Mehari Tekeste

Modeling soil-tool interaction is essential for equipment design and performance evaluation on soil behavior responses under loading. Computational tools based on particle-based mechanics such as Discrete Element Modeling (DEM) and Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) have potential in modeling large strain soil dynamic behaviors from soil-tool interaction. The objective of this study is to validate the accuracy and robustness of DEM calibration methodology as it relates to soil deformation during cone penetration on varying initial soil relative density. The influence of factors such as DEM material properties and cone to particle size ratio on DEM cone penetration simulation will be investigated ...


Tree Fruits For Iowa, H. L. Lantz Aug 2017

Tree Fruits For Iowa, H. L. Lantz

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

This bulletin is intended to assist Iowa orchardists in the selection of satisfactory tree fruit varieties either for home or commercial production. By consulting the descriptions and discussions herein given and by informing himself as to the present status of varieties already grown in his locality, the prospective planter should be in a position to make a selection which will succeed and bring him satisfactory returns. Doubtless future years will place different valuations upon many of the varieties discussed for Iowa planting.


Part-Time And Garden Farming In Iowa, Ray E. Wakeley Aug 2017

Part-Time And Garden Farming In Iowa, Ray E. Wakeley

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

Part-time farming has arrived in Iowa to stay. Present indications are that increases in the number of part-time farms during the depression will be maintained and future increases may be expected. Part-time farming is becoming a big business in Iowa and this combination of rural living, farming and industrial employment may influence appreciably the future development of the state.

The part-time farmer, strategically located between country and city, has important common interests with both groups. He is identified with neither, however, and least of all with the country. Thus problems arise which both farmer and city dweller must consider if ...


Effect Of Harvesting, Spacing And Age Of Plants On Yields Of Asparagus, E. S. Haber Aug 2017

Effect Of Harvesting, Spacing And Age Of Plants On Yields Of Asparagus, E. S. Haber

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

Although Iowa has never ranked high among the states as a producer of asparagus for market or canning, the asparagus acreage planted, particularly by canners, is increasing.

No exact information is available concerning the effect of the cutting season’s length upon yields over a period of years. Market gardeners usually stop cutting asparagus in Iowa between June 1 and June 15. The demand for asparagus at this time decreases and the prices drop too low for profitable harvesting. To prevent damage to future yields, June 15 also appears to be the latest safe harvest date, though no substantiating experimental ...


Changing Status Of The Iowa Dairy Industry, Albert Mighell Aug 2017

Changing Status Of The Iowa Dairy Industry, Albert Mighell

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

Even a most superficial study of the Iowa dairy industry indicates its economic importance to the state. Dairying utilizes a huge physical production plant, spread out on almost 200,000 Iowa farms, and extensive processing and marketing facilities including creameries, ice cream plants, milk distributing agencies, cheese factories and condenseries. Together these constitute one of the states largest industries, providing about 16 percent of the income of Iowa farmers, and an important and dependable share of the income of townspeople.

No one group alone is interested in and responsible for the success of the Iowa dairy industry. The farmer or ...


The Food Consumption Habits Of 145 Iowa Farm Families, P. Mabel Nelson, Elizabeth E. Hoyt, Laura Mclaughlin, Ethel Cessna Morgan Aug 2017

The Food Consumption Habits Of 145 Iowa Farm Families, P. Mabel Nelson, Elizabeth E. Hoyt, Laura Mclaughlin, Ethel Cessna Morgan

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

The food consumption habits of 145 Iowa farm families were studied from records of expenditures for food and of food produced by farms during one year. Forty-three families in the central part of the state near Ames, 49 families in the southwestern part near Corning, and 53 families near Oelwein in the northeastern part of the state cooperated in the study.

The nutritive values of the respective diets were calculated for the families in the Ames group and for the average of the families in each of the other two groups.

The energy values of these diets and their content ...


Index Number Of Iowa Farm Products Prices, Gertrude M. Cox Aug 2017

Index Number Of Iowa Farm Products Prices, Gertrude M. Cox

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

The present Iowa farm price index has been in use since 1926. It is widely employed as a measure of the general level of Iowa farm prices and appears each month in the price barometer published in Agricultural Economic Facts2. A few years ago Peck3 developed a farm lease, known as the sliding scale lease, in which the rental payments are based on and vary with the changes in the index number. More recently, contracts covering land sales have been devised in which the interest payments and in some cases also the principal payments are based on this ...


The Agricultural And Industrial Demand For Corn, Geoffrey Shepherd, John J. Dalton, J. H. Buchanan Aug 2017

The Agricultural And Industrial Demand For Corn, Geoffrey Shepherd, John J. Dalton, J. H. Buchanan

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

The World War marked a turning point in the history of corn production in the United States. Previous to the World War the trend of corn production in this country was steadily rising. Since 1920, however, it has declined because of decreases both in yield and acreage.

From 1900 to 1920, the United States’ corn crop averaged 68 percent of the world crop of corn, the annual percentages fluctuating about a horizontal trend. Since the World War, however, the United States’ proportion of the world corn crop has been declining. The trend declined to 55 percent in 1933. Corn production ...


Rapid Acid Tests For Cream, E. W. Bird, D. F. Breazeale Aug 2017

Rapid Acid Tests For Cream, E. W. Bird, D. F. Breazeale

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

The Farrington rapid acid test has been employed for many years by the fluid milk industry for grading samples on the borderline of acidity set for their purchase. In performing the test, neutralizing solutions (containing phenolphthalein) used are of such strength that 1 dipper of solution added to 1 dipper (of the same size) of milk gives a pink mixture if the milk is 0.1 percent acid or less; 2 dippers of neutralizing solution grade at the 0.2 percent point and so on. By adjusting the neutralizing strength the grades corresponding to 1 and 2 dippers of neutralizing ...


Economic Phases Of Erosion Control In Southern Iowa And Northern Missouri, Rainer Schickele, John P. Himmel, Russell M. Hurd Aug 2017

Economic Phases Of Erosion Control In Southern Iowa And Northern Missouri, Rainer Schickele, John P. Himmel, Russell M. Hurd

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

The Soil Erosion Service of the United States Department of Agriculture has 32 Erosion Control Projects under way in 31 states. More projects will be initiated in the near future. One of these demonstrational and experimental projects embraces about 152,000 acres of the Big Creek watershed area in Ringgold and Decatur counties, Iowa, and Harrison County, Missouri. The headquarters for this project of the Soil Erosion Service are at Bethany, Mo.

The government invites the farmers of this area to enter a cooperative agreement, under which the Soil Erosion Service agrees to assist the farmer in controlling erosion, and ...