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Insider trading

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Full-Text Articles in Securities Law

Watching Insider Trading Law Wobble: Obus, Newman, Salman, Two Martomas, And A Blaszczak, Donald C. Langevoort Nov 2019

Watching Insider Trading Law Wobble: Obus, Newman, Salman, Two Martomas, And A Blaszczak, Donald C. Langevoort

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

“The crime of insider trading,” Judge Jed Rakoff has said, “is a straightforward concept that some courts have managed to complicate.” In the last eight years or so, insider trading law has wobbled visibly (in the Second Circuit in particular) in applying the standard for tipper-tippee liability originally set in the Supreme Court’s Dirks decision in 1983: from Obus (2012) to Newman (2014), with a detour to the Supreme Court in Salman (2016), and then two Martoma opinions (2017 and 2018). Most recently, the court of appeals offered what to many was a major surprise in its Blaszczak decision ...


The Ever-Changing Scope Of Insider Trading Liability For Tippees In The Second Circuit, Sari Rosenfeld May 2019

The Ever-Changing Scope Of Insider Trading Liability For Tippees In The Second Circuit, Sari Rosenfeld

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

Liability under insider trading law continues to change as federal courts attempt to find new ways to hold insiders liable under the law. As recently as two years ago, the Second Circuit—in analyzing past decisions regarding tipper-tippee insider trading violations—blurred the distinction between legal and illegal insider trading when it fundamentally altered the idea of “personal benefit.” These various decisions provide the basis for antifraud provisions of securities law applying to insider trading, the consequences of which can be detrimental. This Note will discuss the standard that the Second Circuit uses to hold tippees liable for insider trading ...


The Regulation Of Insider Trading In The European Community, Manning Gilbert Warren Iii Apr 2019

The Regulation Of Insider Trading In The European Community, Manning Gilbert Warren Iii

Manning G. Warren III

No abstract provided.


Insider Trading Framework In United States And Egyptian Stock Markets, Elsayed Eldaydamony Jan 2019

Insider Trading Framework In United States And Egyptian Stock Markets, Elsayed Eldaydamony

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examines the law of insider trading in both the American and Egyptian legal systems. It seeks to pinpoint the policy rationale behind prohibiting insider trading, the theories of civil enforcement and criminalization, and the concept of tipping in the United States. It also analyzes the express statutory prohibition under Egyptian law. Furthermore, it explains the doctrinal link between securities fraud and insider trading in the U.S. as well as the enforcement mechanisms in place at the SEC, the NYSE, and the NASDAQ. It also surveys the surveillance authority of the Egyptian Financial Regularity Authority and of the ...


Securities Law In The Sixties: The Supreme Court, The Second Circuit, And The Triumph Of Purpose Over Text, Adam C. Pritchard, Robert B. Thompson Nov 2018

Securities Law In The Sixties: The Supreme Court, The Second Circuit, And The Triumph Of Purpose Over Text, Adam C. Pritchard, Robert B. Thompson

Articles

This Article analyzes the Supreme Court’s leading securities cases from 1962 to 1972—SEC v. Capital Gains Research Bureau, Inc.; J.I. Case Co. v. Borak; Mills v. Electric Auto-Lite Co.; Superintendent of Insurance v. Bankers Life & Casualty Co.; and Affiliated Ute of Utah v. United States—relying not just on the published opinions, but also the Justices’ internal letters, memos, and conference notes. The Sixties Court did not simply apply the text as enacted by Congress, but instead invoked the securities laws’ purposes as a guide to interpretation. The Court became a partner of Congress in shaping the securities laws ...


Informed Trading And Its Regulation, Merritt B. Fox, Lawrence R. Glosten, Gabriel V. Rauterberg Jun 2018

Informed Trading And Its Regulation, Merritt B. Fox, Lawrence R. Glosten, Gabriel V. Rauterberg

Articles

Informed trading--trading on information not yet reflected in a stock's price-- drives the stock market. Such informational advantages can arise from astute analysis of varied pieces of public news, from just released public information, or from confidential information from inside a firm. We argue that these disparate types of trading are all better regulated as part of the broader phenomenon of informed trading. Informed trading makes share prices more accurate, enhancing the allocation of capital, but also makes markets less liquid, which is costly to the efficiency of trade. Informed trading thus poses a fundamental trade-off in how it ...


Insider Trading Law And The Ambiguous Quest For Edge, A. C. Pritchard Apr 2018

Insider Trading Law And The Ambiguous Quest For Edge, A. C. Pritchard

Michigan Law Review

A review of Sheelah Kolhatkar, Black Edge.


Insider Tainting: Strategic Tipping Of Material Nonpublic Information, Andrew Verstein Feb 2018

Insider Tainting: Strategic Tipping Of Material Nonpublic Information, Andrew Verstein

Northwestern University Law Review

Insider trading law is meant to be a shield, protecting the market and investors from unscrupulous traders, but it can also be a sword. Insofar as we penalize trading on the basis of material, nonpublic information, it becomes possible to share information strategically in order to disable or constrain innocent investors. A hostile takeover can be averted, or a bidding war curtailed, because recipients of such information must then refrain from trading. This Article offers the first general account of “insider tainting,” an increasingly pervasive phenomenon of weaponizing insider trading law.


Insider Information And The Limits Of Insider Trading, Yesha Yadav Jan 2018

Insider Information And The Limits Of Insider Trading, Yesha Yadav

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

This essay offers brief observations on the internal coherence of the rationales underlying the prohibition against insider trading, taking the opportunity offered by Newman and Salman to reflect on its central policy aims. I do not discuss these cases specifically, or what a resolution by the Supreme Court might mean for the future of insider trading. Scholars and commentators have thoughtfully critiqued Newman alongside the doctrinal whiplash that has followed in its wake. Rather, I take this opportunity to look under the hood of securities trading to examine information flows within the mechanisms by which securities are bought and sold ...


From Texas Gulf Sulphur To Laudato Si': Mining Equitable Principles From Insider Trading Law, Michael Kaufman Jan 2018

From Texas Gulf Sulphur To Laudato Si': Mining Equitable Principles From Insider Trading Law, Michael Kaufman

Faculty Publications & Other Works

In SEC v. Texas Gulf Sulphur, the Second Circuit declared that all investors trading on impersonal exchanges should have equal access to material information, and therefore anyone who possesses material inside information must either turn it over to the investing public or not trade. The broad reach of that insider trading prohibition sent shock waves throughout the financial markets and encountered significant judicial resistance from the Supreme Court.

Although the Supreme Court initially rejected the insider trading prohibition announced in Texas Gulf Sulphur, the fundamental equitable trading principles underlying that decision have endured. This article shows that TGS was more ...


Constructive Ambiguity And Judicial Development Of Insider Trading, Jill E. Fisch Jan 2018

Constructive Ambiguity And Judicial Development Of Insider Trading, Jill E. Fisch

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The Texas Gulf Sulphur decision began what has become a fifty-year project of developing U.S. insider trading regulation through judicial lawmaking. During the course of that project, the courts developed a complex, fraud-based approach to determining the scope of liability. The approach has led, in many cases, to doctrinal uncertainty, a result that is reflected in the recent decisions in Newman, Salman, and Martoma.

n the face of this uncertainty, many commentators have called for a legislative solution. This article argues, however, that the true challenge of insider trading regulation is a lack of consensus about the appropriate scope ...


Why Salman Is A Game-Changer For The Political Intelligence Industry, Kendall R. Pauley Jan 2018

Why Salman Is A Game-Changer For The Political Intelligence Industry, Kendall R. Pauley

American University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Two Faces Of Corporate Lobbying: Evidence From The Pharmaceutical Industry, Dongnyoung Kim, Incheol Kim, Omer Unsal Oct 2016

Two Faces Of Corporate Lobbying: Evidence From The Pharmaceutical Industry, Dongnyoung Kim, Incheol Kim, Omer Unsal

Finance Faculty Publications

This paper addresses two side effects of corporate lobbying on firm value in the pharmaceutical industry. Employing corporate lobbying and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval data for the period from 1998 to 2013, we find that lobbying firms have a 67.3 percent higher chance that their new prescription drugs are approved by the FDA than non-lobbying firms. On the 3-day window surrounding FDA approval announcements, lobbying firms yield, on average, a 1.1% higher market reaction than non-lobbying peers. However, we also find that insiders in lobbying firms abnormally purchase their own stocks prior to FDA approvals ...


The Sec, Administrative Usurpation, And Insider Trading, Adam C. Pritchard Oct 2016

The Sec, Administrative Usurpation, And Insider Trading, Adam C. Pritchard

Articles

The history of insider trading law is a tale of administrative usurpation and legislative acquiescence. Congress has never enacted a prohibition against insider trading, much less defined it. Instead, the SEC has led in defining insider trading, albeit without the formality of rulemaking, and subject to varying degrees of oversight by the courts. The reason why lies in the deference that the Supreme Court gave to the SEC in its formative years. The roots of insider trading law are commonly traced to the SEC’s decision in Cady, Roberts & Co. Cady, Roberts was only made possible, however, by the Supreme ...


When Insider Trading And Market Manipulation Cross Jurisdictions: What Are The Challenges For Securities Regulators And How Can They Best Preserve The Integrity Of Markets?, Janet Elizabeth Austin Jan 2016

When Insider Trading And Market Manipulation Cross Jurisdictions: What Are The Challenges For Securities Regulators And How Can They Best Preserve The Integrity Of Markets?, Janet Elizabeth Austin

PhD Dissertations

Over the last few decades world securities markets have become significantly more sophisticated in terms of how securities are traded as well as the variety of securities traded. My hypothesis is that the ability of securities regulators to take enforcement action against market abuse has not kept pace with the level of sophistication of the markets and, in particular, the way in which trading can take place across borders and the manner in which market related information can spread rapidly across the world. I argue that that regulators need to do more to protect the integrity of the markets by ...


When Does Corporate Criminal Liability For Insider Trading Make Sense?, John P. Anderson Jan 2016

When Does Corporate Criminal Liability For Insider Trading Make Sense?, John P. Anderson

Journal Articles

It is clear that not all insider trading is victimless, and not all employers of insider traders are innocent. But I am convinced that these critics are correct to point out that the current enforcement regime is absurdly overbroad in that it affords no principled guarantee to corporate victims of insider trading that they will not be indicted for the crimes perpetrated against them. The law should be reformed to ensure that corporations are only held criminally liable where they are guilty of some wrongdoing.


Family Ties: Salman And The Scope Of Insider Trading, Jill E. Fisch Jan 2016

Family Ties: Salman And The Scope Of Insider Trading, Jill E. Fisch

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

On October 5, 2016, the Supreme Court heard oral argument in Salman v. United States. Salman raises questions about the scope of insider trading liability for tippees under the personal benefit test previously articulated in Dirks v. SEC. Some critics have argued the Second Circuit’s decision last year in United States v. Newman demonstrates that the personal benefit test is unduly restrictive and should be reconsidered. Salman offers an opportunity for the Supreme Court to do so.

This essay argues that Salman does not require the Court to reexamine the parameters of insider trading liability. Instead, the Court can ...


No More Quid Pro Quo: Abandoning The Personal Benefit Requirement In Insider Trading Law, Shannon Seiferth Jan 2016

No More Quid Pro Quo: Abandoning The Personal Benefit Requirement In Insider Trading Law, Shannon Seiferth

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

A circuit split between the Second Circuit’s 2014 decision, United States v. Newman, and the Ninth Circuit’s 2015 decision, United States v. Salman, illustrates problems in insider trading law dating back over thirty years to the Supreme Court’s decision in Dirks v. SEC. Dirks held that when a corporate insider provides information to an outside party who then trades on the information, it must be shown that the insider received some form of a personal benefit for providing the information in order to impute liability. The courts in Newman and Salman disagreed on the sort of evidence ...


Salman V. United States: Insider Trading's Tipping Point?, Donna M. Nagy Jan 2016

Salman V. United States: Insider Trading's Tipping Point?, Donna M. Nagy

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


Beyond Dirks: Gratuitous Tipping And Insider Trading, Donna M. Nagy Jan 2016

Beyond Dirks: Gratuitous Tipping And Insider Trading, Donna M. Nagy

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Did an investment banker who gratuitously shared material nonpublic information with his brother, with no expectation of receiving anything in return, commit securities fraud? And is the investment banker's brother-in-law jointly liable for trading securities on the basis of what he knew to be gratuitous tips? The Supreme Court is poised to answer those questions in Salman v. United States, after steering clear of insider trading law for nearly two decades. It has been even longer still since the Court last addressed securities fraud liability relating to stock trading tips-it articulated a "personal benefit" test for joint tipper-tippee liability ...


Behind Enemy Phone Lines: Insider Trading, Parallel Enforcement, And Sharing The Fruits Of Wiretaps, Alexandra N. Mogul Dec 2015

Behind Enemy Phone Lines: Insider Trading, Parallel Enforcement, And Sharing The Fruits Of Wiretaps, Alexandra N. Mogul

Fordham Law Review

Two key trends were present in the successful prosecution of Raj Rajaratnam and his coconspirators in one of the largest insider-trading conspiracies in history: the use of wiretaps to investigate and prosecute insider trading and a joint effort between the Department of Justice (DOJ) and the Securities & Exchange Commission (SEC) to conduct the investigation. Despite the close working relationship between the DOJ and the SEC, the DOJ never disclosed the fruits of the wiretaps to the SEC, presumably due to its belief that Title III of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 (as amended, the “Wiretap ...


Liability For Insider Trading: Expansion Of Liability In Rule 10b-5 Cases, Arthur J. Marinelli Jul 2015

Liability For Insider Trading: Expansion Of Liability In Rule 10b-5 Cases, Arthur J. Marinelli

Akron Law Review

This article will examine the recent litigation developments of Section 10 and Rule 10-b in Carpenter v. United States and in Basic, Inc. v. Levinson. The origins and developments of the misappropriation theory and the application of the mail fraud statutes as applied to Section 10 will also be discussed. Finally, the duty of disclosure and the timing of disclosure of merger negotiations, along with the fraud-on-the-market theory of civil liability under Rule 10b-5, will be explored in the context of the Basic case.


Dirks And The Genesis Of Personal Benefit, Adam C. Pritchard Jun 2015

Dirks And The Genesis Of Personal Benefit, Adam C. Pritchard

Articles

In United States v. Newman, the Second Circuit overturned the insider trading convictions of two hedge fund managers who received material nonpublic information from public companies via an extended tipping chain. The Newman court interpreted the Supreme Court's decision in Dirks v. SEC as requiring that the government prove: (1) that the tippee knew that the tipper was disclosing the information in exchange for a personal benefit; and (2) that if the personal benefit does not involve a quid pro quo to the tipper, that the disclosure arise from a "meaningfully close personal relationship" with the recipient of the ...


Governing The Corporate Insiders: Improving Regulation Fair Disclosure With More Robust Guidance And Stronger Penalties For Individual Executives, Christopher Ippoliti May 2015

Governing The Corporate Insiders: Improving Regulation Fair Disclosure With More Robust Guidance And Stronger Penalties For Individual Executives, Christopher Ippoliti

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

This article discusses the history of Regulation Fair Disclosure (Regulation FD), the problems it was intended to remedy, the scope of the regulation, and acceptable methods of disclosing material information in compliance with the rule. Part III examines specific further guidance and two investigative reports issued by the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) impacting Regulation FD disclosures. In Part IV, this article sets forth a comprehensive analysis of all the specific enforcement actions pursued by the SEC and the penalties assessed against publicly traded companies and individuals for Regulation FD violations. Part V evaluates the effectiveness of the ...


Securities Regulations Investigations - United States-Swiss Treaty Attempts To Increase Cooperation In Releasing Names Of Swiss-Based Account Holders Involved In United States Securities And Exchange Commission Investigations, Daniel B. Simon Iii Feb 2015

Securities Regulations Investigations - United States-Swiss Treaty Attempts To Increase Cooperation In Releasing Names Of Swiss-Based Account Holders Involved In United States Securities And Exchange Commission Investigations, Daniel B. Simon Iii

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Are Takeover Premiums Really Premiums? Market Price, Fair Value, And Corporate Law, Lynn Stout Feb 2015

Are Takeover Premiums Really Premiums? Market Price, Fair Value, And Corporate Law, Lynn Stout

Lynn A. Stout

No abstract provided.


What’S The Harm In Issuer-Licensed Insider Trading?, John P. Anderson Jan 2015

What’S The Harm In Issuer-Licensed Insider Trading?, John P. Anderson

Journal Articles

There is growing support for the claim that issuer-licensed insider trading (when the insider’s firm approves the trade in advance and has disclosed that it permits such trading pursuant to published guidelines) is economically efficient and morally harmless. But for the last thirty-five years, many scholars and the U.S. Supreme Court have relied on Professor William Wang’s “Law of Conservation of Securities” to rebut claims that insider trading can be victimless. This law is purported to show that every act of insider trading, even those licensed by the issuer, causes an identifiable harm to someone. This article ...


Anticipating A Sea Change For Insider Trading Law: From Trading Plan Crisis To Rational Reform, John P. Anderson Jan 2015

Anticipating A Sea Change For Insider Trading Law: From Trading Plan Crisis To Rational Reform, John P. Anderson

Journal Articles

The Securities and Exchange Commission is poised to take action in the face of compelling evidence that corporate insiders are availing themselves of rule-sanctioned Trading Plans to beat the market. These Trading Plans allow insiders to trade while aware of material nonpublic information. Since the market advantage insiders have enjoyed from Plan trading can be traced to loopholes in the current regulatory scheme, increased enforcement of the existing rules cannot address the issue. But, simply tweaking the existing rule structure to close these loopholes would not work either. This is because the SEC adopted the current rule as a part ...


Federal Securities Fraud Litigation As A Lawmaking Partnership, Jill E. Fisch Jan 2015

Federal Securities Fraud Litigation As A Lawmaking Partnership, Jill E. Fisch

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In its most recent Halliburton II decision, the Supreme Court rejected an effort to overrule its prior decision in Basic Inc. v. Levinson. The Court reasoned that adherence to Basic was warranted by principles of stare decisis that operate with “special force” in the context of statutory interpretation. This Article offers an alternative justification for adhering to Basic—the collaboration between the Court and Congress that has led to the development of the private class action for federal securities fraud. The Article characterizes this collaboration as a lawmaking partnership and argues that such a partnership offers distinctive lawmaking advantages.

Halliburton ...


Abandoning The ‘Mosaic Theory’: Why The ‘Mosaic Theory’ Of Securities Analysis Constitutes Illegal Insider Trading And What To Do About It, Aaron S. Davidowitz Jan 2015

Abandoning The ‘Mosaic Theory’: Why The ‘Mosaic Theory’ Of Securities Analysis Constitutes Illegal Insider Trading And What To Do About It, Aaron S. Davidowitz

Washington University Journal of Law & Policy

This Note proposes that the mosaic theory is an unlawful method of securities analysis constituting illegal insider trading based on the tipper/tippee theory of liability established in Dirks v. SEC. This Note addresses the meaning and history of the mosaic theory as it has evolved over time and discusses the history of insider trading law in the United States in an effort to understand why the mosaic theory violates those laws. It analyzes the confluence of insider trading law and the mosaic theory, showing why the mosaic theory violates insider trading law. Finally, this Note identifies the costs and ...