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Securities Law Commons

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2014

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Articles 1 - 30 of 257

Full-Text Articles in Securities Law

Market Collaboration: Finance, Culture, And Ethnography After Neoliberalism, Annelise Riles Dec 2014

Market Collaboration: Finance, Culture, And Ethnography After Neoliberalism, Annelise Riles

Annelise Riles

In the wake of the disasters of March 2011, financial regulators and financial-risk management experts in Japan expressed little hope that much could be done nor did they take great interest in defining possible policy interventions. This curious response to regulatory crisis coincided with a new fascination with culturalist explanations of financial markets, on the one hand, and a resort to what I term “data politics”—a politics of intensified data collection—on the other. In this article, I analyze these developments as being exemplary of a new regulatory moment characterized by a loss of faith in both free market ...


In Praise Of Investor Irrationality, Gregory La Blanc, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski Dec 2014

In Praise Of Investor Irrationality, Gregory La Blanc, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski

Jeffrey J. Rachlinski

How should a market filled with investors who chronically make bad investments, but is nevertheless efficient, be regulated? A growing body of evidence suggests that this is the state of most securities markets; investors rely on cognitive processes that produce systematically bad choices, and yet the market remains largely efficient. In fact, cognitive errors might be essential to their efficient operation. Even investors who make systematic errors also often possess real and unique information that can contribute to accurate pricing of securities. If such investors became mindful of their limited ability to distinguish between real information and erroneous information, they ...


Fraud By Hindsight, G. Mitu Gulati, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski, Donald C. Langevoort Dec 2014

Fraud By Hindsight, G. Mitu Gulati, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski, Donald C. Langevoort

Jeffrey J. Rachlinski

In securities-fraud cases, courts routinely admonish plaintiffs that they are not permitted to rely on allegations of "fraud by hindsight." In effect, courts disfavor plaintiffs' use of evidence of bad outcomes to support claims of securities fraud. Disfavoring hindsight evidence appears to tap into a well known, well-understood, and intuitively accessible problem of human judgment of "20/20 hindsight." Events come to seem predictable after unfolding, and hence, bad outcomes must have been predicted by people in a position to make forecasts. Psychologists call this phenomenon the hindsight bias. The popularity of this doctrine among judges deciding securities cases suggests ...


The Quiet Metamorphosis: How Derivatives Changed The "Business Of Banking", Saule T. Omarova Dec 2014

The Quiet Metamorphosis: How Derivatives Changed The "Business Of Banking", Saule T. Omarova

Saule T. Omarova

In the wake of an unprecedented global financial crisis, one of the fundamental questions preoccupying policymakers and students of financial regulation worldwide is "How did we get here?" This Article uncovers and analyzes an important part of our recent regulatory history, which provides a key to understanding some of the deeper, hidden causes of the crisis but whose significance legal scholars have so far failed to appreciate. The Article examines interpretive letters issued by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC), the primary regulator of federally chartered U.S. banks, interpreting the National Bank Act of 1863 to ...


The Development Of A Global Market-Based Debt Strategy To Regulate Private Lending To Developing Countries, Bradley K. Boyd Dec 2014

The Development Of A Global Market-Based Debt Strategy To Regulate Private Lending To Developing Countries, Bradley K. Boyd

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Paying Paul And Robbing No One: An Eminent Domain Solution For Underwater Mortgage Debt, Robert C. Hockett Dec 2014

Paying Paul And Robbing No One: An Eminent Domain Solution For Underwater Mortgage Debt, Robert C. Hockett

Robert C. Hockett

In the view of many analysts, the best way to assist “underwater” homeowners — those who owe more on their mortgages than their houses are worth — is to reduce the principal on their home loans. Yet in the case of privately securitized mortgages, such write-downs are almost impossible to carry out, since loan modifications on the scale necessitated by the housing market crash would require collective action by a multitude of geographically dispersed security holders. The solution, this study suggests, is for state and municipal governments to use their eminent domain powers to buy up and restructure underwater mortgages, thereby sidestepping ...


A Federalist Blessing In Disguise: From National Inaction To Local Action On Underwater Mortgages, Robert C. Hockett, John Vlahoplus Dec 2014

A Federalist Blessing In Disguise: From National Inaction To Local Action On Underwater Mortgages, Robert C. Hockett, John Vlahoplus

Robert C. Hockett

While it is widely recognized that the mortgage debt overhang left by the housing price bubble and bust continues to operate as the principal drag upon U.S. macroeconomic recovery, few seem to appreciate just how locally concentrated the problem is. This paper takes the measure of the national mortgage debt overhang problem as a cluster of local problems warranting local action. It then elaborates on one form of such action that the localized nature of the ongoing mortgage crisis justifies - use of municipal eminent domain authority to purchase underwater loans, then modify them in a manner that benefits debtors ...


The Macroprudential Turn: From Institutional “Safety And Soundness” To “Systemic Stability” In Financial Supervision, Robert C. Hockett Dec 2014

The Macroprudential Turn: From Institutional “Safety And Soundness” To “Systemic Stability” In Financial Supervision, Robert C. Hockett

Robert C. Hockett

This Working Paper is no longer available. The published version of this article is available at: http://scholarship.law.cornell.edu/facpub/1405/ Since the global financial dramas of 2008-09, authorities on financial regulation have come increasingly to counsel the inclusion of macroprudential policy instruments in the standard ‘toolkit’ of finance-regulatory measures employed by financial supervisors. The hallmark of this perspective is its focus not simply on the safety and soundness of individual financial institutions, as is characteristic of the traditional ‘microprudential’ perspective, but also on certain structural features of financial systems that can imperil such systems as wholes. Systemic ...


Accidental Suicide Pacts And Creditor Collective Action Problems: The Mortgage Mess, The Deadweight Loss, And How To Get The Value Back, Robert C. Hockett Dec 2014

Accidental Suicide Pacts And Creditor Collective Action Problems: The Mortgage Mess, The Deadweight Loss, And How To Get The Value Back, Robert C. Hockett

Robert C. Hockett

Sustained economic recovery will remain elusive in America, post-crash, until principal is reduced on some 10-13 million underwater home mortgage loans across the nation. Yet in the case of privately securitized loans, these write-downs are all but impossible to carry out on the requisite scale because bubble-era securitization contracts, which now effectively function as suicide pacts among bondholders, would require collective action by millions of geographically dispersed passive investors in order to authorize write-downs or sales out of securitization trusts. The solution, this article suggests, is for state and municipal governments to use their eminent domain powers to buy up ...


Opening The Gate To Money Market Fund Reform, Hester Peirce, Robert Greene Dec 2014

Opening The Gate To Money Market Fund Reform, Hester Peirce, Robert Greene

Pace Law Review

This article proceeds as follows. Part I outlines briefly the background of MMFs. Part II discusses the role of the board of directors in governing MMFs, a role upon which our proposal would build. Part III discusses MMF-related events during the financial crisis of 2007-2008 and describes the government’s response to these events. Part IV describes the reforms the SEC instituted in 2010. Part V outlines options for further reform. Part VI outlines and discusses benefits and drawbacks of our proposed solution—unrestricted discretionary gating by fund boards. Part VII concludes.


Securities - Insider Trading - The Effects Of The New Eec Draft Insider Trading Directive, Douglas A. Nystrom Dec 2014

Securities - Insider Trading - The Effects Of The New Eec Draft Insider Trading Directive, Douglas A. Nystrom

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Bringing Coherence To Mens Rea Analysis For Securities-Related Offenses, Michael L. Seigel Dec 2014

Bringing Coherence To Mens Rea Analysis For Securities-Related Offenses, Michael L. Seigel

Michael L Seigel

This Article has demonstrated that the failure of commentators and the courts to tackle mens rea analysis head-on has resulted in lasting incoherence in the law. Unintelligible legal doctrine does not simply upset individuals who strive for elegant solutions to legal problems; it also exacts a huge, real-life toll. Juries faced with incoherent legal instructions are likely to become disillusioned about the justice system. Citizens receive inadequate guidance as to acceptable and unacceptable behavior, hampering deterrence -- particularly in the securities-law arena, where one presumably finds mostly rational actors who would be deterred by clear legal rules. Securities regulation is complicated ...


Corporate America Fights Back: The Battle Over Waiver Of The Attorney-Client Privilege, Michael L. Seigel Dec 2014

Corporate America Fights Back: The Battle Over Waiver Of The Attorney-Client Privilege, Michael L. Seigel

Michael L Seigel

This Article addresses a topic that is the subject of an on-going and heated contest between the business lobby and its lawyers, on the one side, and the U.S. Department of Justice on the other. The fight is over federal prosecutors' escalating practice of requesting that corporations accused of criminal wrongdoing waive their attorney-client privilege as part of their cooperation with the government. The Department of Justice views privilege waiver as a legitimate and critical tool in its post-Enron battle against white collar crime. The business lobby views it as encroaching on corporations' fundamental right to protect confidential attorney-client ...


The Fragmented Regulation Of Investment Advice: A Call For Harmonization, Christine Lazaro, Benjamin P. Edwards Dec 2014

The Fragmented Regulation Of Investment Advice: A Call For Harmonization, Christine Lazaro, Benjamin P. Edwards

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

Decades of short-term thinking and regulatory fixes created the bewilderingly complex statutory and regulatory structures governing the giving of personalized investment advice to retail customers. Although deeply flawed, the current systems remain entrenched because of the difficulties inherent in making radical alterations. Importantly, the current patchwork systems do not seem to serve retail customers particularly well. Retail customers tend to make predictable and costly mistakes in allocating their assets. Some of this occurs because many investors lack basic financial literacy. A recent study released by the staff of the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) on financial literacy among investors ...


The Volcker Rule, Banking Entities, And Covered Funds Activities, Jeffrey Koh, Kyle Gaughan Dec 2014

The Volcker Rule, Banking Entities, And Covered Funds Activities, Jeffrey Koh, Kyle Gaughan

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

With the passage of the 2010 Dodd-Frank Act, Congress instituted a host of new laws attempting to protect consumers from the types of risky trading that led to the 2008 economic crisis. However, many of the new rules and regulations, including the Volcker Rule, are yet to fully take effect. Among other restrictions, the Volcker Rule attempts to curtail risky trading by limiting banking entity investments in private equity and venture capital funds. As the Volcker Rule nears its implementation deadline, banking entities are concerned that they will face substantial losses in having to comply with the Volcker Rule by ...


A Comparative Analysis Of Shareholder Derivative Litigations In Taiwan: Rethinking Of Law, Implementation, And Suggestion, Ting-Hsien Cheng Dec 2014

A Comparative Analysis Of Shareholder Derivative Litigations In Taiwan: Rethinking Of Law, Implementation, And Suggestion, Ting-Hsien Cheng

Theses and Dissertations

Since the 1990s, Taiwan’s capital market has been tarnished by several corporate scandals, many involving managerial embezzlements and false/misleading financial reports. One of the main reasons why these scandals frequently occurred is the lack of an effective system of checks-and-balances or good corporate governance mechanisms within Taiwan’s companies. To deal with this deficiency for corporate governance, there have been many discussions in Taiwan’s academia of corporate laws about how to reform the provisions of Taiwan Company Act, especially for a better internal monitoring mechanism.

In fact, in last two decades, Taiwan has taken a series of ...


Broker-Dealers And Investment Advisers: A Behaviorial-Economics Analysis Of Competing Suggestions For Reform, Polina Demina Dec 2014

Broker-Dealers And Investment Advisers: A Behaviorial-Economics Analysis Of Competing Suggestions For Reform, Polina Demina

Michigan Law Review

For the average investor trying to save for retirement or a child’s college fund, the world of investing has become increasingly complex. These retail investors must turn more frequently to financial intermediaries, such as broker-dealers and investment advisers, to get sound investment advice. Such intermediaries perform different duties for their clients, however. The investment adviser owes his client a fiduciary duty of care and therefore must provide financial advice that is in the client’s best interests, while the broker-dealer must merely provide advice that is suitable to the client’s interests—a lower standard than the fiduciary duty ...


Who Sits On Texas Corporate Boards? Texas Corporate Directors: Who They Are & What They Do, Lawrence J. Trautman Nov 2014

Who Sits On Texas Corporate Boards? Texas Corporate Directors: Who They Are & What They Do, Lawrence J. Trautman

Lawrence J. Trautman Sr.

Corporate directors play an important role in governing American business, in the capital formation process, and are fundamental to the stewardship of economic growth. Texas businesses play a disproportionately important role among the states in aggregate U.S. job creation, responsible for 37% of all net new American jobs since the post 2008-2009 recovery began. It is the job of the board of directors to govern the corporation. The duties and responsibilities of a corporate director include: the duty of care; duty of loyalty; and duty of good faith. This paper results from the author’s previously assembled biographical data ...


Capital Offense: The Sec's Continuing Failure To Address Small Business Financing Concerns, Stuart R. Cohn, Gregory C. Yadley Nov 2014

Capital Offense: The Sec's Continuing Failure To Address Small Business Financing Concerns, Stuart R. Cohn, Gregory C. Yadley

Stuart R. Cohn

Despite years of criticism from small business advocates, the Securities and Exchange Commission has made little effort to ameliorate the severe burdens on small companies seeking to raise capital in compliance with the Securities Act of 1933 and SEC regulations. Substantial SEC attention has been given in recent years to improving the capacity of large, publicly-held companies to market securities, but smaller companies have suffered from less-than-benign neglect. Responding to this concern, the SEC recently adopted several proposals, and has others pending, aimed at small business financing. These proposals and adoptions, while modestly helpful, fall far short of addressing the ...


The Sitting Ducks Of Securities Class Action Litigation: Bio-Pharmas And The Need For Improved Evaluation Of Scientific Data, Stuart R. Cohn, Erin M. Swick Nov 2014

The Sitting Ducks Of Securities Class Action Litigation: Bio-Pharmas And The Need For Improved Evaluation Of Scientific Data, Stuart R. Cohn, Erin M. Swick

Stuart R. Cohn

Rule 10b-5, a powerful weapon against any publicly-listed company whose share price drops on adverse news, is particularly skewed against pharmaceutical and other bio-technology companies (bio-pharmas). It is not a coincidence that there is a disproportionate number of class actions filed against bio-pharmas. The volume and complexity of data underlying most bio-pharma cases create enormous outcome uncertainties, settlement pressures, and potentially huge contingent liabilities over substantial periods of time. The vulnerability and risks that bio-pharmas face in Rule 10b-5 class actions are unique among all publicly-traded industries, yet many cases proceed along traditional grounds without courts employing either their statutory ...


The New Crowdfunding Registration Exemption: Good Idea, Bad Execution, Stuart R. Cohn Nov 2014

The New Crowdfunding Registration Exemption: Good Idea, Bad Execution, Stuart R. Cohn

Stuart R. Cohn

Title III of the JOBS Act, signed by President Obama on April 5, 2012, sets forth a new exemption from federal and state securities registration for so-called “crowdfunding” promotions. Crowdfunding is an increasingly popular form of raising capital through broad-based internet solicitation of donors. Many promotions simply seek charitable or other donations. But the lure of raising funds through the internet has also led to promotions for potentially profitable ventures that offer an economic return to donors. These efforts invoke the federal and state securities laws, as there are no de minimis standards protecting even the smallest of offerings. Registration ...


Reverse Cross-Listings -- The Coming Race To List In Emerging Markets And An Enhanced Understanding Of Classical Bonding, Nicholas C. Howson, Vikramaditya S. Khanna Nov 2014

Reverse Cross-Listings -- The Coming Race To List In Emerging Markets And An Enhanced Understanding Of Classical Bonding, Nicholas C. Howson, Vikramaditya S. Khanna

Law & Economics Working Papers

This paper examines the implications for the traditional "legal bonding" hypothesis arising from future "reverse" cross-listings, meaning the cross-listing by issuers from jurisdictions with stronger investor protections into capital markets and on exchanges where investor protections are deemed less robust. We use as examples the first "Indian Depositary Receipt" or IDR IPO in May 2010, and IPOs we believe will complete on a future Shanghai Stock Exchange "international board". This analysis serves to dilute one of the long-standing negative implications of the traditional legal bonding account -- that reverse cross-listings by issuers from jurisdictions with stronger investor protections into weaker investor ...


The Outside Investor: Citizen Shareholders & Corporate Alienation, Anne M. Tucker Nov 2014

The Outside Investor: Citizen Shareholders & Corporate Alienation, Anne M. Tucker

Anne Tucker

This Article explores the creation and conundrum of citizen shareholders - investors who enter the securities market primarily through employer-sponsored defined-contribution plans, invest in mutual or index funds, and are saving for long-term goals like retirement. Citizen shareholders are a consequence of a retirement revolution, and are the fastest growing group of investors. Citizen shareholders are distinguishable from other shareholders on the grounds of choice, exit, and the number of intermediaries inserted into the investment chain in defined-contribution plans. They are largely missing from corporate policy and scholarship debates; few discussions have incorporated the growing reality that shareholder status has changed ...


Unilateral Forum Selection Clauses In Corporate Bylaws: A Synopsis Of The Debate, Bryce Cullinane Nov 2014

Unilateral Forum Selection Clauses In Corporate Bylaws: A Synopsis Of The Debate, Bryce Cullinane

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

No abstract provided.


The Short Road Home To Delaware: Boilermakers Local 154 Retirement Fund V. Chevron, Anne M. Tucker Nov 2014

The Short Road Home To Delaware: Boilermakers Local 154 Retirement Fund V. Chevron, Anne M. Tucker

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

One of the biggest Delaware Supreme Court cases of 2013 wasn’t. The Delaware Court of Chancery opinion in Boilermakers Local 154 Retirement Fund v. Chevron Corp., upheld the enforceability of Delaware forum selection clause bylaws unilaterally adopted by corporate boards of directors. It was widely expected that the Delaware Supreme Court would uphold the Court of Chancery’s opinion. However, Plaintiffs dismissed their appeal and moved to dismiss their remaining claims in the Court of Chancery, leaving intact Chancellor Strine’s strong support of forum selection clauses. National Industries Group (Holding) v. Carlyle Investment Managements L.L.C. and ...


Exploring The Standard Of Review Of Transactions With Controlling Shareholders After In Re Mfw Shareholders Litigation (Decided May 29th, 2013), Miriam Bitton, Odelia Minnes Nov 2014

Exploring The Standard Of Review Of Transactions With Controlling Shareholders After In Re Mfw Shareholders Litigation (Decided May 29th, 2013), Miriam Bitton, Odelia Minnes

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

This Article will begin with a review of the MFW case, followed by a review of the judicial history prior to this decision. Then it will try to analyze, albeit partially, some of the reasons for why this judgment is timely and reasonable considering changes that occurred in the last decades. It will also address some of the courts' reasoning and its persuasiveness.


Lessons Of 2013: The Perils Of "Ready, Fire, Aim" And The Importance Of An Integrated Litigation Strategy In Corporate Governance Matters, Thad A. Davis, Leslie A. Wulff Nov 2014

Lessons Of 2013: The Perils Of "Ready, Fire, Aim" And The Importance Of An Integrated Litigation Strategy In Corporate Governance Matters, Thad A. Davis, Leslie A. Wulff

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

No abstract provided.


Fall 2013 Symposium: Contemporary Trends In Corporate Litigation, Robert Anderson Iv, Myron T. Steele, Katherine J. Blair, Thad A. Davis, James R. Griffin, James J. Moloney Nov 2014

Fall 2013 Symposium: Contemporary Trends In Corporate Litigation, Robert Anderson Iv, Myron T. Steele, Katherine J. Blair, Thad A. Davis, James R. Griffin, James J. Moloney

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

No abstract provided.


The Jobs Act: Encouraging Capital Formation But Not Ipos, Jesse Scott Nov 2014

The Jobs Act: Encouraging Capital Formation But Not Ipos, Jesse Scott

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

This note will analyze several of the key provisions of the JOBS Act and their effect on raising capital for small growth companies. The scope of this note will exclude the Title III crowdfunding provisions, as there is already substantial discussion about the topic in the legal and business communities. Part II discusses the IPO registration process. Part III explores the JOBS Act and its effect on securities regulation. Specifically, this note will cover the Title I IPO on-ramp, the Title II changes to Regulation D, the Title IV changes to Regulation A and 144A, and finally the Title V ...


Aml In The Spotlight: Compliance Risks For Broker-Dealers And Investment Advisers, John H. Walsh, Cecilia Baute Mavico Nov 2014

Aml In The Spotlight: Compliance Risks For Broker-Dealers And Investment Advisers, John H. Walsh, Cecilia Baute Mavico

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

In light of regulators' renewed attention, this article discusses recent events, reviews AML enforcement actions against securities firms, and identifies the compliance risks they suggest. The article concludes that the time has come for broker-dealers and advisers alike to take a holistic view of compliance and their AML risks, and to prepare for enhanced oversight and regulation.