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Securities Law Commons

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2006

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Articles 1 - 30 of 131

Full-Text Articles in Securities Law

Regulating Public Morals And Private Markets: Online Securities Trading, Internet Gambling And The Speculation Paradox, A. Christine Hurt Dec 2006

Regulating Public Morals And Private Markets: Online Securities Trading, Internet Gambling And The Speculation Paradox, A. Christine Hurt

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


What Google Can't Teach Us About Ipo Auctions (And What It Can), A. Christine Hurt Dec 2006

What Google Can't Teach Us About Ipo Auctions (And What It Can), A. Christine Hurt

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Give Me Equity Or Give Me Death - The Role Of Competition And Compensation In Building Silicon Valley, Richard A. Booth Dec 2006

Give Me Equity Or Give Me Death - The Role Of Competition And Compensation In Building Silicon Valley, Richard A. Booth

Working Paper Series

In this essay, I argue that the preeminence of Silicon Valley as an incubator of technology companies is attributable to equity compensation. Ronald Gilson, relying on the work of AnnaLee Saxenian and others who have noted the tendency of Silicon Valley employees to job hop, has suggested that California law prohibiting the enforcement of non-compete agreements was a major factor in the rise of Silicon Valley (and the demise of Route 128). I extend this line of thought by suggesting that California employers may have relied on equity compensation as a substitute way to bind employees. I argue further that ...


Materiality And Social Change: The Case For Replacing "The Reasonable Investor" With "The Least Sophisticated Investor" In Inefficient Markets, Margaret V. Sachs Dec 2006

Materiality And Social Change: The Case For Replacing "The Reasonable Investor" With "The Least Sophisticated Investor" In Inefficient Markets, Margaret V. Sachs

Scholarly Works

The current materiality standard for federal securities fraud is a mid-twentieth-century construct that fails to accommodate certain twenty-first century realities. This Article argues that its reach should be restricted to preserve it for the many circumstances in which it continues to function well.

The current standard measures materiality from the standpoint of "the reasonable investor," a savvy person who grasps market fundamentals. This standard has a fatal flaw: its inability to protect unsophisticated investors who are duped by implausible falsehoods in inefficient markets. This flaw can no longer be ignored given Internet and telemarketing securities fraud and its many unsophisticated ...


Law, Norms, And The Breakdown Of The Board, Renee M. Jones Nov 2006

Law, Norms, And The Breakdown Of The Board, Renee M. Jones

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

This Article considers the dominant claim in corporate law literature that extra-legal mechanisms such as markets and social norms provide adequate safeguards against corporate mismanagement and opportunism. After noting recognized deficiencies in the arguments from market discipline, the Article draws on psychological insights to show that certain behavioral phenomena prevent social norms from appropriately constraining corporate conduct. It then argues that because neither markets nor social norms can sufficiently discipline corporate officials, a credible accountability mechanism is necessary to prevent director conduct standards from deteriorating. Unfortunately, an inveterate tradition of judicial deference in corporate law has undermined the role of ...


Ex Ante Choices Of Law And Forum: An Empirical Analysis Of Corporate Merger Agreements, Theodore Eisenberg, Geoffrey P. Miller Nov 2006

Ex Ante Choices Of Law And Forum: An Empirical Analysis Of Corporate Merger Agreements, Theodore Eisenberg, Geoffrey P. Miller

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

Legal scholars have focused much attention on the incorporation puzzle—why business corporations so heavily favor Delaware as the site of incorporation. This paper suggests that the focus on the incorporation decision overlooks a broader but intimately related set of questions. The choice of Delaware as a situs of incorporation is, effectively, a choice of law decision. A company electing to charter in Delaware selects Delaware law (and authorizes Delaware courts to adjudicate legal disputes) regarding the allocation of governance authority within the firm. In this sense, the incorporation decision is fundamentally similar to any setting in which a company ...


Ley Federal Del Procedimiento Contencioso Administrativo., Bruno L. Costantini García Oct 2006

Ley Federal Del Procedimiento Contencioso Administrativo., Bruno L. Costantini García

Bruno L. Costantini García

Ponencia sobre la Ley Federal del Procedimiento Contencioso Administrativo, impartida por Bruno L. Costantini García.


A Complete Property Right Amendment, John H. Ryskamp Oct 2006

A Complete Property Right Amendment, John H. Ryskamp

ExpressO

The trend of the eminent domain reform and "Kelo plus" initiatives is toward a comprehensive Constitutional property right incorporating the elements of level of review, nature of government action, and extent of compensation. This article contains a draft amendment which reflects these concerns.


Confidential Informants In Private Litigation: Balancing Interests In Anonymity And Disclosure, Ethan D. Wohl Oct 2006

Confidential Informants In Private Litigation: Balancing Interests In Anonymity And Disclosure, Ethan D. Wohl

ExpressO

Heightened pleading standards and limits on discovery in private securities fraud actions make confidential informants crucial in many cases. While courts have widely recognized the importance of confidential informants and the need to protect them from retaliation, they have not applied consistent standards for how informants must be identified in pleadings, and have failed to take into account substantial bodies of relevant caselaw when deciding whether to require that informants’ names be disclosed in discovery.

This article offers a framework for when and how confidential informants should be identified, taking into account the competing interests in anonymity and disclosure. It ...


A Proposal To Revise The Sec Instructions For Reporting Waivers Of Corporate Codes Of Ethics For Conflicts Of Interest, Madoka Mori Oct 2006

A Proposal To Revise The Sec Instructions For Reporting Waivers Of Corporate Codes Of Ethics For Conflicts Of Interest, Madoka Mori

ExpressO

Enron’s collapse focused attention on the application of that company’s Code of Ethics to related-party transactions. That focus produced Section 406 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, which intends to regulate conflicts of interest between officers and their companies through codes of ethics that public companies adopt. Pursuant to SOX Section 406(a), the Securities Exchange Commission issued new regulations requiring each public company to disclose whether it has a code of ethics, and if a company has not adopted such a code, to explain why it has chosen not to do so. SEC rules also require each ...


O Mercado De Capitais E O Desenvolvimento Econômico E Social, Luiz Rafael De Vargas Maluf Oct 2006

O Mercado De Capitais E O Desenvolvimento Econômico E Social, Luiz Rafael De Vargas Maluf

Luiz Rafael de Vargas Maluf

Este trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar ao leitor a importância dada ao mercado de capitais para o desenvolvimento econômico, assim como o bem estar social da nação que pode ser conseguido através de investimentos nesta área. Ao longo das próximas páginas será demonstrado brevemente a repercussão histórica do mercado de capitais para a economia brasileira nas últimas décadas, sendo posteriormente vista a sua importante relação para o desenvolvimento econômico-social do país. Por último serão trazidos alguns questionamentos e sugestões de possíveis iniciativas a serem adotadas para o seu crescimento em geral, desmistificando muitos conceitos criados ao longo dos últimos anos ...


Weather, Leather, And The Obligation To Disclose: Kerr V. Danier Leather Inc., Anita Anand, Mary Condon Oct 2006

Weather, Leather, And The Obligation To Disclose: Kerr V. Danier Leather Inc., Anita Anand, Mary Condon

Osgoode Hall Law Journal

Is an issuer legally obliged to update its prospectus if a material event occurs following the receipt for the prospectus but prior to the closing of the offering? This is the crucial issue that is addressed in Kerr v. Danier Leather Inc., a case that has been heard at the trial and appeal levels in Ontario and that will be heard in 2007 by the Supreme Court of Canada. In this commentary, we argue that the Court of Appeal decision in the case overlooked crucial aspects of contemporary securities law and policy in holding that there is no obligation to ...


Conscripting Attorneys To Battle Corporate Fraud Without Shields Or Armor? Reconsidering Retaliatory Discharge In Light Of Sarbanes-Oxley, Kim T. Vu Oct 2006

Conscripting Attorneys To Battle Corporate Fraud Without Shields Or Armor? Reconsidering Retaliatory Discharge In Light Of Sarbanes-Oxley, Kim T. Vu

Michigan Law Review

This Note advocates that federal courts should allow attorneys to bring retaliatory discharge claims under SOX. Traditional rationales prohibiting the claims of retaliatory discharge by attorneys do not apply in the context of Sarbanes-Oxley. This Note contends that the Department of Labor and the federal courts should interpret the whistleblower provisions of § 806 as protecting attorneys who report under § 307. Assuring reporting attorneys that they have protection from retaliation will encourage them to whistleblow and thereby advance SOX's policy goal of ferreting out corporate fraud. Part I explores the legal landscape of retaliatory discharge suits by attorneys. This Part ...


Developing Governance And Regulation For Emerging Capital And Securities Markets, Ali A. Ibrahim Sep 2006

Developing Governance And Regulation For Emerging Capital And Securities Markets, Ali A. Ibrahim

Georgetown Law Graduate Paper Series

No abstract provided.


China’S Market Participation: The Case For A Paradigm Shift In Analyzing China’S Capital Market Regulation, David P. Finn Sep 2006

China’S Market Participation: The Case For A Paradigm Shift In Analyzing China’S Capital Market Regulation, David P. Finn

ExpressO

This paper deals with recent reforms governing China’s state owned enterprises and how those reforms affect both the domestic and international markets


Re-Thinking Securities Regulation: A Comparative Study Of Asx, Nyse, And Sgx , Benedict Sheehy Sep 2006

Re-Thinking Securities Regulation: A Comparative Study Of Asx, Nyse, And Sgx , Benedict Sheehy

ExpressO

This article approaches the issue of securities regulation starting with an examination of the nature and role of markets and financial markets. It next outlines the various arguments for and against regulation, and then looks at approaches taken by markets and their regulators. The approaches are government regulation, self-regulation and co-regulation, and the structural changes via demutualization and corporate governance. With this background, it turns to examine how these approaches have played out in the markets themselves. The article surveys the regulatory aspects of the ASX, NYSE and the SGX, and reviews the regulatory and financial performance of the markets ...


The Use And Misuse Of Disclosure As A Regulatory System, Paula J. Dalley Sep 2006

The Use And Misuse Of Disclosure As A Regulatory System, Paula J. Dalley

ExpressO

Over the past several decades, legislators and regulators have increasingly turned to disclosure schemes, rather than substantive regulation, to accomplish regulatory goals. Most of these schemes are either expressly or impliedly based on the disclosure-based regulatory system established by the securities acts, which is primarily intended to provide information to traders in an established market and thereby to enhance the operation of the market. A secondary purpose of the securities acts is to alter the behavior of firms and individuals through the operation of the market. Other disclosure schemes usually have similar purposes, but they rarely operate in a market ...


Predatory Structured Finance, Christopher L. Peterson Sep 2006

Predatory Structured Finance, Christopher L. Peterson

ExpressO

Predatory lending is a real, pervasive, and destructive problem as demonstrated by record settlements, jury awards, media exposes, and a large body of empirical scholarship. Currently the national debate over predatory mortgage lending is shifting to the controversial question of who should bear liability for predatory lending practices. In today’s subprime mortgage market, originators and brokers quickly assign home loans through a complex and opaque series of transactions involving as many as a dozen different strategically organized companies. Loans are typically transferred into large pools, and then income from those loans is “structured” to appeal to different types of ...


The Separation Of Ownership And Control In Modem Corporations: Shareholder Democracy Or Shareholder Republic? A Commentary On Dalia Tsuk Mitchell's Shareholders As Proxies. The Contours Of Shareholder Democracy, Lucas E. Morel Sep 2006

The Separation Of Ownership And Control In Modem Corporations: Shareholder Democracy Or Shareholder Republic? A Commentary On Dalia Tsuk Mitchell's Shareholders As Proxies. The Contours Of Shareholder Democracy, Lucas E. Morel

Washington and Lee Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Judicial Application Of The Causation Test Of The False Statement Doctrine In Securities Litigation In China, Ling Dai Sep 2006

The Judicial Application Of The Causation Test Of The False Statement Doctrine In Securities Litigation In China, Ling Dai

Washington International Law Journal

As part of the reform of China’s centrally planned economy, one of the primary purposes in establishing a stock market was to help state-owned enterprises raise sufficient capital from the public. The protection of investors’ interests was not essential in the initial contemplation of securities laws, though the listed companies have a duty of disclosure under the 1998 Securities Law. After the Supreme People’s Court promulgated its judicial interpretation of the false statement doctrine in civil securities cases in 2002, the lower courts started to interpret and apply the elements of the false statement doctrine in securities cases ...


Shareholders As Proxies: The Contours Of Shareholder Democracy, Dalia Tsuk Mitchell Sep 2006

Shareholders As Proxies: The Contours Of Shareholder Democracy, Dalia Tsuk Mitchell

Washington and Lee Law Review

No abstract provided.


Comment: Corporate Governance And The "D-Word", Thomas W. Joo Sep 2006

Comment: Corporate Governance And The "D-Word", Thomas W. Joo

Washington and Lee Law Review

No abstract provided.


Too Big To Fail: Moral Hazard In Auditing And The Need To Restructure The Industry Before It Unravels, Lawrence A. Cunningham Sep 2006

Too Big To Fail: Moral Hazard In Auditing And The Need To Restructure The Industry Before It Unravels, Lawrence A. Cunningham

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

Large audit firms may believe that they are too big to fail. Arthur Andersen’s 2002 criminal indictment reduced their number from five to four, and the government decided in 2005 to avoid indicting KPMG for crimes it admitted committing. If audit firms interpret the government’s reluctance to indict as signaling aversion to tough action against them, moral hazard arises. This offsets auditing improvements mandated by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 that are designed to strengthen auditors’ reputations with managers for thoroughness and improve financial statement reliability. Neutralizing this moral hazard requires a credible alternative industry structure so that ...


Explaining The Value Of Transactional Lawyering, Steven L. Schwarcz Aug 2006

Explaining The Value Of Transactional Lawyering, Steven L. Schwarcz

ExpressO

This article attempts, empirically, to explain the value that lawyers add when acting as counsel to parties in business transactions. Contrary to existing scholarship, which is based mostly on theory, this article shows that transactional lawyers add value primarily by reducing regulatory costs, thereby challenging the reigning models of transactional lawyers as “transaction cost engineers” and “reputational intermediaries.” This new model not only helps inform contract theory but also reveals a profoundly different vision than existing models for the future of legal education and the profession.


Compensation Representatives: A Prudent Solution To Excessive Ceo Pay, Lawton W. Hawkins Aug 2006

Compensation Representatives: A Prudent Solution To Excessive Ceo Pay, Lawton W. Hawkins

ExpressO

Currently, CEO pay is determined by a company’s board of directors, subject to limited shareholder approval in certain circumstances. However, as Lucian Bebchuk and Jesse Fried have demonstrated, boards of directors and CEOs do not necessarily engage in real arms length bargaining over CEO pay. Instead, CEOs may exert managerial power to extract economic rents above and beyond what they could have obtained in an arms length negotiation. To address the problem, Bebchuk and Fried have proposed that large shareholders be allowed to nominate candidates for the board, and that companies be required to pay the expenses for any ...


The Corporate Governance Industry, Paul Rose Aug 2006

The Corporate Governance Industry, Paul Rose

ExpressO

This paper considers the role of the corporate governance industry as a voluntary regulator. The corporate governance industry influences (and in some cases effectively controls) the vote of trillions of dollars of equity, and affects the governance policies and fortunes of thousands of companies through proxy voting recommendations and governance ratings. This paper considers the increasing influence of the corporate governance industry, and argues that potential conflicts of interest within some governance firms cast doubt on the reliability of their proxy advice and governance ratings. Additionally, governance firms may be overstepping their expertise in proxy voting decisions and in governance ...


Corporate Governance And The New Hedge Fund Activism: An Empirical Analysis, Thomas W. Briggs Aug 2006

Corporate Governance And The New Hedge Fund Activism: An Empirical Analysis, Thomas W. Briggs

ExpressO

Hedge funds are not normal institutional investors. They launch proxy fights for corporate control. Their recent successes and wolf pack tactics have garnered headlines but leave us with a question: what does hedge fund activism mean for corporate governance in the United States? This Article undertakes a legal, empirical, and theoretical study in an effort to answer this questioin. The heart of the Article is an empirical study of obtainable instances of hedge fund activism during 2005 and the 2006 proxy season. The Article starts by showing that the SEC opened the door to hedge fund activism when it stopped ...


Reassessing Damages In Securities Fraud Class Actions, Elizabeth C. Burch Aug 2006

Reassessing Damages In Securities Fraud Class Actions, Elizabeth C. Burch

ExpressO

No coherent doctrinal statement exists for calculating open-market damages for securities fraud class actions. Instead, courts have tried in vain to fashion common-law deceit and misrepresentation remedies to fit open-market fraud. The result is a relatively ineffective system with a hallmark feature: unpredictable damage awards. This poses a significant fraud deterrence problem from both a practical and a theoretical standpoint.

In 2005, the Supreme Court had the opportunity to clarify open-market damage principles and to facilitate earlier dismissal of cases without compensable economic losses. Instead, in Dura Pharmaceuticals v. Broudo, it further confused the damage issue by (1) perpetuating the ...


The Equivalence Approach To Securities Regulation, Tzung-Bor Wei Jul 2006

The Equivalence Approach To Securities Regulation, Tzung-Bor Wei

ExpressO

Abstract

In the past, academics and regulators debated two competing approaches to international securities regulation, namely “harmonization” and “regulatory competition.” More recently, a third approach to securities regulation has emerged – the “equivalence” approach. Under this model, a host country exempts foreign firms from certain host country rules when the firms’ home country rules are sufficiently similar, or “equivalent.” Many regulators have come to embrace equivalence, which is rapidly becoming a key principle in international finance.

This paper studies the concept of equivalence. It begins by defining “equivalence,” highlighting that different regulators manipulate the term to give it contrasting meanings. Moving ...


The Case Against Mandatory Annual Director Elections And Shareholders' Meetings, William K. Sjostrom Jul 2006

The Case Against Mandatory Annual Director Elections And Shareholders' Meetings, William K. Sjostrom

ExpressO

The article examines the mandatory requirement under state corporate law and stock exchange listing standards that public corporations hold annual shareholders’ meetings for the election of directors. Specifically, I question the value of requiring corporations to (1) elect directors annually, and (2) hold shareholders’ meetings annually. I critique the various justifications for these requirements and find none of them persuasive. I then explore a different approach taken by Minnesota with respect to the frequency of director elections and shareholders’ meetings and conclude that the approach is superior to the current scheme. Recognizing, however, that any less strict state approach is ...