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Full-Text Articles in Securities Law

Is Canada The New Shangri-La Of Global Securities Class Actions?, Tanya J. Monestier Jan 2012

Is Canada The New Shangri-La Of Global Securities Class Actions?, Tanya J. Monestier

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

There has been significant academic buzz about Silver v. Imax, an Ontario case certifying a global class of shareholders alleging statutory and common law misrepresentation in connection with a secondary market distribution of shares. Although global class actions on a more limited scale have been certified in Canada prior to Imax, it can now be said that global classes have “officially” arrived in Canada. Many predict that the Imax decision means that Ontario will become the new center for the resolution of global securities disputes. This is particularly so after the United States largely relinquished this role in Morrison v ...


A Bright Idea: A Bright-Line Test For Extraterritoriality In F-Cubed Securities Fraud Private Causes Of Action, Jennifer Mitchell Coupland Jan 2012

A Bright Idea: A Bright-Line Test For Extraterritoriality In F-Cubed Securities Fraud Private Causes Of Action, Jennifer Mitchell Coupland

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

Whether a foreign or American claimant has a private right of action in so-called ―Foreign-Cubed‖ or ―Foreign-Squared‖ claims under Section 10(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (Exchange Act) and Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) Rule 10b-5 has been the subject of much debate among U.S. courts, Congress, and the international community. Historically, these cases have been heard in the United States if the conduct had a substantial effect in the United States or on U.S. citizens (the effects test), or if the fraudulent or wrongful conduct occurred in the United States (the conduct test). However ...


Addressing Inept Sec Enforcement Efforts: Lessons From Madoff, The Hedge Fund Industry, And Title Iv Of The Dodd-Frank Act For U.S. And Global Financial Systems, Cheryl Nichols Jan 2011

Addressing Inept Sec Enforcement Efforts: Lessons From Madoff, The Hedge Fund Industry, And Title Iv Of The Dodd-Frank Act For U.S. And Global Financial Systems, Cheryl Nichols

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

A global regulatory framework for hedge fund custodians is needed, in addition to Title IV of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (Dodd-Frank Act or Dodd-Frank), to reduce the risk of the occurrence of another Madoff fraud and to assess systemic risk posed by hedge fund activities in the global financial system. This article recommends the creation of a single global regulator for independent, qualified hedge fund custodians to which country regulators must submit sufficient information to protect investors and to assess the level of systemic risk posed by hedge fund activities in the global ...


The Derivative Market’S Black Sheep: Regulation Of Non-Cleared Security-Based Swaps Under Dodd-Frank, Barry Le Vine Jan 2011

The Derivative Market’S Black Sheep: Regulation Of Non-Cleared Security-Based Swaps Under Dodd-Frank, Barry Le Vine

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

This paper seeks to comprehensively analyze the SEC's security-based swaps mandate and how it should regulate those non-cleared OTC derivatives within its regulatory ambit to promote market stability, protect counterparties, and reduce the incentives for cross-border regulatory arbitrage which leads to systemic risk creation. It argues that there are many legitimate and compelling reasons for entering into bespoke security-based swap transactions and that imposing collateral and margin requirements would only distort the economics of these trades. It further argues that the SEC should not be in the business of setting margin requirements, which would be an unprecedented move for ...


Short Selling In A Financial Crisis: The Regulation Of Short Sales In The United Kingdom And The United States, Katherine Mcgavin Jan 2010

Short Selling In A Financial Crisis: The Regulation Of Short Sales In The United Kingdom And The United States, Katherine Mcgavin

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

In a well-regulated market with minimal risk of abuse, the liquidity and information efficiency benefits of short selling far outweigh its potential harm. Contrary to the recent hostility short sellers face from market regulators and the popular press, short sellers in aggregate are neither market villains nor agents of destruction. While a small minority of short sellers have exploited lax regulation and inattentive enforcement of anti-abuse rules to manipulate stock prices and earn substantial fees, these rare episodes suggest that the world's major capital markets need better enforcement of existing rules and not new rules per se. The failure ...


Lowering The Cost Of Rent: How Ifrs And The Convergence Of Corporate Governance Standards Can Help Foreign Issuers Raise Capital In The United States And Abroad, Kyle W. Pine Jan 2010

Lowering The Cost Of Rent: How Ifrs And The Convergence Of Corporate Governance Standards Can Help Foreign Issuers Raise Capital In The United States And Abroad, Kyle W. Pine

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

Since the early 1990s the United States has experienced a dramatic growth in the number of foreign firms choosing to trade their shares in U.S. markets. Meanwhile, Europe and other markets have not experienced this effect to the same extent. there has been an observable worldwide growth in stock market capitalization since the 1990s with an increasing number of foreign issuers choosing to cross-list their shares abroad, usually in the United States. Traditional explanations for why firms choose to cross-list have focused primarily on access to trade in more liquid markets. A more convincing theory for why firms cross-list ...


A Forensic Study Of Daewoo's Corporate Governance: Does Responsibility For The Meltdown Solely Lie With The Chaebol And Korea?, Joongi Kim Jan 2008

A Forensic Study Of Daewoo's Corporate Governance: Does Responsibility For The Meltdown Solely Lie With The Chaebol And Korea?, Joongi Kim

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

At the end of 1999, one of the largest conglomerates in the world, the Daewoo Group, collapsed in a spectacular fashion. During its peak, Daewoo was a sprawling enterprise with over 320,000 employees with 590 subsidiaries overseas that operated in over 110 countries. Its management received widespread praise and academic recognition for its success. Yet, when the Asian financial crisis hit in 1997, it managed to commit a deception worth 22.9 trillion won ($15.3 billion) that was termed the "biggest accounting fraud in history, surpassing WorldCom and Enron . . . ." Years later, inner-workings of the conglomerate are finally coming ...


Beyond Enron: Regulation In Energy Derivatives Trading, Alexia Brunet, Meredith Shafe Jan 2007

Beyond Enron: Regulation In Energy Derivatives Trading, Alexia Brunet, Meredith Shafe

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

The bankruptcy of the Enron Corporation in December 2002 is the biggest corporate bankruptcy in U.S. history. The Houston-based company, formed in 1985, became the nation's seventh-largest company in revenue by buying electricity from generators and selling it to consumers. Because Enron made the market in energy trading, its collapse fundamentally altered the U.S. energy trading industry. Equally important, the disclosure of Enron's role in California's power market crisis shattered confidence in deregulated wholesale-electricity and natural gas markets, creating obstacles for new players seeking to restore confidence in energy trading markets. New market entrants offer ...


The Equivalence Approach To Securities Regulation, Tzung-Bor Wei Jan 2007

The Equivalence Approach To Securities Regulation, Tzung-Bor Wei

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

It is undisputed that the world's financial markets are becoming increasingly international and increasingly integrated. "How should regulators respond?" is a hotly contested issue. Academic literature debates two competing approaches to international securities regulation--"harmonization" and "regulatory competition." Harmonization is the idea that rules and regulations should be standardized across countries as much as possible. Countries may achieve harmonization by ceding lawmaking authority to an international body or agency; alternatively, countries may agree to enact similar rules through their normal, domestic rule-promulgating procedures. In contrast to the harmonization approach stands the regulatory competition approach. Under this model, countries do ...


Ec Reforms Of Corporate Governance And Capital Markets Law: Do They Tackle Insiders' Opportunism?, Luca Enriques, Matteo Gatti Jan 2007

Ec Reforms Of Corporate Governance And Capital Markets Law: Do They Tackle Insiders' Opportunism?, Luca Enriques, Matteo Gatti

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

Company and capital markets laws are rapidly evolving everywhere: there are few countries around the world where they have not been the subject of reform or where at least a reform agenda has not been devised. There are various reasons for this, both global and local. Among the global (or common) reasons for reform, two at least deserve to be singled out: large-scale market crises or prominent economic scandals, and financial development.


Shock Therapy' For Aktiengesellschaften: Can The Sarbanes-Oxley Certification Requirements Transform German Corporate Culture, Practice And Prospects?, Hudson T. Hollister Jan 2005

Shock Therapy' For Aktiengesellschaften: Can The Sarbanes-Oxley Certification Requirements Transform German Corporate Culture, Practice And Prospects?, Hudson T. Hollister

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act (Act) of 20021 was the U.S. Congress's hasty response to the wave of corporate scandals that had begun to devastate U.S. investor confidence during the previous year. Its sixty-six pages contain a wide range of measures designed to enhance the quality and independence of corporate audits and disclosure under the U.S. securities-regulation regime. The Act applies to public corporations-corporations that are required to file regular financial reports under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (Exchange Act). Objections from German corporations and observers were particularly vigorous. At least one German foreign private issuer registered ...


A Securities Regulator Looks At Onvergence, Donald T. Nicolaisen Jan 2005

A Securities Regulator Looks At Onvergence, Donald T. Nicolaisen

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

For many years there has been a dedicated group of practitioners, standard setters, business leaders and others from around the world who have worked to establish a single set of globally accepted accounting standards for the benefit of the capital markets. These people clearly had their hearts in the right place but, absent a binding mandate to apply the standards, it seemed largely a labor of love. Now I expect those pioneering initiatives and the many years of effort to pay off because in 2005 a large number of companies are joining what up to now has been a limited ...


Cross-Border Securitized Transactions: The Missing Link In Establishing A Viable Chinese Securitization Market, Nicholas J. Faleris Jan 2005

Cross-Border Securitized Transactions: The Missing Link In Establishing A Viable Chinese Securitization Market, Nicholas J. Faleris

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

This article proposes that asset-backed securitization in China could be jump-started by first focusing on cross-border (sometimes called transnational) securitization, and by establishing a dependable group of regional investors. Cross-border securitization transactions would enable China to experiment with various packaging of state-owned securities on a trial basis through a transaction-by-transaction process. Thus far, the focus has been specifically on reforming the legal infrastructure so that China eventually would be able to attract investors and capitalize on an emerging market. Rather than attempting to both build an infrastructure and attract asset-backed securitization investors with large, sweeping changes, the market would be ...


New Legislation Permitting Stock Futures: The Long And Winding Road, William J. Brodsky Jan 2001

New Legislation Permitting Stock Futures: The Long And Winding Road, William J. Brodsky

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

This article will explain how the stock futures issue arose, how Congress handled it last year, and the application of the legislation to this new product. While I believe that the approach taken in the CFMA will allow stock futures to trade on a level regulatory playing field in many areas with stock options, which are regulated solely as securities, it will not remove all the disparities between these two competing products. That will only occur when Congress acquires the political will to merge the SEC and the CFTC to create a modem regulatory system for the U.S. equity ...


Securities Price Risks And Financial Derivative Markets , Peter H. Huang Jan 2001

Securities Price Risks And Financial Derivative Markets , Peter H. Huang

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

The financial and popular media report almost daily on the volatility of securities market prices. Yet, many people continue to buy securities to hedge against or speculate on certain risks. People can also buy or sell derivatives to hedge against or speculate on fluctuations in securities prices. This Article discusses three regulatory policy implications of utilizing derivatives markets to reallocate the bearing of securities price risks. First, if there are too few non-redundant derivative markets, a competitive market equilibrium allocation of securities price risks is typically constrained Pareto inefficient. This financial economic result means that for typical economies, a regulator ...


International Regulatory Responses To Derivative Crises: The Role Of The U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission , Brooksley Born Jan 2001

International Regulatory Responses To Derivative Crises: The Role Of The U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission , Brooksley Born

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

Over the past decade, as derivatives markets - and particularly the over-the-counter ("OTC") market - have become increasingly global in nature, the U.S.. Commodity Futures Trading Commission ("CFTC") - the federal regulatory agency that oversees futures and commodity option trading' - has played an active role in fostering international regulatory cooperation. The technology of the information age, allowing instant communication and electronic trading, has revolutionized financial markets, instituting around-the-clock, around-the-globe trading, globally active market users and market intermediaries, and an increasing pace of market innovation. Market crises now have the potential for widespread financial impact and require international regulatory response. The 1997-1998 Asian ...


Multinational Regulatory Competition And Single-Stock Futures , Frank Partnoy Jan 2001

Multinational Regulatory Competition And Single-Stock Futures , Frank Partnoy

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

Whereas these first two forms of regulatory competition are well documented and covered in the legal literature, the third form - which I call "multinational regulatory competition" - is newer and more difficult to characterize. Accordingly, any claims about future regulatory competition in this form necessarily are speculative. By "multinational regulatory competition," I mean competition occurring when a group of regulators from more than one sovereign forms a partnership as a multinational regulator and then seeks to compete with other groups of regulators, also formed from more than one sovereign. There is some recent empirical evidence that regulatory trends in market for ...


Demutualization Of Financial Exchanges: Business As Usual, Caroline Bradley Jan 2001

Demutualization Of Financial Exchanges: Business As Usual, Caroline Bradley

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

The article begins by outlining some of the history of mutual business forms, and the recent demutualization movement. Then, after examining the idea of exchanges as proprietary businesses, the article examines three new problems caused by demutualization: how shares in an exchange will be traded; how a proprietary exchange can function as a regulator; and the risk that a proprietary exchange will become a take-over target. The article concludes that there is no perfect arrangement for trading in an exchange's shares; that, if proprietary exchanges are allowed to act as regulators, they should be subject to some constraints as ...


Hedge Funds, Hot Markets And The High Net Worth Investor: A Case For Greater Protection, Helen Parry Jan 2001

Hedge Funds, Hot Markets And The High Net Worth Investor: A Case For Greater Protection, Helen Parry

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

shares; that, if proprietary exchanges are allowed to act as regulators, they should be subject to some constraints as to how they perform this function; and that, contrary to the ordinary case where we have reason to believe that markets discipline firms, a vigorous market for control of exchanges could have harmful effects. The concern that underlies these conclusions is a concern that a country's national interest in protecting its domestic capital markets for the benefit of domestic enterprise and investors is likely to be undermined in a world where exchanges act just like any other business. Management, are ...


Foreward: Mergers, Market Access And The Millennium, Eleanor M. Fox Jan 2000

Foreward: Mergers, Market Access And The Millennium, Eleanor M. Fox

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

The symposium issue is a nice microcosm of the competition law issues facing the world. It presents the tensions between national control and world integration. It presents the twin, conflicting impulses to eschew internationalization, hoping to do well enough by deepened positive comity (Waller), and to embrace internationalization at least cautiously to address concerns where unharnessed operation of national interests obstructs efficient solutions and where internationalization is most likely to sidestep the political landmines (Fiebig).


Dangerous Territoriality Of American Securities Law: A Proposal For An Integrated Global Securities Market, The , John G. Moon Jan 2000

Dangerous Territoriality Of American Securities Law: A Proposal For An Integrated Global Securities Market, The , John G. Moon

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

Market participants, academicians, and governmental officials debated how the United States government should structure multiple securities exchanges for several years before Congress mandated the establishment of the National Market System in the 1975 Amendments to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. During the intervening twenty-five years, recurring issues concerning the transparency, fragmentation, and fairness of the National Market System have remained unresolved. Recently, the globalization of securities markets and the development of Internet technology that permits cost-effective transnational securities trades and markets have exacerbated these issues. In fact, Internet technology makes the development of an integrated global securities market not ...


Integration Of International Financial Regulatory Standards For The Chinese Economic Area: The Challenge For China, Hong Kong, And Taiwan, Lawrence L.C. Lee Jan 1999

Integration Of International Financial Regulatory Standards For The Chinese Economic Area: The Challenge For China, Hong Kong, And Taiwan, Lawrence L.C. Lee

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

This article initially reviews the current development of financial services that converge regulatory systems around the world. Along with focusing on banking and securities, this article assesses financial systems and regulators within China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan respectively. The evaluation of the CEA's financial system is based on recommendations issued by the Basle Committee. In addition, with respect to the principle of national treatment, this article evaluates the operations of foreign financial institutions in the CEA. In the future, participation in the WTO will enable the CEA to experience greater growth and increase its participation in the internationalization of ...


Fasb V. Iasc: Are The Structure And Standard Setting Process At The Iasc Adequate For The Securities And Exchange Commission To Accept International Accounting Standards For Cross-Border Offerings? , Charles Canfield Jan 1999

Fasb V. Iasc: Are The Structure And Standard Setting Process At The Iasc Adequate For The Securities And Exchange Commission To Accept International Accounting Standards For Cross-Border Offerings? , Charles Canfield

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

This comment compares and contrasts the IASC's structure and stan- dard setting process with the structure and process for promulgating ac- counting standards of the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB"), the standard setter for the United States. The purpose of this comparison is to determine whether or not the IASC's structure and process for standard development are adequate for the development of acceptable core standards. This comparison uses FASB, not for the purpose of imposing FASB as the standard setter for the world, but for the purpose of comparing the IASC with an established long-standing standard setter, and ...


Regulation S And Offshore Capital: Will The New Amendments Rid The Safe Harbor Of Pirates?, Jon B. Jordan Jan 1998

Regulation S And Offshore Capital: Will The New Amendments Rid The Safe Harbor Of Pirates?, Jon B. Jordan

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

This article will explain how the securities laws were prior to Regulation S as they applied to the offshore offer and sale of securities. The regulation as originally adopted and the brand new safe harbors it brought to the laws governing offshore offers and sales will also be explored. Then the subsequent regulatory abuses and concerns in the marketplace surrounding the regulation and the Commission's response to these issues will be discussed. The amendments to Regulation S which eventually served as the Commission's way of halting these problems and the changes they brought to the regulation will be ...


Does Russia Need A Securities Law?, Greg Lumelsky Jan 1997

Does Russia Need A Securities Law?, Greg Lumelsky

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

The question in the title of this article is not necessarily rhetorical. Perhaps a more appropriate inquiry is, does Russia need its current securi- ties law?' The response to the titular question is, as I will argue, clearly yes. The answer to the second question is to a large extent negative. Given the prevailing economic conditions in Russia, the course of enterprise pri- vatization, and the principal institutions shaping Russian capital markets, there is good reason to think that rather than assisting the growth and en- trenchment of a market in securities, much of the current Russian securities legislation will ...


Globalizing Sanctions Against Foreign Bribery: The Emergence Of A New International Legal Consensus, David A. Gantz Jan 1997

Globalizing Sanctions Against Foreign Bribery: The Emergence Of A New International Legal Consensus, David A. Gantz

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

Part I of the article begins with a review of the rationale and key legal ele- ments of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Part II describes recent efforts by the United States to convince other governments and firms of the need for binding, enforceable and universally accepted rules against corrupt payments to foreign public officials. Parts III and IV survey the activities of various governmental organizations and major private sector groups that support international efforts to effectively discourage foreign bribery, re- spectively. The key sections, Parts V and VI, describe, analyze and critique the two major international conventions ...


Defending Sec And Doj Fcpa Investigations And Conducting Related Corporate Internal Investigations: The Triton Energy/Indonesia Sec Consent Decree Settlements, Arthur F. Mathews Jan 1997

Defending Sec And Doj Fcpa Investigations And Conducting Related Corporate Internal Investigations: The Triton Energy/Indonesia Sec Consent Decree Settlements, Arthur F. Mathews

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

This article will summarize the foreign bribery/corrupt foreign pay- ments provisions of the FCPA, briefly survey the related books and records and internal accounting controls provisions, analyze available defenses to civil and criminal FCPA charges, and explore sensitive substantive and strategic issues that arise in the defense of SEC and DOJ/grand jury investi- gations and in the conduct of related corporate internal investigations. This article will also analyze the recent SEC consent decree settlements in the Triton Energy/Indonesia case, and explore the types of defenses that might be pursued if an FCPA foreign payments case like Triton ...


International Financial Institutions Face The Corruption Eruption: If The Ifis Put Their Muscle And Money Where Their Mouth Is, The Corruption Eruption May Be Capped, James P. Jr. Wesberry Jan 1997

International Financial Institutions Face The Corruption Eruption: If The Ifis Put Their Muscle And Money Where Their Mouth Is, The Corruption Eruption May Be Capped, James P. Jr. Wesberry

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

This article addresses what IFIs are doing, are not doing, and hopefully might do to help cap the corruption eruption sweeping our world. The article primarily relates the efforts of the World Bank in this area and briefly discusses efforts by other major IFIs.


The Problem Of Corruption: A Tale Of Two Countries, Kimberly Ann Elliott Jan 1997

The Problem Of Corruption: A Tale Of Two Countries, Kimberly Ann Elliott

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

This perspective provides an introduction to the problem of corruption, focusing on two questions: * What causes corruption? * Where is corruption most serious? The perspective concludes with a brief discussion of two countries - Kenya and Uganda - that seem to be going in opposite directions politi- cally and economically, as well as in their attitudes toward corruption.


The Development Of Compliance Programs: One Company's Experience, Patrick J. Head Jan 1997

The Development Of Compliance Programs: One Company's Experience, Patrick J. Head

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

Though the FCPA is only a small portion of the coverage of corporate compliance programs, this perspective will focus on the FCPA and, to a certain extent, on other collateral impact statutes, such as securities and in- ternal revenue laws. It will not delve into related statutes, such as the over- seas reach of antitrust laws.