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Full-Text Articles in Securities Law

Engineered Credit Default Swaps: Innovative Or Manipulative?, Gina-Gail S. Fletcher Jan 2019

Engineered Credit Default Swaps: Innovative Or Manipulative?, Gina-Gail S. Fletcher

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Credit default swaps (“CDS”) are, once again, making waves. Maligned for their role in the 2008 financial crisis and condemned by the Vatican, investors are once more utilizing CDS to achieve results of questionable market benefit. A CDS is a financial contract that allows investors to “bet” on whether a borrower will default on its loan. However, rather than waiting to see how their bets pan out, some CDS investors are collaborating with financially distressed borrowers to guarantee the profitability of their CDS positions—“engineering” the CDS’ outcome. Under the CDS contract, these collaborations are not prohibited, yet they have ...


Legitimate Yet Manipulative: The Conundrum Of Open-Market Manipulation, Gina-Gail S. Fletcher Jan 2018

Legitimate Yet Manipulative: The Conundrum Of Open-Market Manipulation, Gina-Gail S. Fletcher

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Is manipulation possible in the absence of misconduct? This is the foundational inquiry at the heart of open-market manipulation. Open-market manipulation captures the attention of lawmakers and courts because it is market manipulation effected entirely through facially legitimate transactions. Whereas traditional, well-accepted forms of market manipulation involve deception, fraud, and monopolistic prices, open-market manipulation involves no objectively bad acts and, instead, is accomplished through permissible transactions executed on the open market. As enforcement of this form of manipulation increases, the question arises—when, if ever, is a legitimate transaction manipulative?

To the Securities Exchange Commission and the Commodity Futures Trading ...


The Statutory Authority For Court-Ordered Disgorgement In Sec Enforcement Actions, Donna M. Nagy Jan 2018

The Statutory Authority For Court-Ordered Disgorgement In Sec Enforcement Actions, Donna M. Nagy

Articles by Maurer Faculty

What empowers the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) to seek, and federal district courts to order, the disgorgement of ill-gotten gains from securities law violators? The short answer, which stood largely unchallenged for 46 years, is that federal courts may award disgorgement, at the request of the SEC, pursuant to the equitable powers that Congress conferred in the jurisdictional provisions of the federal securities laws. During the 2017 oral argument in Kokesh v. SEC, however, five justices of the U.S. Supreme Court interjected statements expressing varying degrees of skepticism. The tenor of the questions during the Kokesh ...


Salman V. United States: Insider Trading's Tipping Point?, Donna M. Nagy Jan 2016

Salman V. United States: Insider Trading's Tipping Point?, Donna M. Nagy

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


Beyond Dirks: Gratuitous Tipping And Insider Trading, Donna M. Nagy Jan 2016

Beyond Dirks: Gratuitous Tipping And Insider Trading, Donna M. Nagy

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Did an investment banker who gratuitously shared material nonpublic information with his brother, with no expectation of receiving anything in return, commit securities fraud? And is the investment banker's brother-in-law jointly liable for trading securities on the basis of what he knew to be gratuitous tips? The Supreme Court is poised to answer those questions in Salman v. United States, after steering clear of insider trading law for nearly two decades. It has been even longer still since the Court last addressed securities fraud liability relating to stock trading tips-it articulated a "personal benefit" test for joint tipper-tippee liability ...


The Costs Of Mandatory Cost-Benefit Analysis In Sec Rulemaking, Donna M. Nagy Jan 2015

The Costs Of Mandatory Cost-Benefit Analysis In Sec Rulemaking, Donna M. Nagy

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Cost-benefit analysis can be a valuable tool when deployed at the Securities and Exchange Commission's discretion to improve its rulemaking process and the overall quality of SEC rules. However, when a cost-benefit analysis obligation is imposed externally whether from an explicit statutory command or from a de facto requirement enforced through judicial review-the costs of that mandatory cost-benefit analysis can be quite substantial. This Article identifies and explores the qualitative costs that that have already been incurred, and are bound to continue, if the adequacy of the SEC's cost-benefit analysis remains subject to extensive judicial scrutiny. These costs ...


Plugging Leaks And Lowering Levees In The Federal Government: Practical Solutions For Securities Trading Based On Political Intelligence, Donna M. Nagy, Richard Painter Jan 2014

Plugging Leaks And Lowering Levees In The Federal Government: Practical Solutions For Securities Trading Based On Political Intelligence, Donna M. Nagy, Richard Painter

Articles by Maurer Faculty

From its founding, the federal government of the United States has been a potential gold mine for nonpublic market-moving information. By selectively disclosing this information to securities traders outside the government (or to persons who advise them), federal officials can substantially privilege certain wealthy or otherwise well-connected investors over ordinary investors in the securities market. The trading profits that can be derived from the use of this material nonpublic government information are often tremendous.

This disparity of access to government information may be unfair. But absent an identifiable personal benefit on the part of the government insider, neither the selective ...


Owning Stock While Making Law: An Agency Problem And A Fiduciary Solution, Donna M. Nagy Jan 2013

Owning Stock While Making Law: An Agency Problem And A Fiduciary Solution, Donna M. Nagy

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


Selective Disclosure By Federal Officials And The Case For An Fgd (Fairer Government Disclosure) Regime, Donna M. Nagy, Richard W. Painter Jan 2012

Selective Disclosure By Federal Officials And The Case For An Fgd (Fairer Government Disclosure) Regime, Donna M. Nagy, Richard W. Painter

Articles by Maurer Faculty

This Article addresses a problem at the intersection of securities regulation and government ethics: the selective disclosure of market-moving information, by federal officials in the executive and legislative branches, to securities investors outside the government who use that information for trading. These privileged investors, often aided by political intelligence consultants, can profit substantially from their access to knowledgeable sources inside the government. In most instances, however, neither the disclosure nor the trading violates the antifraud provisions of the federal securities laws (under which the insider trading prohibitions arise). This legally protected favoritism undermines investor confidence in the fairness and integrity ...


Remedies For Foreign Investors Under U.S. Federal Securities Law, Hannah Buxbaum Jan 2012

Remedies For Foreign Investors Under U.S. Federal Securities Law, Hannah Buxbaum

Articles by Maurer Faculty

In its 2010 decision in Morrison v. National Australia Bank, the Supreme Court held that the general anti-fraud provision of U.S. securities law applies only to (a) transactions in securities listed on domestic exchanges and (b) domestic transactions in other securities. That decision forecloses the use of the “foreign-cubed” class action, and in general precludes the vast majority of claims that might otherwise have been brought in U.S. court by foreign investors. This article assesses the post-Morrison landscape, addressing the question of remedies in U.S. courts for investors defrauded in foreign transactions. It begins by reviewing the ...


Insider Trading, Congressional Officials, And Duties Of Entrustment, Donna M. Nagy Jan 2011

Insider Trading, Congressional Officials, And Duties Of Entrustment, Donna M. Nagy

Articles by Maurer Faculty

This article refutes what has become the conventional wisdom that insider trading by members of Congress and legislative staffers is “totally legal” because such congressional officials are immune from federal insider trading law. It argues that this well-worn claim is rooted in twin misconceptions based on: (1) a lack of regard for the broad and sweeping duties of entrustment which attach to public office and (2) an unduly restrictive view of Supreme Court precedents, which have interpreted Rule 10b-5 of the Securities Exchange Act to impose liability whenever a person trades securities on the basis of material nonpublic information in ...


Morrison V. National Australia Bank: Defining The Domestic Interest In International Securities Litigation, Hannah Buxbaum Jan 2011

Morrison V. National Australia Bank: Defining The Domestic Interest In International Securities Litigation, Hannah Buxbaum

Articles by Maurer Faculty

This articles uses the lens of the Morrison v. National Australia Bank to look at domestic and international securities regulation.


Promoting Employee Voice In The American Economy: A Call For Comprehensive Reform, Kenneth G. Dau-Schmidt Jan 2011

Promoting Employee Voice In The American Economy: A Call For Comprehensive Reform, Kenneth G. Dau-Schmidt

Articles by Maurer Faculty

It has become apparent that there are serious deficiencies in the American model of production. Our model of corporate governance has recently come under intense scrutiny in the academic literature and the popular press. There are increasing concerns that American corporations are too focused on short-run profits and stock prices, at the expense of long-term strategies and investments that would benefit the long-run value of the firm, employees, and the American economy at large. In the pursuit of short-run shareholder interests, American corporations have bestowed on senior executives enormous compensation packages that seem increasingly divorced from any notion of rationality ...


Is The Pcaob A "Heavily Controlled Component" Of The Sec?: An Essential Question In The Constitutional Controversy, Donna M. Nagy Jan 2010

Is The Pcaob A "Heavily Controlled Component" Of The Sec?: An Essential Question In The Constitutional Controversy, Donna M. Nagy

Articles by Maurer Faculty

The U.S. Supreme Court recently heard oral arguments in Free Enterprise Fund v. Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, described by D.C. Circuit Judge Brett Kavanaugh as “the most important separation-of-powers case regarding the President’s appointment and removal powers to reach the courts in the last 20 years.” Established by Congress as the cornerstone of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, the PCAOB was structured as a strong, independent board in the private sector, to oversee the conduct of auditors of public companies.

This Article challenges the D.C. Circuit’s depiction of the PCAOB as “a heavily controlled ...


Personal Jurisdiction Over Foreign Directors In Cross-Border Securities Litigation, Hannah L. Buxbaum Jan 2010

Personal Jurisdiction Over Foreign Directors In Cross-Border Securities Litigation, Hannah L. Buxbaum

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


Renegotiation Of Cash Flow Rights In The Sale Of Vc-Backed Firms, Brian Broughman, Jesse Fried Jan 2010

Renegotiation Of Cash Flow Rights In The Sale Of Vc-Backed Firms, Brian Broughman, Jesse Fried

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Incomplete contracting theory suggests that VC cash flow rights - including liquidation preferences - may be subject to renegotiation. Using a hand-collected dataset of sales of Silicon Valley firms, we find common shareholders do sometimes receive payment before VCs' liquidation preferences are satisfied. However, such deviations tend to be small. We also find that renegotiation is more likely when governance arrangements, including the firm's choice of corporate law, give common shareholders power to impede the sale. Our study provides support for incomplete contracting theory, improves understanding of VC exits, and suggests that choice of corporate law matters in private firms.


Insider Trading And The Gradual Demise Of Fiduciary Principles, Donna M. Nagy Jan 2009

Insider Trading And The Gradual Demise Of Fiduciary Principles, Donna M. Nagy

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Recent SEC enforcement actions, such as the case filed against Dallas Mavericks' owner Mark Cuban, raise the question whether deception by a fiduciary is essential to the Rule 10b-5 insider trading offense. Under the Supreme Court's classical and misappropriation theories, the answer is clearly yes - each theory has a fiduciary principle at its core. Yet lower courts and the SEC frequently disregard the Court's explicit dictates, and a consensus is emerging that insider trading rests simply on the wrongful use of material nonpublic information, regardless of whether a fiduciary-like duty is breached. Although this view of insider trading ...


Criminalization Of Corporate Law: The Impact Of Criminal Sanctions On Corporate Misconduct, Donna M. Nagy Jan 2007

Criminalization Of Corporate Law: The Impact Of Criminal Sanctions On Corporate Misconduct, Donna M. Nagy

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


Multinational Class Actions Under Federal Securities Law: Managing Jurisdictional Conflict, Hannah Buxbaum Jan 2007

Multinational Class Actions Under Federal Securities Law: Managing Jurisdictional Conflict, Hannah Buxbaum

Articles by Maurer Faculty

This article examines a form of securities class action that is growing increasingly popular in U.S. courts: the foreign cubed action, brought against a foreign issuer on behalf of a class that includes foreign investors who purchased securities on a foreign exchange. These cases are becoming an important part of the regulatory landscape (as evidenced by recent high-profile lawsuits involving issuers such as Vivendi, Bayer and Royal Ahold), and they create the potential for particularly severe conflict with other countries on the question of how best to regulate global economic activity. Yet they point out quite clearly that the ...


Regulating The Mutual Fund Industry, Donna M. Nagy Jan 2006

Regulating The Mutual Fund Industry, Donna M. Nagy

Articles by Maurer Faculty

With virtually every other household in the United States invested in mutual funds, effective and efficient regulation of the mutual fund industry must be a top national priority. But the creation of a new private regulator - whether along the lines of SROs such as the NASD and NYSE or the recently created PCAOB - would be a step in the wrong direction. Instead, much more can be gained from strengthening the SEC's longstanding role as the principal overseer of mutual funds and improving other aspects of the existing regulatory regime.


Transnational Regulatory Litigation, Hannah Buxbaum Jan 2006

Transnational Regulatory Litigation, Hannah Buxbaum

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Recent years have seen much debate about the role of national courts in addressing global harms. That debate has focused on the application by domestic courts of international law - for instance, in civil actions brought in U.S. courts to enforce human rights law. This article identifies a parallel development in the area of economic regulation. It classifies and analyzes a category of cases that seek the application of regulatory law by domestic courts in situations involving global economic misconduct. Like the public international law cases, these cases highlight the tension between the benefits to be gained by enhanced enforcement ...


The "Possession Vs. Use" Debate In The Context Of Securities Trading By Traditional Insiders: Why Silence Can Never Be Golden, Donna M. Nagy Jan 1999

The "Possession Vs. Use" Debate In The Context Of Securities Trading By Traditional Insiders: Why Silence Can Never Be Golden, Donna M. Nagy

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Traditional insiders occupy a very special position in the scheme of federal securities regulation. However, in a misguided quest for a single answer to the possession vs. use debate, courts, commentators, and even the SEC have tended to marginalize the significant differences between traditional insiders and other securities traders who may possess material nonpublic information. In the aftermath of the circuit court decisions in United States v. Smith and Securities and Exchange Commission v. Adler, courts and the SEC should follow a categorical approach in addressing the possession vs. use question, and should recognize that silence can never be golden ...


Judicial Reliance On Regulatory Interpretations In Sec No-Action Letters: Current Problems And A Proposed Framework, Donna M. Nagy Jan 1998

Judicial Reliance On Regulatory Interpretations In Sec No-Action Letters: Current Problems And A Proposed Framework, Donna M. Nagy

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Judicial descriptions of SEC no-action letters have run the gamut from law, to orders, to rulings, to informal opinions, to prosecutorial decisions. This judicial failure to characterize no-action letters consistently is symptomatic of a more fundamental problem: many courts treat informal regulatory interpretations in no-action letters as interchangeable with formal and official regulatory interpretations that the full Commission has promulgated. Consequently, courts often defer automatically to the regulatory interpretations in no-action letters. In other words, many courts accept no-action letter authority as definitive interpretations of the federal securities statutes and SEC rules and regulations without independently analyzing the particular regulatory ...


Reframing The Misappropriation Theory Of Insider Trading Liability: A Post-O'Hagan Suggestion, Donna M. Nagy Jan 1998

Reframing The Misappropriation Theory Of Insider Trading Liability: A Post-O'Hagan Suggestion, Donna M. Nagy

Articles by Maurer Faculty

For almost two decades, the United States Supreme Court was silent as to the validity of the so-called 'fraud on the source" misappropriation theory of insider trading liability. This changed in June 1997 when the theory received a resounding endorsement from the Court in United States v. O'Hagan.

Critics of O'Hagan have argued that the Court's decision reaches too far. However, this Article contends that the Court actually endorsed a theory that does not reach far enough. By analyzing and critiquing the reasoning of the majority opinion in O'Hagan, this Article demonstrates that the Court's ...


Municipal Securities Market: Same Problems -- No Solutions, Ann Judith Gellis Jan 1996

Municipal Securities Market: Same Problems -- No Solutions, Ann Judith Gellis

Articles by Maurer Faculty

This article examines the existing regulations of the municipal securities market, focusing on what activities prompted the regulatory changes and analyzing the direction and efficacy of these regulations in terms of the deficiencies in the market. Part One gives a background sketch of the market and its participants from the time of the New York City fiscal crises to today. Part Two discusses whether the existing regulation is sufficient to produce disclosure, focusing on the Orange County crises. Part Three offers a critique of the current regulatory scheme and makes some suggestions for reform.


The Listing Of Daimler-Benz Securities On The Nyse: Conflicting Interests And Regulatory Policies, J. William Hicks Jan 1994

The Listing Of Daimler-Benz Securities On The Nyse: Conflicting Interests And Regulatory Policies, J. William Hicks

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


Misrepresentation In The Sale Of Stock: Which Buyers Are Protected?, J. William Hicks Jan 1994

Misrepresentation In The Sale Of Stock: Which Buyers Are Protected?, J. William Hicks

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


"All Cretans Are Liars": The Fight Against Corporate Crime, John Flood Jan 1988

"All Cretans Are Liars": The Fight Against Corporate Crime, John Flood

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


The Concept Of Transaction As A Restraint On Resale Limitations, J. William Hicks Jan 1988

The Concept Of Transaction As A Restraint On Resale Limitations, J. William Hicks

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


Mandatory Disclosure For Municipal Securities: A Reevaluation, Ann Judith Gellis Jan 1987

Mandatory Disclosure For Municipal Securities: A Reevaluation, Ann Judith Gellis

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.