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Securities Law Commons

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Pepperdine University

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Articles 1 - 30 of 103

Full-Text Articles in Securities Law

The Social Costs Of Dividends And Share Repurchases, J.B. Heaton Oct 2019

The Social Costs Of Dividends And Share Repurchases, J.B. Heaton

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

A long-held view in the academy is that shareholders are "residual claimants” in the sense that shareholders are paid in full only after the corporation pays its creditors. The reality on the ground is far different. Corporations give assets away to their shareholders long before they have satisfied creditors, both voluntary contract creditors and involuntary tort creditors. In particular, existing U.S. corporate and voidable transfer laws allow corporations to pay dividends and make share repurchases up to the point where the corporation is insolvent or nearly so. Voluntary creditors can limit dividends and share repurchases by contract, but involuntary ...


Crashing The Boards: A Comparative Analysis Of The Boxing Out Of Women On Boards In The United States And Canada, Diana C. Nicholls Mutter Oct 2019

Crashing The Boards: A Comparative Analysis Of The Boxing Out Of Women On Boards In The United States And Canada, Diana C. Nicholls Mutter

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

This paper will first provide a critical, comparative look at the Canadian and the federal American responses to the under-representation of women on boards of large, publicly traded corporations. There will be a discussion about the competing conceptions which emerge in addressing the regulation of women on boards in the United States and Canada and why each jurisdiction implemented its policy when it did. The conceptions arising out of questions about under-representation of women on boards tend to fall within two categories: business case rationales and normative rationales. Given the competing conceptions of this issue, this paper will attempt to ...


Direct Listing: How Spotify Is Streaming On The Nyse And Why The Sec Should Press Play, Cody L. Lipke Oct 2019

Direct Listing: How Spotify Is Streaming On The Nyse And Why The Sec Should Press Play, Cody L. Lipke

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

This Note proposes that given Spotify’s successful launch on the NYSE, direct listings will become increasingly popular—primarily for start-ups but also as an exit strategy for VC and PE firms in their nonpublic investments. Part II of this Note will discuss the process of “going public” via an IPO or a direct listing. Part III will use Spotify as an illustrative example of the direct listing process. Part IV will consider the advantages and disadvantages of direct listing. Part V will conclude that the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC or the Commission) should embrace the direct listing process ...


Securities Treatment Of Tokenized Offerings Under U.S. Law, Carol Goforth Jun 2019

Securities Treatment Of Tokenized Offerings Under U.S. Law, Carol Goforth

Pepperdine Law Review

This article considers how the SEC currently approaches the question of regulating cryptoassets and ICOs. It includes a brief overview and history of cryptotransactions (including problems of terminology), and then looks at the current crypto space to consider the kinds of interests being promoted today in comparison to Bitcoin and the original altcoins. It then examines the traditional approach taken by the SEC with regard to these interests and explains briefly the kinds of compliant offerings that are currently possible. It then covers the range of reasons why a specialized regulatory approach is called for, rather than simply relying on ...


Sec Disgorgement Actions: Equitable Remedy Or Penalty?, Armando Lopez Sep 2018

Sec Disgorgement Actions: Equitable Remedy Or Penalty?, Armando Lopez

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

No abstract provided.


Sg’S Brief In Lucia Could Portend The End Of The Alj Program As We Have Known It, Jeffrey S. Lubbers Sep 2018

Sg’S Brief In Lucia Could Portend The End Of The Alj Program As We Have Known It, Jeffrey S. Lubbers

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

No abstract provided.


Lucia Et Al. V. Securities And Exchange Commission: Opinion Of The Court, Elena Kagan Sep 2018

Lucia Et Al. V. Securities And Exchange Commission: Opinion Of The Court, Elena Kagan

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

No abstract provided.


Lucia Et Al. V. Securities And Exchange Commission: Brief Amicus Curiae Of Administrative Law Scholars In Support Of Neither Party, Richard J. Pierce Jr. Sep 2018

Lucia Et Al. V. Securities And Exchange Commission: Brief Amicus Curiae Of Administrative Law Scholars In Support Of Neither Party, Richard J. Pierce Jr.

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

No abstract provided.


Lucia Et Al. V. Securities And Exchange Commission: Brief Of Amicus Curiae The Forum Of United States Administrative Law Judges In Support Of Neither Party, Gerald Marvin Bober Sep 2018

Lucia Et Al. V. Securities And Exchange Commission: Brief Of Amicus Curiae The Forum Of United States Administrative Law Judges In Support Of Neither Party, Gerald Marvin Bober

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

No abstract provided.


Lucia Et Al. V. Securities And Exchange Commission: Brief Amicus Curiae Of Federal Administrative Law Judges Conference In Support Of Neither Party, John M. Vittone Sep 2018

Lucia Et Al. V. Securities And Exchange Commission: Brief Amicus Curiae Of Federal Administrative Law Judges Conference In Support Of Neither Party, John M. Vittone

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

No abstract provided.


Introduction To Lucia Et Al. V. Securities And Exchange Commission, Selina Malherbe Sep 2018

Introduction To Lucia Et Al. V. Securities And Exchange Commission, Selina Malherbe

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

No abstract provided.


The Shadow Of Free Enterprise: The Unconstitutionality Of The Securities & Exchange Commission’S Administrative Law Judges, Linda D. Jellum, Moses M. Tincher Mar 2018

The Shadow Of Free Enterprise: The Unconstitutionality Of The Securities & Exchange Commission’S Administrative Law Judges, Linda D. Jellum, Moses M. Tincher

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

Six years ago, Congress enacted the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act), for the first time giving the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) the power to seek monetary penalties through its in-house adjudication. The SEC already had the power to seek such penalties in federal court. With the Dodd-Frank Act, the SEC’s enforcement division could now choose between an adjudication before an SEC Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) or a civil action before an Article III judge. With this new choice, the SEC realized a significant home-court advantage. For example, in 2014, the SEC’s enforcement ...


When Is The ‘Force’ With A Securities Claim That Is ‘Brought To Enforce’ A Federal Securities Law?, Michelle Wellnitz Sep 2017

When Is The ‘Force’ With A Securities Claim That Is ‘Brought To Enforce’ A Federal Securities Law?, Michelle Wellnitz

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

No abstract provided.


The Perfect Storm Is Brewing Once Again: What Scaling Back Dodd-Frank Will Mean For The Credit Default Swap, Daniel Isaacson Jul 2017

The Perfect Storm Is Brewing Once Again: What Scaling Back Dodd-Frank Will Mean For The Credit Default Swap, Daniel Isaacson

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

The current presidential administration has expressed a concerted desire to “scale back” and even “get rid of” the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd–Frank). Focusing specifically on Dodd–Frank’s regulation of the credit default swap (CDS), this Article explores two timely queries. First, whether Dodd–Frank’s regulatory response to these financial instruments is a justifiable one, and second, what effect a repeal may have. This Article will show that the “perfect storm” CDS—which contributed so significantly to the 2007–2010 financial crisis—flourished in a regulatory environment that contained two key weaknesses ...


To Be A "Whistleblower," Or Not To Be A "Whistleblower? " That Is The Question-Whether 'Tis Nobler In The Mind Of The Courts To Suffer For Reporting Wrongdoing To The Sec Or Employers Internally: Examining The Recent Circuit Split Regarding The Definition Of A Whistleblower Under Dodd-Frank, Luke I. Landers Jun 2017

To Be A "Whistleblower," Or Not To Be A "Whistleblower? " That Is The Question-Whether 'Tis Nobler In The Mind Of The Courts To Suffer For Reporting Wrongdoing To The Sec Or Employers Internally: Examining The Recent Circuit Split Regarding The Definition Of A Whistleblower Under Dodd-Frank, Luke I. Landers

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

Under the current state of the law, the circuit courts are split over whether an employee must report corporate wrongdoing directly to the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), or report wrongdoing to a company’s management in order to receive whistleblower protection under Dodd–Frank. The resolution of this circuit split not only will have implications for American employees caught in situations similar to the fiction above, but also will provide a prime opportunity for the Supreme Court to clarify how courts are to understand the interpretive and deferential relationship between the language of legislative statutes and their corresponding bureaucratic ...


Regulating Moral Hazard: The True Risk Of Dodd-Frank's Risk Retention Requirement, Ethan T. Mobley Jun 2017

Regulating Moral Hazard: The True Risk Of Dodd-Frank's Risk Retention Requirement, Ethan T. Mobley

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

Dodd–Frank was implemented in response to the Great Recession as a means to curb abuses on Wall Street. The Act mandated broad reform of the financial system, and in particular, required regulators to promulgate rules controlling the complex structure of Asset-Backed Security (ABS). Dodd–Frank required securitizers to retain a portion of the credit risk associated with ABS. The goal was to curb moral hazard—the market failure commonly blamed for the Financial Crisis. However, there is reason to believe Dodd–Frank may “not adequately address” the moral hazard problem. In Part I, this Article will set forth the ...


The Legal Aspects Of Portfolio Margining: A Move Toward The Lsoc Model, Christian Chamorro-Courtland Jun 2017

The Legal Aspects Of Portfolio Margining: A Move Toward The Lsoc Model, Christian Chamorro-Courtland

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

This Article focuses on the legal aspects of “portfolio margining” in the United States and their potential for reducing costs and facilitating the management of collateral for the participants involved. First, this Article outlines the level of protection that customer “margin” deposits receive in clearing systems using a Central Counterparty (CCP). Second, it explains the process of portfolio margining from a legal perspective and discusses the benefits of adopting these arrangements. Thirdly, it argues that adopting the “Legal Segregation and Operationally Commingled Model” (LSOC Model) in the futures industry can facilitate the implementation of portfolio margining. Finally, the conclusion explains ...


Clarifying The Original Clawback: Interpreting Sarbanes-Oxley Section 304 Through The Lens Of Dodd-Frank Section 954, J. Royce Fichtner, Patrick Heaston, Lou Ann Simpson Jun 2017

Clarifying The Original Clawback: Interpreting Sarbanes-Oxley Section 304 Through The Lens Of Dodd-Frank Section 954, J. Royce Fichtner, Patrick Heaston, Lou Ann Simpson

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

In the early 2000s, major accounting scandals involving reporting violations and audit failures sent the United States financial markets into turmoil. Congress and President George W. Bush reacted to the controversy by passing the Public Company Accounting Reform and Investor Protection Act, better known as the Sarbanes–Oxley Act (SOX), in July of 2002. Section 304 created an explicit procedure, whereby the SEC could disgorge or clawback a CEO or CFO’s incentive-based compensation or stock gains when such profits were based on inflated financial statements later required to be restated to reflect the company’s true financial position. When ...


Reverse Mergers: A Legitimate Method For Companies To Go Public Or An Easy Way To Commit Fraud?, Kyla Houge Jun 2016

Reverse Mergers: A Legitimate Method For Companies To Go Public Or An Easy Way To Commit Fraud?, Kyla Houge

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

This article explores reverse mergers, a method commonly used by legitimate businesses and fraudsters alike. Part II provides a historical framework of publicly traded companies by detailing how they first began and exploring how they have evolved. Part III details several reasons a company may decide to go public. Part IV discusses, in detail, three common methods companies use when going public, called initial public offerings, Rule 144 placements, and direct public offerings, and the pros and cons of each method. Part V explores the origin of reverse mergers by explaining what a reverse merger is and exploring how reverse ...


Credit Default Swaps And The Empty Creditor Hypothesis—If It Ain’T Broke, Don’T Fix It, Florian Gamper Apr 2016

Credit Default Swaps And The Empty Creditor Hypothesis—If It Ain’T Broke, Don’T Fix It, Florian Gamper

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

An empty creditor is a creditor who, through the use of derivatives, especially credit default swaps (CDSs), takes a position where she retains the legal rights of a creditor but has little or no economic exposure to a borrower. Thus far, the debate on empty creditors has focused mainly on how the law should react to the perceived problem of empty creditors. The debate also covers the prominent argument that empty creditors violate the underlying corporate law assumption that creditors and shareholders hold their legal rights in proportion to their economic exposure to a company. This article argues that the ...


Real Estate Crowdfunding – Modern Trend Or Restructured Investment Model?: Have The Sec’S Proposed Rules On Crowdfunding Created A Closed-Market System?, Cory Baker Apr 2016

Real Estate Crowdfunding – Modern Trend Or Restructured Investment Model?: Have The Sec’S Proposed Rules On Crowdfunding Created A Closed-Market System?, Cory Baker

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

Crowdfunding is one of the fastest growing and most controversial segments of online purchasing and investing. Crowdfunding projects have been increasingly geared towards real estate development and are changing the scope of investment by enabling developers to solicit securities-based funding from the public. When the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) proposed its rules to allow crowdfunding under the Jumpstart Our Business Startups (JOBS) Act, it raised the issue of whether crowdfunding would be a viable option for building and owning large-scale projects. Offering developers new ways to finance projects, small investors a way in, and the socially conscious an avenue ...


How Much Can It Be Bent Before Breaking? Changing The Foundations Of Arbitration In Securities Disputes, M. Saleh Jaberi, Bruno Zeller Feb 2016

How Much Can It Be Bent Before Breaking? Changing The Foundations Of Arbitration In Securities Disputes, M. Saleh Jaberi, Bruno Zeller

Pepperdine Dispute Resolution Law Journal

Following the emergence of arbitration in the stock market disputes, governments and brokers have tried to modify the arbitration procedure in order to adapt it to their needs. Consequently, the foundations of arbitration, such as freedom to enter into an arbitration agreement and selection of arbitrators, have changed in relation to rules and practice. Some of the securities arbitrations have judicialized and have lost the fundamental principles of arbitration, while others have changed only some of the traditional arbitration traits. It is important to protect the nature of arbitration; otherwise, the necessary support of courts for the arbitration procedure and ...


Drafting And Securitizing Participation Mortgages: A Re-Introduction, Spencer J. Coopchik, Yildiray Yildirim Sep 2015

Drafting And Securitizing Participation Mortgages: A Re-Introduction, Spencer J. Coopchik, Yildiray Yildirim

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

This Paper will reintroduce, explore, and expand on the financing arrangement known as a Participation Mortgage. First, this Paper will cover the features, history, and policy purposes behind the mortgage. Second, the Paper will focus on legal mechanics and drafting considerations of Participation Mortgages, so they may later be securitized. Finally, the Paper will explore the possibility and legality of creating Participation Mortgaged Backed Securities to be sold in the secondary market.


The Ipo Crisis: Title I Of The Jobs Act And Why It Does Not Go Far Enough, Brian Howaniec Jul 2015

The Ipo Crisis: Title I Of The Jobs Act And Why It Does Not Go Far Enough, Brian Howaniec

Pepperdine Law Review

This Comment explores the brewing controversy over Title I and assesses the actual impact that it is having (and will have) on investor protection and the IPO market. This Comment argues that Title I has the ability to affect both, but, due to factors outside of Congress's control, will likely have only a minimal effect on either. Part II discusses the objectives of investor protection legislation and how previous legislation regulated the financial markets. Part III explains how these regulations have been changed for emerging growth companies under Title I. Part IV examines what impact Title I will have ...


Assessing Irving Picard’S Writ Of Certiorari In Picard V. Jp Morgan Chase: Another Chapter In The Saga Of Bernie Madoff And His Impact On The Securities Industry, Bryce Cullinane May 2015

Assessing Irving Picard’S Writ Of Certiorari In Picard V. Jp Morgan Chase: Another Chapter In The Saga Of Bernie Madoff And His Impact On The Securities Industry, Bryce Cullinane

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

An objective analysis of Picard's writ shows the Second Circuit should be affirmed. Picard's arguments are long on emotional appeal and customer-centric public policy but short on the law. The Second Circuit decision is in line with the intent of Congress. Furthermore, adopting Picard's interpretation would raise many issues and create many problems in the financial services industry. Part II of this note provides background on SIPA and the Securities Investor Protection Corporation (SIPC), as well as Section 544 of the Code. Part III provides background on the Picard case, including a brief discussion of Madoff's ...


Deranged Disgorgement, James Tyler Kirk May 2015

Deranged Disgorgement, James Tyler Kirk

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

This article seeks to explore the concept of equity embodied in the securities laws as intended by Congress. Accordingly, this article asks whether Congress intended to codify the traditional common law notions of equity in disgorgement, or is the SEC's disgorgement sui generis. To answer this question, the philosophy behind disgorgement is exhaustively fleshed out through a historical case analysis. Next, the article establishes what the author believes to be a new concept, the theory of regulatory equity. Following the establishment of this theory, the practice of offsetting disgorgement is analyzed to see whether it is faithful to this ...


Delaware Corporate Law Recognizes The Fundamental Validity Of The Forum Selection Bylaw: A Survey Of The Boilermakers Litigation, Zachary R. Cormier May 2015

Delaware Corporate Law Recognizes The Fundamental Validity Of The Forum Selection Bylaw: A Survey Of The Boilermakers Litigation, Zachary R. Cormier

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

Boilermakers Local 154 Retirement Fund v. Chevron Corp. represents a new and important chapter in the relationship between the forum selection clause and modern business relations. A forum selection clause is “[a] contractual provision in which the parties establish the place (such as the country, state, or type of court) for specified litigation between them.” Forum selection clauses have most often been analyzed by courts within contractual relationships between businesses, or a business and its customers. The Boilermakers case sets important precedent for forum selection in an equally fundamental business relationship--the corporation and its stockholders. This article will survey the ...


Governing The Corporate Insiders: Improving Regulation Fair Disclosure With More Robust Guidance And Stronger Penalties For Individual Executives, Christopher Ippoliti May 2015

Governing The Corporate Insiders: Improving Regulation Fair Disclosure With More Robust Guidance And Stronger Penalties For Individual Executives, Christopher Ippoliti

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

This article discusses the history of Regulation Fair Disclosure (Regulation FD), the problems it was intended to remedy, the scope of the regulation, and acceptable methods of disclosing material information in compliance with the rule. Part III examines specific further guidance and two investigative reports issued by the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) impacting Regulation FD disclosures. In Part IV, this article sets forth a comprehensive analysis of all the specific enforcement actions pursued by the SEC and the penalties assessed against publicly traded companies and individuals for Regulation FD violations. Part V evaluates the effectiveness of the ...


Private Equity And The Fcpa: Deal-Making As Reform Mechanism, Thomas J. Manning May 2015

Private Equity And The Fcpa: Deal-Making As Reform Mechanism, Thomas J. Manning

Pepperdine Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Great And Powerful Faa: Why Schwab’S Class Action Waiver Should Have Been Enforced Over Finra’S Rules, Clint Hale Feb 2015

The Great And Powerful Faa: Why Schwab’S Class Action Waiver Should Have Been Enforced Over Finra’S Rules, Clint Hale

Pepperdine Law Review

This Comment argues that recent Supreme Court precedent, circuit court decisions in contexts similar to FINRA’s oversight of the securities industry, and investors’ true interests all instruct that Schwab’s class action waiver should have been enforced over FINRA’s contrary command. Part II discusses FINRA’s role in the securities industry, the FAA and recent Supreme Court precedent interpreting the FAA, and the FINRA Rules that Schwab’s class action and joinder waiver violated. Part III analyzes why the conflict between the FAA and FINRA’s rules should have been resolved in favor of the FAA and supports ...