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Full-Text Articles in Securities Law

Shadowing Lenders And Consumers: The Rise, Regulation, And Risks Of Non-Banks, Shelby D. Green Sep 2018

Shadowing Lenders And Consumers: The Rise, Regulation, And Risks Of Non-Banks, Shelby D. Green

Pace Law Faculty Publications

Since the financial crisis of 2008, “shadow banking” or financial transactions by “non-banks,” has skyrocketed. Non-banks are not depositary institutions and as such, they roam free, largely outside the purview of the bank regulators. They occupy all parts of the credit markets, from mortgage loan origination to payday lenders. Untethered, they operate without government guarantees, such as deposit insurance and have no access to emergency government lending facilities, such as the Federal Reserve's discount window.

There are both positives and negatives in the rise of non-banks. On the positive side is market liquidity and greater diversity of funding sources ...


Enforcing The Bargain V. Materiality Requirement: The Future Of Disclosure-Only Settlements Post-Trulia, Hao Jiang May 2018

Enforcing The Bargain V. Materiality Requirement: The Future Of Disclosure-Only Settlements Post-Trulia, Hao Jiang

Pace Law Review

In In re Trulia, Inc. Stockholder Litigation, the Delaware Court of Chancery broke away from its tradition of routinely approving disclosure-only settlements and required disclosures to be material in order to cure the conflict of interest between plaintiff’s counsel and the plaintiff class. I argue that fairness of settlement is the only standard in approving class action settlements and fairness will not be achieved by requiring materiality. Shareholders are legally entitled to all material information, as the board’s fiduciary duty dictates. Thus, material disclosures are enforcement of a legal duty that is no consideration for the release of ...


Survivor Funds, Jonathan Barry Forman, Michael J. Sabin Mar 2017

Survivor Funds, Jonathan Barry Forman, Michael J. Sabin

Pace Law Review

This Article explains how to create “survivor funds”—short-term investment funds that would pay more to those investors who live until the end of the fund’s term than to those who die before then. For example, instead of just investing in a ten-year bond and dividing the proceeds among the investors at the end of the bond term, a survivor fund would invest in that ten-year bond but divide the proceeds only among those who survived the full ten years. These survivor funds would be attractive investments because the survivors would get a greater return on their investments, while ...


Omnicare V. Indiana State District Council And Its Rational Basis Test For Allowing For Opinion Statements To Be A Misleading Fact Or Omission Under Section 11 Of The Securities Act Of 1933, Brian Elzweig, Valrie Chambers Mar 2017

Omnicare V. Indiana State District Council And Its Rational Basis Test For Allowing For Opinion Statements To Be A Misleading Fact Or Omission Under Section 11 Of The Securities Act Of 1933, Brian Elzweig, Valrie Chambers

Pace Law Review

This article examines when statements in a registration statement, couched as opinion, can and cannot be considered to be misstatements of material fact that could lead to liability under Section 11 (and potentially other sections) of the Securities Act. The rest of this paper is formatted as follows. We review the Omnicare case, followed by the key cases in the Second, Third, Ninth, and Sixth Circuit Courts of Appeals. The Second, Third, and Ninth Circuits have all required that, in order for there to be an actionable claim under Section 11, the plaintiff must plead not only that the statement ...


Arbitration Case Law Update 2016, Jill I. Gross Jul 2016

Arbitration Case Law Update 2016, Jill I. Gross

Pace Law Faculty Publications

This chapter identifies decisions by the U.S. Supreme Court and selected federal and high state courts in the past year that interpret and apply the Federal Arbitration Act (FAA). This chapter also analyzes the impact some of these cases might have on securities arbitration practice.


Finra Dispute Resolution Task Force Releases Its Final Report, With Support For Mediation And Live Hearings, Jill I. Gross Feb 2016

Finra Dispute Resolution Task Force Releases Its Final Report, With Support For Mediation And Live Hearings, Jill I. Gross

Pace Law Faculty Publications

This article briefly describes the task force’s formation; highlights its key recommendations (such as requiring mediation before arbitration of all claims—subject to party opt-out, and introducing a more affordable, live hearing option for small claims); analyzes in more detail a few more controversial suggestions (such as expressly banning class action waivers in customer agreements and increasing the use of explained awards), and critiques the task force’s inability to reach consensus on other hot-button issues, such as mandatory arbitration.


The Customer's Nonwaivable Right To Choose Arbitration In The Securities Industry, Jill I. Gross Jan 2016

The Customer's Nonwaivable Right To Choose Arbitration In The Securities Industry, Jill I. Gross

Pace Law Faculty Publications

Arbitration has been the predominant form of dispute resolution in the securities industry since the 1980s. Virtually all brokerage firms include predispute arbitration agreements (PDAAs) in their retail customer contracts, and have successfully fought off challenges to their validity. Additionally, the industry has long mandated that firms submit to arbitration at the demand of a customer, even in the absence of a PDAA.

More recently, however, brokerage firms have been arguing that forum selection clauses in their agreements with sophisticated customers (such as institutional investors and issuers) supersede firms' duty to arbitrate under FINRA Rule 12200. Circuit courts currently are ...


The Historical Basis Of Securities Arbitration As An Investor Protection Mechanism, Jill I. Gross Jan 2016

The Historical Basis Of Securities Arbitration As An Investor Protection Mechanism, Jill I. Gross

Pace Law Faculty Publications

Why do broker-dealers fear a legal system in which the firms' customers have a unilateral right to demand arbitration of disputes? That scenario would return the industry to the pre-McMahon years, when, because the enforceability of PDAAs with respect to federal securities laws was in doubt, most brokerage customers had such a unilateral right. In fact, the pre-McMahon history of securities arbitration, written about only sparsely, reveals that, today, the primary stakeholders in the process--investors and brokerage firms--have lost sight of the original reason why the securities industry heavily relied on arbitration to resolve industry disputes. While offering a speedy ...


Finra Dispute Resolution Task Force Releases Its Final Report, With Support For Mediation And Live Hearings, Jill I. Gross Jan 2016

Finra Dispute Resolution Task Force Releases Its Final Report, With Support For Mediation And Live Hearings, Jill I. Gross

Pace Law Faculty Publications

Late in 2015, the FINRA Dispute Resolution Task Force, a group formed solely for the purpose of systematically assessing and critiquing securities arbitration, released its Final Report and Recommendations. The report contains 51 individual recommendations designed to improve FINRA's heavily-regulated dispute resolution program. Some recommendations offer specific details on implementation; others urge conceptual reform of a particular aspect of the arbitration process but leave FINRA to take care of fleshing out the details.

This article briefly describes the task force's formation; highlights its key recommendations (such as requiring mediation before arbitration of all claims-- subject to party opt-out ...


Dodd-Frank’S Extension Of Criminal Corporate Liability Through The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act: Enabling Whistleblowers And Monitoring Conflict Minerals, Tim Bakken Nov 2015

Dodd-Frank’S Extension Of Criminal Corporate Liability Through The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act: Enabling Whistleblowers And Monitoring Conflict Minerals, Tim Bakken

Pace Law Review

In a sense, through its whistleblower provision, the Dodd-Frank Act has enabled the government to use corporate employee whistleblowers to support criminal prosecutions. That position finds agreement in this article, but the conclusion reached is that the results to be obtained from the whistleblower provision will be positive. Through an analysis of the Dodd-Frank Act, this article discusses further the new reach of the FCPA, particularly in light of the whistleblower and conflict-minerals provisions in the Dodd-Frank Act. Finally, this article concludes that although the new provisions can be costly, the provisions are beneficial. The traditional corporate model is now ...


Asadi: Renegade Or Precursor Of Who Is A Whistleblower Under The Dodd-Frank Act?, Mystica M. Alexander, John O. Hayward, David Missirian Jun 2015

Asadi: Renegade Or Precursor Of Who Is A Whistleblower Under The Dodd-Frank Act?, Mystica M. Alexander, John O. Hayward, David Missirian

Pace Law Review

Whistleblowers have a long and honorable history. From Ralph Nader blowing the whistle on the hazards of GM’s Corvair in Unsafe at Any Speed1 in the 1960’s to Jeffrey Wigand in 1996 exposing the duplicity of the tobacco industry, whistleblowers have put conscience ahead of career and personal success to expose corporate fraud and wrongdoing. Not surprisingly, they have had to endure ridicule and ostracism as well as financial hardship. Legislation has sought to protect them from retribution, often with mixed success. The most recent legislative effort is the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank ...


Resolving The Conflict Between Fiduciary Duties And Socially Responsible Investing, William Sanders Jun 2015

Resolving The Conflict Between Fiduciary Duties And Socially Responsible Investing, William Sanders

Pace Law Review

Part I of this Article clarifies and strictly defines the frequently nebulous idea of socially responsible investing (“SRI”), explaining its history, trends, and current status. To give perspective and perhaps temper hype, Part II discusses the efficacy of SRI as a method of change, concluding that while SRI may not have much effect on air quality or oppressive foreign governments, there are situations where SRI is useful and even necessary. Part III looks at the conflict between SRI and the fiduciary duties of trustees, investment advisers, and broker-dealers. It shows the contractual nature of fiduciary duties and why this is ...


Arbitration Case Law Update 2015, Jill I. Gross May 2015

Arbitration Case Law Update 2015, Jill I. Gross

Pace Law Faculty Publications

This chapter identifies decisions by the U.S. Supreme Court and selected federal circuit and high state courts in the past year that interpret and apply the Federal Arbitration Act (FAA) and could have an impact on securities arbitration practice.


Justice Scalia's Hat Trick And The Supreme Court's Flawed Understanding Of Twenty-First Century Arbitration, Jill I. Gross Jan 2015

Justice Scalia's Hat Trick And The Supreme Court's Flawed Understanding Of Twenty-First Century Arbitration, Jill I. Gross

Pace Law Faculty Publications

In this article, I report on the results of my close examination of more than two dozen opinions the Court has handed down interpreting the FAA--arising primarily from commercial, consumer, employment, or securities disputes--since the beginning of the twenty-first century only fifteen years ago.19 I focus on cases in which the Court was asked to decide a question of arbitrability--whether a claim is arbitrable or whether an agreement to arbitrate is enforceable under FAA section 2. I have concluded that these decisions are built on a narrative of an arbitration process that no longer exists, although it may have ...


Opening The Gate To Money Market Fund Reform, Hester Peirce, Robert Greene Dec 2014

Opening The Gate To Money Market Fund Reform, Hester Peirce, Robert Greene

Pace Law Review

This article proceeds as follows. Part I outlines briefly the background of MMFs. Part II discusses the role of the board of directors in governing MMFs, a role upon which our proposal would build. Part III discusses MMF-related events during the financial crisis of 2007-2008 and describes the government’s response to these events. Part IV describes the reforms the SEC instituted in 2010. Part V outlines options for further reform. Part VI outlines and discusses benefits and drawbacks of our proposed solution—unrestricted discretionary gating by fund boards. Part VII concludes.


Arbitration Case Law Update 2014, Jill I. Gross May 2014

Arbitration Case Law Update 2014, Jill I. Gross

Pace Law Faculty Publications

This chapter identifies decisions by the U.S. Supreme Court, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA) and selected lower federal and state courts in the past year that interpret and apply the Federal Arbitration Act (FAA) and could have an impact on securities arbitration practice.


The Improbable Birth And Conceivable Death Of The Securities Arbitration Clinic, Jill I. Gross Jan 2014

The Improbable Birth And Conceivable Death Of The Securities Arbitration Clinic, Jill I. Gross

Pace Law Faculty Publications

This Article explores the birth, life, and possible death of securities arbitration clinics (SACs) in the United States. Part II of this Article describes the history of the securities arbitration clinic in the United States. Part III describes how a SAC operates and how SAC students help investors. Part IV reviews the pedagogical advantages and disadvantages of a SAC, and addresses the reluctance of many law schools to embrace this type of clinic. Part V concludes by predicting whether these clinics have a future in light of the modern challenges to clinical legal education.


Arbitration Case Law Update 2013, Jill I. Gross May 2013

Arbitration Case Law Update 2013, Jill I. Gross

Pace Law Faculty Publications

The U.S. Supreme Court and lower state and federal courts continue to decide cases under the Federal Arbitration Act (FAA) at an astounding rate. This chapter summarizes Supreme Court opinions over the past year that interpret the FAA, as well as selected lower court decisions that apply the FAA and could have an impact on securities arbitration practice.


The Aftermath Of Merck: D&O Insecurity In The Security Fraud Arena, Alexandra Russo Jun 2012

The Aftermath Of Merck: D&O Insecurity In The Security Fraud Arena, Alexandra Russo

Pace Law Review

This Comment will trace the history of Merck, culminating in the Supreme Court’s extension of the statute of limitations periods for private security fraud suits, and discuss the impact this holding will have on future security fraud litigation, both for investor-plaintiffs and issuer-defendants. Part I will examine the facts and procedural history of Merck, which began in the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey and ultimately reached the Supreme Court of the United States. This procedural background will illuminate the various interpretations existing prior to Merck regarding the events that trigger the statute of limitations ...


Arbitration Case Law Update 2012, Jill I. Gross Apr 2012

Arbitration Case Law Update 2012, Jill I. Gross

Pace Law Faculty Publications

Parties to arbitration agreements sometimes invoke the judicial system to litigate collateral issues arising out of the arbitration process, such as arbitrability of some or all of the claims, arbitrator bias, and award enforcement or vacatur. When deciding these collateral issues arising out of securities arbitration, courts interpret and apply the Federal Arbitration Act (FAA). This chapter identifies recent decisions by the Supreme Court under the FAA, as well as selected lower court decisions that could have an impact on securities arbitration practice.


At&T Mobility And Faa Over-Preemption, Jill I. Gross Jan 2012

At&T Mobility And Faa Over-Preemption, Jill I. Gross

Pace Law Faculty Publications

The Supreme Court's recent arbitration law decisions reflect the Court's strong support for arbitration agreements, but also severely limit the states’ powers to police the fairness of arbitration. In particular, the Court’s decision in AT&T Mobility v. Concepcion, LLC expands the FAA preemption doctrine beyond its prior boundaries, signaling how far the Court is willing to go to support arbitration clauses at the expense of states’ rights and the values of federalism. This article explores the impact of AT&T Mobility on the preemption of state arbitration law, and the concomitant impact on the balance between ...


Investor Protection Meets The Federal Arbitration Act, Jill I. Gross Jan 2012

Investor Protection Meets The Federal Arbitration Act, Jill I. Gross

Pace Law Faculty Publications

In the past three decades, most recently in AT&T Mobility LLC v. Concepcion, the United States Supreme Court has advanced an aggressive pro-arbitration campaign, transforming the Federal Arbitration Act (FAA) into a powerful source of anti-consumer substantive arbitration law. In the aftermath of AT&T Mobility, which upheld a prohibition on class actions in a consumer contract despite state law that refused to enforce such provisions on unconscionability grounds, efforts have been made to prohibit investors from bringing class actions or joining claims, including claims under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the Exchange Act). In the most egregious ...


Jones V. Harris Associates: Shareholders’ Consolation Prize In The Mutual Fund Fee Debate, Nicole Grospe Jul 2011

Jones V. Harris Associates: Shareholders’ Consolation Prize In The Mutual Fund Fee Debate, Nicole Grospe

Pace Law Review

No abstract provided.


Arbitration Case Law Update 2011, Jill I. Gross Jun 2011

Arbitration Case Law Update 2011, Jill I. Gross

Pace Law Faculty Publications

Parties to arbitration agreements sometimes invoke the judicial system to litigate collateral issues arising out of the arbitration process, such as arbitrability of some or all of the claims, arbitrator bias, and award enforcement or vacatur. When deciding these collateral issues arising out of securities arbitration, courts interpret and apply the Federal Arbitration Act, 9 U.S.C. §§ 1 et seq. (2010) (FAA). In this chapter, we identify recent judicial decisions in the area of arbitration law, and analyze their impact on securities arbitration practice.


The End Of Mandatory Securities Arbitration?, Jill I. Gross Nov 2010

The End Of Mandatory Securities Arbitration?, Jill I. Gross

Pace Law Review

No abstract provided.


Blue Skies Ahead: Auction Rate Securities And The Need For A Private Right Of Action For New York Investors, Stephanie Myers Apr 2010

Blue Skies Ahead: Auction Rate Securities And The Need For A Private Right Of Action For New York Investors, Stephanie Myers

Pace Law Review

No abstract provided.


Banks And Brokers And Bricks And Clicks: An Evaluation Of Finra's Proposal To Modify The "Bank Broker-Dealer Rule", Jill I. Gross Jan 2010

Banks And Brokers And Bricks And Clicks: An Evaluation Of Finra's Proposal To Modify The "Bank Broker-Dealer Rule", Jill I. Gross

Pace Law Faculty Publications

As discussed in this article, the proposed rule change protects bank customers who may be solicited for the purchase of investment products and services, but only to a limited extent. It does not rectify sales practices of broker-dealers--affiliated with financial institutions--which tend to confuse, and even mislead, financially unsophisticated investors of modest means who can least afford to be exposed to excessive risk. Additionally, the proposed rule change adds no meaningful surveillance, inspection, enforcement, or punitive mechanisms to prevent and/or redress insidious practices that are akin to “bait and switch” tactics and are particularly effective against financially unsophisticated investors ...


Disquiet On The Home Front: Disturbing Crises In The Nation's Markets And Institutions, Shelby D. Green Sep 2009

Disquiet On The Home Front: Disturbing Crises In The Nation's Markets And Institutions, Shelby D. Green

Pace Law Review

No abstract provided.


Should New York Courts Hear Certified Questions From The Securities And Exchange Commission?, Verity Winship Apr 2009

Should New York Courts Hear Certified Questions From The Securities And Exchange Commission?, Verity Winship

Pace Law Review

No abstract provided.


Hall Street Blues: The Uncertain Future Of Manifest Disregard, Jill I. Gross Jan 2009

Hall Street Blues: The Uncertain Future Of Manifest Disregard, Jill I. Gross

Pace Law Faculty Publications

In 2008, in Hall Street Assocs. v. Mattel, Inc., the Supreme Court resolved a then-existing split in the federal circuits and held that parties cannot contractually expand the grounds for judicial review of an arbitration award when invoking the Federal Arbitration Act's vacatur provisions, elevating the finality of arbitration over the parties’ freedom of contract. The Hall Street decision necessarily impacted subsequent jurisprudence regarding parties’ motions to vacate arbitration awards. While the opinion clearly and explicitly barred further contractual expansion of grounds for review, it also avoided and thus left unresolved the issue of whether it would endorse or ...