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Full-Text Articles in Securities Law

Reversing The Fortunes Of Active Funds, Adi Libson, Gideon Parchomovsky Jan 2020

Reversing The Fortunes Of Active Funds, Adi Libson, Gideon Parchomovsky

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Recent years have witnessed a considerable growth of passive fund at the expense of active funds. This trend picked in 2019, a year that saw passive funds surpass active funds in terms of assets under management. The continuous decline of active funds is a cause for concern. Active funds engage in monitoring of firms and partake of decision-making in companies in their portfolio. The cost of these activities are born exclusively by active funds; the benefits, by contrast, are spread over all shareholders, including passive funds that freeride on the efforts of active funds. The contraction of active funds threatens ...


Table Of Contents, Seattle University Law Review Sep 2019

Table Of Contents, Seattle University Law Review

Seattle University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Table Of Contents, Seattle University Law Review Feb 2019

Table Of Contents, Seattle University Law Review

Seattle University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Investment Treaties, Offshore Finance, And The Resource Curse, Karl M.F. Lockhart Nov 2018

Investment Treaties, Offshore Finance, And The Resource Curse, Karl M.F. Lockhart

Boston College Law Review

Questions of how best to understand offshore financial centers (“OFCs”)—countries that have low or zero tax rates, strong banking secrecy regulation, and easy-to-form legal entities—and what, if anything, the international community should do about them remain fixed on the agenda of national and international discourse. This Essay seeks to provide a new theoretical perspective on tax havens and applies this perspective to the cross-border legal regimes that govern international investment. This new analytical framework sees offshore financial centers as countries that are victims of the “resource curse,” as that term is described in economic development literature. Often physically ...


The Meaning Of Capital In The Twenty-First Century, Edward J. Mccaffery Sep 2018

The Meaning Of Capital In The Twenty-First Century, Edward J. Mccaffery

Edward J McCaffery

America is on a path towards a level of both wealth and income inequality unparalleled in recorded history. Thomas Piketty’s Capital in the Twenty-First Century summarizes and conveys the work of Piketty and many co-authors, over many decades, looking at the structure of income and wealth inequality across many nations and centuries. This review essay builds on Piketty’s ambitions as well as his data, in order to put forth a better solution: one that accepts and even embraces the facts of unequal ownership of capital, but changes the social meaning of those facts to avoid the social harms ...


Taxing Wealth Seriously, Edward J. Mccaffery Sep 2018

Taxing Wealth Seriously, Edward J. Mccaffery

Edward J McCaffery

The social and political problems of wealth inequality in America are severe and getting worse. A surprise is that the U.S. tax system, as is, is a significant cause of these problems, not a cure for them. The tax-law doctrines that allow those who already have financial wealth to live, luxuriously and tax-free, or to pass on their wealth tax-free to heirs, are simple. The applicable legal doctrines have been in place for nearly a century under the income tax, the primary social tool for addressing matters of economic inequality. The analytic pathways to reform are easy to see ...


Examining The Jpmorgan “Princeling” Settlement: Insight Into Current Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (Fcpa) Interpretation And Enforcement, Beverley Earle, Anita Cava Jan 2018

Examining The Jpmorgan “Princeling” Settlement: Insight Into Current Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (Fcpa) Interpretation And Enforcement, Beverley Earle, Anita Cava

Washington University Global Studies Law Review

Shortly after the November 2016 U.S. Presidential election, JP Morgan Chase and JP Morgan Securities (Asia Pacific) settled and signed a non-prosecution agreement (NPA) in which they agreed to pay over $264 million to the DOJ, SEC and the Federal Reserve. The entities acknowledged that they had engaged in quid pro quo arrangements with Chinese officials for a number of years, employing relatives deemed “princelings” in return for favored treatment. Although JP Morgan Chase had ended the program in 2013, evidence of willful and widespread violations of the FCPA resulted in little prosecutorial credit. We examine this and other ...


The Dragon And The Eagle: Reforming China’S Securities Ipo Laws In The U.S. Model, Pros And Cons, Stuart R. Cohn, Miao Yinzhi Jan 2018

The Dragon And The Eagle: Reforming China’S Securities Ipo Laws In The U.S. Model, Pros And Cons, Stuart R. Cohn, Miao Yinzhi

Washington University Global Studies Law Review

China is about to undergo a major reform of its securities offering and listing processes. Since the inception of China’s securities market in the early 1990s, the government has exercised tight control to determine which companies will be allowed to engage in initial public offerings and become listed on a national exchange. The system has led to both corruption and favoritism and has blocked numerable companies from access to capital markets. With the ascension in 2013 of Xi Jinping and Li Keqiang as the heads of the Chinese Communist Party and Premier, the government adopted reform of the market ...


The Up-C Revolution, Gregg D. Polsky, Adam H. Rosenzweig Jan 2018

The Up-C Revolution, Gregg D. Polsky, Adam H. Rosenzweig

Scholarly Works

Over the past few years, a revolutionary new tax structure, known as the Up-C, has become increasingly popular, particularly in instances where an LLC is being taken public. In such an Up-C IPO, a newly formed C corporation is placed on top of the existing LLC, which continues to operate the business. Shares of the C corporation are sold to new investors, and the proceeds are used by the C corporation to buy an interest in the LLC. Meanwhile, the legacy owners of the LLC (typically, founders and private investment funds) retain their interests in the LLC, while receiving exchange ...


Statutory Interpretation Lessons Courtesy Of Pilgrim’S Pride, Philip G. Cohen May 2017

Statutory Interpretation Lessons Courtesy Of Pilgrim’S Pride, Philip G. Cohen

University of Miami Business Law Review

In Pilgrim’s Pride Corp. v. Commissioner, the Fifth Circuit reversed the Tax Court and held that the taxpayer was entitled to an ordinary loss deduction from its abandonment of securities. While the conclusion reached by the Fifth Circuit has been overshadowed by the promulgation of Treasury Regulation section 1.165-5(i) that effectively treats an abandoned security as worthless and thus characterizes the loss as capital, the case remains noteworthy because it provides an opportunity to examine the statutory interpretation of two distinct Internal Revenue Code sections, section 165(g)(1) and section 1234A. The article focuses on what ...


Taft V. Bowers: The Foundation For Non-Recognition Provisions In The Income Tax, James R. Repetti Feb 2017

Taft V. Bowers: The Foundation For Non-Recognition Provisions In The Income Tax, James R. Repetti

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

Taft v. Bowers is a Supreme Court decision that is rarely studied in law schools or discussed by scholars. Yet, it is a case of vast significance. In the Taft decision, the Supreme Court confirmed that Congress may create non-recognition exceptions to the income tax that merely defer the recognition of income, rather than permanently exclude it. If the Taft case had been decided differently, it is likely that the number of non-recognition provisions in the Internal Revenue Code ("Code") would be significantly reduced.


The Great Etf Tax Swindle: The Taxation Of In-Kind Redemptions, Jeffrey Colon Jan 2017

The Great Etf Tax Swindle: The Taxation Of In-Kind Redemptions, Jeffrey Colon

Faculty Scholarship

Since the repeal of the General Utilities doctrine over 30 years ago, corporations must recognize gain when distributing appreciated property to their shareholders. Regulated investment companies (RICs), which generally must be organized as domestic corporations, are exempt from this rule when distributing property in kind to a redeeming shareholder. In-kind redemptions, while rare for mutual funds, are a fundamental feature of exchange-traded funds (ETFs). Because fund managers decide which securities to distribute, they distribute assets with unrealized gains and thereby significantly reduce the future tax burdens of their current and future shareholders. Many ETFs have morphed into investment vehicles that ...


Mandatory Third Party Compliance Examinations For Investment Advisers: An Sec Waterloo?, Mercer Bullard Dec 2016

Mandatory Third Party Compliance Examinations For Investment Advisers: An Sec Waterloo?, Mercer Bullard

Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial & Commercial Law

The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC or Commission) appears to be on the verge of requiring investment advisers to undergo third party examinations. One justification for the rulemaking is that the Commission lacks sufficient resources to examine advisers frequently enough. Another is to create indirectly a self-regulatory organization (SRO) for investments advisers. Both may leave a rulemaking particularly vulnerable to challenge as arbitrary and capricious under the Administrative Procedures Act. This Article considers three novel grounds on which a rulemaking may be successfully challenged. Congress has repeatedly rejected SEC requests to provide additional funding for examinations or to create an ...


Taxing Wealth Seriously, Edward J. Mccaffery Nov 2016

Taxing Wealth Seriously, Edward J. Mccaffery

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

The social and political problems of wealth inequality in America are severe and getting worse. A surprise is that the U.S. tax system, as is, is a significant cause of these problems, not a cure for them. The tax-law doctrines that allow those who already have financial wealth to live, luxuriously and tax-free, or to pass on their wealth tax-free to heirs, are simple. The applicable legal doctrines have been in place for nearly a century under the income tax, the primary social tool for addressing matters of economic inequality. The analytic pathways to reform are easy to see ...


Real Estate Investment Trusts In Canada, Samita Pachai Jul 2016

Real Estate Investment Trusts In Canada, Samita Pachai

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The Canadian real estate investment trust (REIT) industry began in the early 1990s and, over the past twenty years, the legislative landscape governing REITs has changed dramatically. This dissertation examines how REIT legislation has progressed in Canada and the effects it has had on the industry as a whole. After examining the basic characteristics of a REIT, an overview of the legislative evolution is presented. This thesis argues that recent legislation has been successful in allowing REITs to flourish, with 48 public equity REITs now trading in Canada comprising a market capitalization of over CAD 50 billion. A thorough examination ...


A Critique Of Saudi M&A Laws, Mulhim Hamad Almulhim Apr 2016

A Critique Of Saudi M&A Laws, Mulhim Hamad Almulhim

SJD Dissertations

This dissertation aims to elucidate Saudi Arabia’s mergers and acquisitions (M&A) laws. The dissertation studies and analyzes current Saudi M&A laws with reference to comparative models from different countries and provides recommendations to improve the transparency and efficiency of Saudi Arabia’s M&A laws. Such improvements may help companies attempting to conduct M&A activity in Saudi Arabia address certain barriers and difficulties, which may in turn help to stimulate the Saudi Arabian economy.

Saudi Arabia is considered one of the world’s foremost emerging markets. Since Saudi Arabia joined the World Trade Organization, its stock ...


Bringing Continuity To Cryptocurrency: Commercial Law As A Guide To The Asset Categorization Of Bitcoin, Evan Hewitt Mar 2016

Bringing Continuity To Cryptocurrency: Commercial Law As A Guide To The Asset Categorization Of Bitcoin, Evan Hewitt

Seattle University Law Review

This Note will undertake to analyze bitcoin under the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) and the Internal Revenue Code (IRC)—two important sources of commercial law—to see whether any existing asset categories adequately protect bitcoin’s commercial viability. This Note will demonstrate that although commercial law dictates that bitcoin should—nay must—be regulated as a currency in order to sustain its existence, the very definition of currency seems to preclude that from happening. Therefore, this Note will recommend that we experiment with a new type of asset that receives currency-like treatment, specifically designed for cryptocurrencies, under which bitcoin can ...


The Meaning Of Capital In The Twenty-First Century, Edward J. Mccaffery Mar 2016

The Meaning Of Capital In The Twenty-First Century, Edward J. Mccaffery

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

America is on a path towards a level of both wealth and income inequality unparalleled in recorded history. Thomas Piketty’s Capital in the Twenty-First Century summarizes and conveys the work of Piketty and many co-authors, over many decades, looking at the structure of income and wealth inequality across many nations and centuries. This review essay builds on Piketty’s ambitions as well as his data, in order to put forth a better solution: one that accepts and even embraces the facts of unequal ownership of capital, but changes the social meaning of those facts to avoid the social harms ...


Cooperating Individual Or Entity: Law Enforcement's Friend In A Time Of Escalating Deficits And Tight Budgets, Albert F. Tellechea Jan 2016

Cooperating Individual Or Entity: Law Enforcement's Friend In A Time Of Escalating Deficits And Tight Budgets, Albert F. Tellechea

Florida A & M University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Tax Treatment Of Derivative Instruments, Oluwaseun Viyon Ojo Oct 2015

Tax Treatment Of Derivative Instruments, Oluwaseun Viyon Ojo

Oluwaseun Viyon Ojo

The article provides an analysis of the various types of derivative instruments traded on the capital markets. As derivative instruments become frequently tradable in the Nigerian Financial market in the near projected future, it is expedient that the concerned companies plan adequately for the tax implications of such transactions and the appropriate tax authorities know how to treat the instrument of derivatives for the purpose of imposition of relevant taxes. This paper therefore dealt with the treatment of these instruments under the Capital Gains Tax Act (CGTA) and Companies Income Tax Act (CITA), though there are no specific rules for ...


Reconciling Tax Law And Securities Regulation, Omri Y. Marian Aug 2015

Reconciling Tax Law And Securities Regulation, Omri Y. Marian

Omri Y Marian

Issuers in registered securities offerings must disclose the expected tax consequences to investors investing in the offered securities (“nonfinancial tax disclosure”). This Article advances three arguments regarding nonfinancial tax disclosures. First, nonfinancial tax disclosure practice, as the Securities and Exchange Commission (the SEC) has sanctioned it, does not fulfill its intended regulatory purposes. Currently, nonfinancial tax disclosures provide irrelevant information, sometimes fail to provide material information, create unnecessary transaction costs, and divert valuable administrative resources to the enforcement of largely-meaningless requirements. Second, the practical reason for this failure is the SEC and tax practitioners’ unsuccessful attempt to address investors’ heterogeneous ...


The Moral Undercurrent Beneath The Regulatory Regime Of Investor Protection, Huhnkie Lee May 2015

The Moral Undercurrent Beneath The Regulatory Regime Of Investor Protection, Huhnkie Lee

Huhnkie Lee

No abstract provided.


The Moral Undercurrent Beneath The Regulatory Regime Of Investor Protection, Huhnkie Lee May 2015

The Moral Undercurrent Beneath The Regulatory Regime Of Investor Protection, Huhnkie Lee

Huhnkie Lee

No abstract provided.


International Tax Free Exchanges: The Structure Of I.R.C. Section 367, Vikram A. Gosain Apr 2015

International Tax Free Exchanges: The Structure Of I.R.C. Section 367, Vikram A. Gosain

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Nullifying The Debt Ceiling Threat Once And For All: Why The President Should Embrace The Least Unconstitutional Option, Neil H. Buchanan, Michael C. Dorf Feb 2015

Nullifying The Debt Ceiling Threat Once And For All: Why The President Should Embrace The Least Unconstitutional Option, Neil H. Buchanan, Michael C. Dorf

Michael C. Dorf

In August 2011, Congress and the President narrowly averted economic and political catastrophe, agreeing at the last possible moment to authorize a series of increases in the national debt ceiling. This respite, unfortunately, was merely temporary. The amounts of the increases in the debt ceiling that Congress authorized in 2011 were only sufficient to accommodate the additional borrowing that would be necessary through the end of 2012. In an economy that continued to show chronic weakness -- weakness that continues to this day -- the federal government would predictably continue to collect lower-than-normal tax revenues and to make higher-than-normal expenditures, which meant ...


Tax Reform Act Of 1984 - Netherlands Antilles - Effect Of The Repeal Of The Withholding Tax On Portfolio Interest Payments To Foreign Investors, Lee C. Dilworth Feb 2015

Tax Reform Act Of 1984 - Netherlands Antilles - Effect Of The Repeal Of The Withholding Tax On Portfolio Interest Payments To Foreign Investors, Lee C. Dilworth

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Definitions, Religion, And Free Exercise Guarantees, Mark Strasser Jan 2015

Definitions, Religion, And Free Exercise Guarantees, Mark Strasser

Mark Strasser

The First Amendment to the United States Constitution protects the free exercise of religion. Non-religious practices do not receive those same protections, which makes the ability to distinguish between religious and non-religious practices important. Regrettably, members of the Court have been unable to agree about how to distinguish the religious from the non-religious—sometimes, the implicit criteria focus on the sincerity of the beliefs, sometimes the strength of the beliefs or the role that they play in an individual’s life, and sometimes the kind of beliefs. In short, the Court has virtually guaranteed an incoherent jurisprudence by sending contradictory ...


Reconciling Tax Law And Securities Regulation, Omri Y. Marian Oct 2014

Reconciling Tax Law And Securities Regulation, Omri Y. Marian

UF Law Faculty Publications

Issuers in registered securities offerings must disclose the expected tax consequences to investors investing in the offered securities (“nonfinancial tax disclosure”). This Article advances three arguments regarding nonfinancial tax disclosures. First, nonfinancial tax disclosure practice, as the Securities and Exchange Commission (the SEC) has sanctioned it, does not fulfill its intended regulatory purposes. Currently, nonfinancial tax disclosures provide irrelevant information, sometimes fail to provide material information, create unnecessary transaction costs, and divert valuable administrative resources to the enforcement of largely-meaningless requirements. Second, the practical reason for this failure is the SEC and tax practitioners’ unsuccessful attempt to address investors’ heterogeneous ...


Reconciling Tax Law And Securities Regulation, Omri Marian Sep 2014

Reconciling Tax Law And Securities Regulation, Omri Marian

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Issuers in registered securities offerings must disclose the expected tax consequences to investors investing in the offered securities (“nonfinancial tax disclosure”). This Article advances three arguments regarding nonfinancial tax disclosures. First, nonfinancial tax disclosure practice, as the Securities and Exchange Commission (the SEC) has sanctioned it, does not fulfill its intended regulatory purposes. Currently, nonfinancial tax disclosures provide irrelevant information, sometimes fail to provide material information, create unnecessary transaction costs, and divert valuable administrative resources to the enforcement of largely-meaningless requirements. Second, the practical reason for this failure is the SEC and tax practitioners’ unsuccessful attempt to address investors’ heterogeneous ...


Bounties For Bad Behavior: Rewarding Culpable Whistleblowers Under The Dodd-Frank Act And Internal Revenue Code, Jennifer M. Pacella Feb 2014

Bounties For Bad Behavior: Rewarding Culpable Whistleblowers Under The Dodd-Frank Act And Internal Revenue Code, Jennifer M. Pacella

Jennifer M. Pacella, Esq.

In 2012, Bradley Birkenfeld received a $104 million reward or “bounty” from the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) for blowing the whistle on his employer, UBS, which facilitated a major offshore tax fraud scheme by assisting thousands of U.S. taxpayers to hide their assets in Switzerland. Birkenfeld does not fit the mold of the public’s common perception of a whistleblower. He was himself complicit in this crime and even served time in prison for his involvement. Despite his conviction, Birkenfeld was still eligible for a sizable whistleblower bounty under the IRS Whistleblower Program, which allows rewards for whistleblowers who ...