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Full-Text Articles in Securities Law

The Bleeding Edge: Theranos And The Growing Risk Of An Unregulated Private Securities Market, Theodore O'Brien Sep 2020

The Bleeding Edge: Theranos And The Growing Risk Of An Unregulated Private Securities Market, Theodore O'Brien

University of Miami Business Law Review

America’s securities laws and regulations, most of which were created in the early twentieth century, are increasingly irrelevant to the most dynamic emerging companies. Today, companies with sufficient investor interest can raise ample capital through private and exempt offerings, all while eschewing the public exchanges and the associated burdens of the initial public offering, public disclosures, and regulatory scrutiny. Airbnb, Inc., for example, quickly tapped private investors for $1 billion in April of 2020, adding to the estimated $4.4 billion the company had previouslyraised.2 The fundamental shift from public to private companies is evidenced by the so-called ...


Airdrops: “Free” Tokens Are Not Free From Regulatory Compliance, Bridgett S. Bauer Esq. Sep 2020

Airdrops: “Free” Tokens Are Not Free From Regulatory Compliance, Bridgett S. Bauer Esq.

University of Miami Business Law Review

No abstract provided.


Table Of Contents, Seattle University Law Review Sep 2020

Table Of Contents, Seattle University Law Review

Seattle University Law Review

Table of Contents


Compliance Management Systems: Do They Make A Difference?, Cary Coglianese, Jennifer Nash Aug 2020

Compliance Management Systems: Do They Make A Difference?, Cary Coglianese, Jennifer Nash

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Regulatory compliance is vital for promoting the public values served by regulation. Yet many businesses remain out of compliance with some of the regulations that apply to them—presenting not only possible dangers to the public but also exposing themselves to potentially significant liability risk. Compliance management systems (CMSs) may help reduce the likelihood of noncompliance. In recent years, managers have begun using CMSs in an effort to address compliance issues in a variety of domains: environment, workplace health and safety, finance, health care, and aviation, among others. CMSs establish systematic, checklist-like processes by which managers seek to improve their ...


Appraisal Waivers, Jill E. Fisch Aug 2020

Appraisal Waivers, Jill E. Fisch

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

A judicial determination of fair value in a private company can be a difficult and imprecise process. This difficulty coupled with variations in way mergers are negotiated and structured and the potential for conflicts of interest lend uncertainty to appraisal proceedings. As a result, corporate participants have powerful reasons to seek to limit the uncertainty associated with an appraisal proceeding ex ante. The response has been the growing use of shareholder agreements that limit appraisal rights.

Appraisal waivers also offer a potentially attractive solution to a somewhat different concern, the growth of appraisal litigation in publicly traded companies. As with ...


Synthetic Governance, Byung Hyun Anh, Jill E. Fisch, Panos N. Patatoukas, Steven Davidoff Solomon Jul 2020

Synthetic Governance, Byung Hyun Anh, Jill E. Fisch, Panos N. Patatoukas, Steven Davidoff Solomon

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Scholars, practitioners and policymakers continue to debate what constitutes “good” corporate governance. Academic efforts to evaluate the effect of governance provisions such as dual class voting structures, staggered boards of directors and separating the positions of CEO and Chairman of the Board, have produced inconsistent or inconclusive results. The consequence is that the debate over corporate governance is increasingly political and discordant.

We offer a way to address this debate. The rise of index-based investing provides a market-based alternative to governance regulation. Through the creation of bespoke governance index funds, asset managers can offer investors the opportunity to choose an ...


Implicit Communication And Enforcement Of Corporate Disclosure Regulation, Ashiq Ali, Michael T. Durney, Jill E. Fisch, Hoyoun Kyung Jul 2020

Implicit Communication And Enforcement Of Corporate Disclosure Regulation, Ashiq Ali, Michael T. Durney, Jill E. Fisch, Hoyoun Kyung

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This study examines the challenge of implicit communication -- qualitative statements, tone, and non-verbal cues -- to the effectiveness of enforcing corporate disclosure regulation. We use a Regulation Fair Disclosure (Reg FD) setting, given that the SEC adopted the regulation recognizing that managers can convey non-public information privately not just through explicit quantitative disclosures but also through implicit communication. In a high-profile enforcement action, however, the court focused on a literal examination of the manager’s language rather than his positive spin to conclude that the SEC had been “too demanding” in examining the manager’s statements and that its enforcement policy ...


A Taxonomy Of Cryptocurrency Enforcement Actions, Peter J. Henning Jun 2020

A Taxonomy Of Cryptocurrency Enforcement Actions, Peter J. Henning

Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial & Commercial Law

This article looks at how the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and the Department of Justice (DOJ) have pursued cases involving cryptocurrencies. A number of prosecutions have been brought against defendants who misled investors into believing that they were obtaining cryptocurrencies when in fact there were simply false statements and schemes to defraud, such as Ponzi schemes. When a company has attempted to issue a cryptocurrency to investors, the SEC has relied on Section 5(a) and 5(c) of the Securities Act of 1933 to require that issuers file a registration statement with the Commission. This is not an ...


“Estonia’S Gift To The World”: The Implementation Of A Blockchain Protocol For Corporate Governance In New York, Sydney Lauren Abualy Jun 2020

“Estonia’S Gift To The World”: The Implementation Of A Blockchain Protocol For Corporate Governance In New York, Sydney Lauren Abualy

Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial & Commercial Law

The traditional procedures of corporate governance are not designed to resolve issues related to close outcomes of corporate votes, empty voting practices, the proxy voting protocol, verification of shareholder identities, and access to corporate records. Blockchain technology allows all corporate shareholders to participate in corporate governance more conveniently, with increased transparency, on a secure network. Estonia sought to revolutionize corporate governance by facilitating the development of a blockchain based e-voting protocol for shareholders of companies listed on the Tallinn Stock Exchange to vote in shareholder meetings. After unsuccessful attempts, New York stands well behind other states, such as Delaware, in ...


Revising The Debt Limit For “Small Business Debtors”: The Legislative Half-Measure Of The Small Business Reorganization Act, Michael C. Blackmon Jun 2020

Revising The Debt Limit For “Small Business Debtors”: The Legislative Half-Measure Of The Small Business Reorganization Act, Michael C. Blackmon

Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial & Commercial Law

Bankruptcy law changed drastically in 2019 with the passage of several bills. This Note will examine two of them. First, the Family Farmer Relief Act of 2019 raised the debt limit of the family farmer from $4,411,400 to $10,000,000. This enables more financially distressed family farmers to be eligible for Chapter 12 relief, a reorganizational tool designed for farmers. Second, the Small Business Reorganization Act of 2019 created Subchapter V – Small Business Debtor Reorganization in Chapter 11. This new Subchapter streamlined the reorganization process for small business debtors by removing roadblocks which often derail a reorganization ...


Unmasking The Villain: Exposing Scammers’ Identities To Defeat Harmful Calls, Katherine Teng Jun 2020

Unmasking The Villain: Exposing Scammers’ Identities To Defeat Harmful Calls, Katherine Teng

Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial & Commercial Law

Since 1991, Congress has attempted to limit unwanted phone calls through legislative efforts. However, past and current laws remain ineffective as scam call complaints continue to increase while the harm of these calls remains severe. Currently, the laws affecting telecommunication regulation focus on reactive measures rather than preventative solutions. Most recently, Congress has passed the Telephone Robocall Abuse Criminal Enforcement and Deterrence Act, which will require telecommunication companies to implement SHAKEN/STIR technology to end scam calls before they reach consumers. While this is the most progressive legislation addressing scam calls, this Note will suggest that phone numbers be registered ...


Financing Our Future’S Health: Why The United States Must Establish Mandatory Climate-Related Financial Disclosure Requirements Aligned With The Tcfd Recommendations, Colin Myers May 2020

Financing Our Future’S Health: Why The United States Must Establish Mandatory Climate-Related Financial Disclosure Requirements Aligned With The Tcfd Recommendations, Colin Myers

Pace Environmental Law Review

No abstract provided.


Fraud Or Confusion: A Pill For Chronic Securities Litigation In The Life Sciences Sector, Eric Schmid May 2020

Fraud Or Confusion: A Pill For Chronic Securities Litigation In The Life Sciences Sector, Eric Schmid

Boston College Law Review

Publicly traded life science companies must navigate two overlapping regulatory agencies with distinct disclosure policies. The Food & Drug Administration (FDA) has a policy of under-disclosure to incentivize drug development while the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) encourages over-disclosure to avoid securities fraud. The FDA’s far-reaching and complex regulations, coupled with its acquiescence to confidentiality, obfuscates a life science company’s obligations under SEC regulation; as a result, life science companies are an attractive target for securities litigation. This Note explores the interplay between FDA and SEC regulations to pinpoint the source of the disproportionately high rate of securities litigation. It identifies two possible causes, one calling for drastic reforms and the other requiring a modest solution in comparison. It subsequently recommends the FDA release broad guidance on good disclosure practices in an attempt to reduce litigation for life science companies before more radical reforms are required.


Securities Exchange Act Section 4e(A): Toothless "Internal-Timing Directive" Or Statute Of Limitation?, Richard E. Brodsky May 2020

Securities Exchange Act Section 4e(A): Toothless "Internal-Timing Directive" Or Statute Of Limitation?, Richard E. Brodsky

William & Mary Business Law Review

The Securities and Exchange Commission has a problem, and everyone knows it: its investigative process suffers from excessive delay, which harms both individuals and entity it investigates and its own enforcement program. This problem has long been recognized and complained about, but never remedied.

In 2010, Congress passed a law specifically designed to solve the problem of excessive delay but, the way the SEC has read the law—which has been acquiesced in by the courts and ignored by subsequent Congresses—has rendered it toothless and essentially meaningless. This has been accomplished, first, by the Commission’s cabined interpretation of ...


From Securities To Cybersecurity: The Sec Zeroes In On Cybersecurity, Rebecca Rabinowitz Apr 2020

From Securities To Cybersecurity: The Sec Zeroes In On Cybersecurity, Rebecca Rabinowitz

Boston College Law Review

Cybersecurity is one of the gravest threats facing public companies, the markets, and the economy at large today. Because of this pressing threat, the SEC has increased its attention to cybersecurity. In 2018 interpretive guidance, consistent with the mandatory disclosure regime established by federal securities regulation, the SEC stipulated that public companies have a duty to disclose those cybersecurity risks and incidents that are material to investors. The 2018 guidance added little, however, and instead parroted earlier guidance from the SEC’s Division of Corporation Finance. Moreover, the SEC itself has been plagued by cybersecurity problems. This Note asserts that ...


Little Power Struggles Everywhere: Attacks On The Administrative State At The Securities And Exchange Commission, Roberta S. Karmel Apr 2020

Little Power Struggles Everywhere: Attacks On The Administrative State At The Securities And Exchange Commission, Roberta S. Karmel

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Private Company Lies, Elizabeth Pollman Mar 2020

Private Company Lies, Elizabeth Pollman

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Rule 10b-5’s antifraud catch-all is one of the most consequential pieces of American administrative law and most highly developed areas of judicially-created federal law. Although the rule broadly prohibits securities fraud in both public and private company stock, the vast majority of jurisprudence, and the voluminous academic literature that accompanies it, has developed through a public company lens.

This Article illuminates how the explosive growth of private markets has left huge portions of U.S. capital markets with relatively light securities fraud scrutiny and enforcement. Some of the largest private companies by valuation grow in an environment of extreme ...


Recommendations And Comments On The Draft Vertical Merger Guidelines, Jonathan B. Baker, Nancy L. Rose, Steven C. Salop, Fiona Scott Morton Feb 2020

Recommendations And Comments On The Draft Vertical Merger Guidelines, Jonathan B. Baker, Nancy L. Rose, Steven C. Salop, Fiona Scott Morton

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

These recommendations and comments respond to the request by the Federal Trade Commission and the Department of Justice’s Antitrust Division for public comment on the draft 2020 Vertical Merger Guidelines. We commend the agencies for updating the 1984 non-horizontal merger guidelines by recognizing the substantial advances in economic thinking about vertical mergers in the thirty-five years since those guidelines were issued. Our comments emphasize four issues: (i) the treatment of the elimination of double marginalization (“EDM”), particularly that the draft vertical merger guidelines appear inappropriately to make proof of cognizability part of the agencies burden and that they appear ...


Quantifying The Increase In “Effective Concentration” From Verticle Mergers That Raise Input Foreclosure Concerns: Comment On The Draft Vertical Merger Guidelines, Serge Moresi, Steven C. Salop Feb 2020

Quantifying The Increase In “Effective Concentration” From Verticle Mergers That Raise Input Foreclosure Concerns: Comment On The Draft Vertical Merger Guidelines, Serge Moresi, Steven C. Salop

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

This comment responds to the request by the Federal Trade Commission and the Department of Justice’s Antitrust Division for public comment on the draft 2020 Vertical Merger Guidelines. In this comment, we show that there is an inherent loss of an indirect competitor and competition when a vertical merger raises input foreclosure concerns. We also show that it then is possible to calculate an effective increase in the HHI measure of concentration for the downstream market. We refer to this “proxy” measure as the “dHHI.” We derive the dHHI measure by comparing the pricing incentives and associated upward pricing ...


The Importance Of Inferior Voting Rights In Dual-Class Firms, Dov Solomon Feb 2020

The Importance Of Inferior Voting Rights In Dual-Class Firms, Dov Solomon

BYU Law Review

Over the past several years, corporate law scholarship has carefully analyzed the effects of dual-class capital structures, which allocate superior voting rights to insiders and inferior voting rights to public shareholders. This Article adds to the literature by focusing on a unique and novel type of dual-class structure—one in which the public shares have no voting rights at all. It notes that this structure is fundamentally different because in the absence of even highly diluted voting rights in public hands, the firm does not have to abide by certain types of disclosure rules and corporate governance standards. Nonvoting shareholders ...


Spotify’S Direct Listing And Foreign Private Issuers: Protecting Investors When Foreign Private Issuers List On A U.S. Exchange But Not On Their Home Exchange, Tayler Tanner Feb 2020

Spotify’S Direct Listing And Foreign Private Issuers: Protecting Investors When Foreign Private Issuers List On A U.S. Exchange But Not On Their Home Exchange, Tayler Tanner

BYU Law Review

No abstract provided.


Taxing Bitcoin And Blockchains—What The Irs Told Us (And What It Didn’T), David J. Shakow Jan 2020

Taxing Bitcoin And Blockchains—What The Irs Told Us (And What It Didn’T), David J. Shakow

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The IRS recently issued its second description of how it will treat Bitcoin and other blockchain assets. Some of its analysis leaves open questions that invite further consideration, and important issues remain unresolved. Moreover, because the popular Bitcoin blockchain uses a "proof of work" consensus procedure, issues relating to the alternative "proof of stake" procedure have been neglected.


Reversing The Fortunes Of Active Funds, Adi Libson, Gideon Parchomovsky Jan 2020

Reversing The Fortunes Of Active Funds, Adi Libson, Gideon Parchomovsky

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Recent years have witnessed a considerable growth of passive fund at the expense of active funds. This trend picked in 2019, a year that saw passive funds surpass active funds in terms of assets under management. The continuous decline of active funds is a cause for concern. Active funds engage in monitoring of firms and partake of decision-making in companies in their portfolio. The cost of these activities are born exclusively by active funds; the benefits, by contrast, are spread over all shareholders, including passive funds that freeride on the efforts of active funds. The contraction of active funds threatens ...


De Facto Shareholder Primacy, Jeff Schwartz Jan 2020

De Facto Shareholder Primacy, Jeff Schwartz

Maryland Law Review

No abstract provided.


Federal Forum Provisions And The Internal Affairs Doctrine, Dhruv Aggarwal, Albert H. Choi, Ofer Eldar Jan 2020

Federal Forum Provisions And The Internal Affairs Doctrine, Dhruv Aggarwal, Albert H. Choi, Ofer Eldar

Faculty Scholarship

A key question at the intersection of state and federal law is whether corporations can use their charters or bylaws to restrict securities litigation to federal court. In December 2018, the Delaware Chancery Court answered this question in the negative in the landmark decision Sciabacucchi v. Salzberg. The court invalidated “federal forum provisions” (“FFPs”) that allow companies to select federal district courts as the exclusive venue for claims brought under the Securities Act of 1933 (“1933 Act”). The decision held that the internal affairs doctrine, which is the bedrock of U.S. corporate law, does not permit charter and bylaw ...


Crowdfunding Issuers In The United States, Andrew A. Schwartz Jan 2020

Crowdfunding Issuers In The United States, Andrew A. Schwartz

Articles

Startup companies can now legally sell shares of stock, bonds, or other securities to the broad public using equity crowdfunding, a new type of online capital market modeled on Kickstarter and other reward crowdfunding websites. Through equity crowdfunding, entrepreneurs can go directly to the broad public (the “crowd”) for investment, without having to go through the usual (and costly) process of an initial public offering (IPO). Equity crowdfunding thus offers a chance for all entrepreneurs, regardless of their physical location, gender, or anything else, to solicit investors and raise capital.

In 2012, new federal legislation—the Jumpstart Our Business Startups ...


Artificial Intelligence & Artificial Prices: Safeguarding Securities Markets From Manipulation By Non-Human Actors, Daniel W. Slemmer Dec 2019

Artificial Intelligence & Artificial Prices: Safeguarding Securities Markets From Manipulation By Non-Human Actors, Daniel W. Slemmer

Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial & Commercial Law

Securities traders are currently competing to use Artificial Intelligence (A.I.) in order to make more profitable decisions in the marketplace. While A.I. provides superior abilities in recognizing market patterns, its complexity can obscure its decision-making process beyond human comprehension. Problematically, the current securities laws prohibiting manipulation of securities prices rest liability for violations on a trader’s intent. In order to prepare for A.I. market participants, both courts and regulators need to accept that human concepts of decision-making will be inadequate in regulating A.I. behavior. However, the wealth of case law in the market manipulation doctrine ...


Corporate Personhood: Possibilities For Progressive, Trans-Doctrinal Legal Reform, Aisha Ihab Saad Dec 2019

Corporate Personhood: Possibilities For Progressive, Trans-Doctrinal Legal Reform, Aisha Ihab Saad

Boston College Law Review

Kent Greenfield’s Corporations Are People Too (And They Should Act Like It) reclaims the legal theory of corporate personhood from the conservative right and champions it for the progressive left. Greenfield argues that corporate personhood, properly construed, can further progressive goals by limiting certain corporate powers, increasing corporate accountability, and enabling corporate management to govern in the interests of all stakeholders. Greenfield advances a progressive account of corporate personhood and elaborates its implementation in constitutional law and in corporate law. This symposium response extends Greenfield’s conception of corporate person-hood to related questions in securities law and tort law ...


A Practice Worth Ending: Eps Guidance Harming Long-Term Growth, Rachel G. Miller Dec 2019

A Practice Worth Ending: Eps Guidance Harming Long-Term Growth, Rachel G. Miller

Notre Dame Law Review

This Note focuses on one factor—earnings per share (EPS) guidance—that contributes to myopic behavior and short-termism within public companies. Part I discusses the history of the shareholder primacy norm and the need for management to act in the best interest of its shareholders. Additionally, this Part provides background on EPS guidance and the notion of short-termism. Part II lays out a framework for quarterly reporting and argues that the current disclosure requirements should remain intact. This Part addresses the importance of frequency in quarterly reporting and provides two examples—the United Kingdom and Regulation A—of practices with ...


Watching Insider Trading Law Wobble: Obus, Newman, Salman, Two Martomas, And A Blaszczak, Donald C. Langevoort Nov 2019

Watching Insider Trading Law Wobble: Obus, Newman, Salman, Two Martomas, And A Blaszczak, Donald C. Langevoort

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

“The crime of insider trading,” Judge Jed Rakoff has said, “is a straightforward concept that some courts have managed to complicate.” In the last eight years or so, insider trading law has wobbled visibly (in the Second Circuit in particular) in applying the standard for tipper-tippee liability originally set in the Supreme Court’s Dirks decision in 1983: from Obus (2012) to Newman (2014), with a detour to the Supreme Court in Salman (2016), and then two Martoma opinions (2017 and 2018). Most recently, the court of appeals offered what to many was a major surprise in its Blaszczak decision ...