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Retirement Security Law Commons

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2014

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Articles 1 - 30 of 34

Full-Text Articles in Retirement Security Law

Pensions And Passivity, Gregory S. Alexander Dec 2014

Pensions And Passivity, Gregory S. Alexander

Gregory S Alexander

This article discusses how modem fiduciary law has extended equity's tradition of constructing ownership as passive through the corporate pension system. It examines how the corporate pension system as a mode of owning pooled capital is a new stage of passive ownership. This stage creates a different aspect of the familiar problem of separating control from beneficial ownership. Berle and Means argued that the problem that the separation of control from ownership created was economic. The interests of managers and shareholders in the modern corporation diverge, and, they argued, this divergence diminishes the overall efficiency of the modern economy ...


Newsroom: Yelnosky On State Pension Dispute, Roger Williams University School Of Law Dec 2014

Newsroom: Yelnosky On State Pension Dispute, Roger Williams University School Of Law

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


Broker-Dealers And Investment Advisers: A Behaviorial-Economics Analysis Of Competing Suggestions For Reform, Polina Demina Dec 2014

Broker-Dealers And Investment Advisers: A Behaviorial-Economics Analysis Of Competing Suggestions For Reform, Polina Demina

Michigan Law Review

For the average investor trying to save for retirement or a child’s college fund, the world of investing has become increasingly complex. These retail investors must turn more frequently to financial intermediaries, such as broker-dealers and investment advisers, to get sound investment advice. Such intermediaries perform different duties for their clients, however. The investment adviser owes his client a fiduciary duty of care and therefore must provide financial advice that is in the client’s best interests, while the broker-dealer must merely provide advice that is suitable to the client’s interests—a lower standard than the fiduciary duty ...


Partial Privatization Of Social Security: Assessing Its Effect On Women, Minorities, And Lower-Income Workers, Kathryn L. Moore Nov 2014

Partial Privatization Of Social Security: Assessing Its Effect On Women, Minorities, And Lower-Income Workers, Kathryn L. Moore

Kathryn L. Moore

Once viewed as the “third rail” of politics, Social Security appears to be moving inexorably toward reform. In his 1998 State of the Union address, President Clinton proclaimed strengthening Social Security a high priority and called for bipartisan forums on Social Security reform to be held throughout the United States. Similarly, following the 1998 November elections, congressional leaders expressed commitment to “saving Society Security,” and House Ways and Means Chairman Bill Archer renewed his commitment to bipartisan reform of Social Security as recently as December 8, 1999 in a letter to President Clinton. Congressional hearings on reform proposals are ubiquitous ...


Gender Discrimination - European Economic Community - European Court Of Justice Determines That A Non-Contributory Occupational Pension Scheme Should Not Discriminate On The Basis Of Sex. Barber V. Royal Exchange Assurance Group, 1990 E. Comm. Ct. J. Rep. ___, [1990] 2 Comm. Mkt. L. Rep. 513., R. Mace Flournoy Nov 2014

Gender Discrimination - European Economic Community - European Court Of Justice Determines That A Non-Contributory Occupational Pension Scheme Should Not Discriminate On The Basis Of Sex. Barber V. Royal Exchange Assurance Group, 1990 E. Comm. Ct. J. Rep. ___, [1990] 2 Comm. Mkt. L. Rep. 513., R. Mace Flournoy

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Ninth Annual Seton Hall Employment & Labor Law Scholars' Forum, Natalya Shnitser Oct 2014

Ninth Annual Seton Hall Employment & Labor Law Scholars' Forum, Natalya Shnitser

Natalya Shnitser

No abstract provided.


The Best Of Times And The Worst Of Times: Lessons From Recent Reforms Of The French Retirement, Kathryn L. Moore Oct 2014

The Best Of Times And The Worst Of Times: Lessons From Recent Reforms Of The French Retirement, Kathryn L. Moore

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Retirement Revolution: Unmitigated Risks In The Defined Contribution Society, Anne M. Tucker Oct 2014

Retirement Revolution: Unmitigated Risks In The Defined Contribution Society, Anne M. Tucker

Anne Tucker

A revolution in the retirement landscape over the last several decades shifted the predominant savings vehicle from traditional pensions (a defined benefit plan) to self-directed accounts like the 401(k) (a defined contribution plan) and has drastically changed how people invest in the stock market and why. The prevalence of self-directed, defined contribution plans has created our defined contribution society and a new class of investors — the citizen shareholders — who enter private securities market through self-directed retirement plans, invest for long-term savings goals and are predominantly indirect shareholders. With 90 million Americans invested in mutual funds, and nearly 75 million ...


A Public Pensions Bailout: Economics And Law, Terrance O'Reilly Sep 2014

A Public Pensions Bailout: Economics And Law, Terrance O'Reilly

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

In several states, public pension plans are at risk of insolvency within a decade. These risks are significant, and the solutions currently contemplated are likely to fall short of what is necessary to contain the problem. If public pension plans do become insolvent, it seems likely the federal government will bail them out. This Article proposes that the federal government prepare for the prospect of federal financial support of public pension plans by instituting an optional regulatory regime for public pensions. If a state elects not to participate, its public pension plans would be ineligible for federal financial support. In ...


Litigating For The Future Of Public Pensions, Paul Secunda Aug 2014

Litigating For The Future Of Public Pensions, Paul Secunda

Paul M. Secunda

Public pensions are horribly unfunded, millions of public employees are being forced to make greater contributions to their pensions, retirees are being forced to take benefit cuts, retirement ages and service requirements are being increased, and the list goes on and on. These alarming developments involve all level of American government, from the recent move to require new federal employees to contribute more to their pensions, to the significant underfunding of state and local public pension funds across the country, to the sad spectacle of the Detroit municipal bankruptcy where the plight of public pensions plays a leading role in ...


A Failure To Supervise: How The Bureaucracy And The Courts Abandoned Their Intended Roles Under Erisa, Lauren R. Roth Jul 2014

A Failure To Supervise: How The Bureaucracy And The Courts Abandoned Their Intended Roles Under Erisa, Lauren R. Roth

Pace Law Review

This Article addresses how courts failed to adequately supervise employers administering pension plans before ERISA. Relying on a number of different legal theories—from an initial theory that pensions were gratuities offered by employers to the recognition that pension promises could create contractual rights—the courts repeatedly found ways to allow employers to promise much and provide little to workers expecting retirement security. In Section III, this Article addresses how Congress failed to create an effective structure for strong bureaucratic enforcement and the bureaucratic agencies with enforcement responsibilities failed to fulfill those functions. Finally, in Section IV, this Article discusses ...


Social Insecurity: A Modest Proposal For Remedying Federal District Court Inconsistency In Social Security Cases, Jonah J. Horwitz Jul 2014

Social Insecurity: A Modest Proposal For Remedying Federal District Court Inconsistency In Social Security Cases, Jonah J. Horwitz

Pace Law Review

This Article addresses a relatively narrow but consequential problem in the system: the inadequacy of federal judicial resolution of appeals from the denial of Social Security disability benefits. It addresses the problem with an equally narrow, and hopefully equally consequential, solution: granting a published district court decision in such a case the power of binding precedent with respect to the judicial district in which the opinion is issued. In so doing, greater uniformity, consistency, fairness, and efficiency would be brought to a process that is badly in need of all.

The Article proceeds in five parts. Part I provides some ...


Same Sex Marriage In A Post-Perry And Windsor America, Kathryn L. Moore, Allison I. Connelly, Ross T. Ewing Jun 2014

Same Sex Marriage In A Post-Perry And Windsor America, Kathryn L. Moore, Allison I. Connelly, Ross T. Ewing

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

These materials accompanied a presentation at the 2014 Kentucky Bar Association Annual Convention entitled Same Sex Marriage in a Post-Perry and Windsor America. The focus of this presentation was on: the legal landscape following major LGBTQ civil rights cases; how these cases would impact families in Kentucky; and any employment or retirement issues.


The Case For Public Pension Reform: Early Evidence From Kentucky, Maria Hylton May 2014

The Case For Public Pension Reform: Early Evidence From Kentucky, Maria Hylton

Faculty Scholarship

Kentucky has managed to effect major changes to some of its pension plans in the face of poor funding ratios that threatened to swamp other budget priorities. At this point it is unclear whether the reforms are deep enough to bring the plans funding levels in line with those of “healthy” states like Wisconsin. It is also unclear whether there is the political will in other jurisdictions to curb costs by moving to defined contribution or hybrid cash balance vehicles. Transparency combined with a fear that pension obligations would soon swamp all other state budget priorities appears to have been ...


Ockham's Scalpel: A Return To A Reasonableness Standard, Ellen Wertheimer May 2014

Ockham's Scalpel: A Return To A Reasonableness Standard, Ellen Wertheimer

Ellen Wertheimer

No abstract provided.


Fueling The Death Spiral For Workers' Pensions: The Bankruptcy Process And Multiemployer Pension Plans, Colleen Ray May 2014

Fueling The Death Spiral For Workers' Pensions: The Bankruptcy Process And Multiemployer Pension Plans, Colleen Ray

Villanova Law Review

This comment examines how the Bankruptcy Code undermines the retirement security goals of ERISA and MPPAA. The article traces the development of multiemployer pension plans and the regulatory scheme. In addition, it discusses how withdrawal liability functions and how employer withdrawals affect the other employers contributing to a multiemployer pension plan. Next, it addresses the Bankruptcy Code’s treatment of withdrawal liability. Finally, the comment analyzes the impact of discharging withdrawal liability by discussing In re Hostess Brands, Inc.


Pension Action Center, Pension Action Center, University Of Massachusetts Boston Apr 2014

Pension Action Center, Pension Action Center, University Of Massachusetts Boston

Office of Community Partnerships Posters

The Pension Action Center, (PAC) strives to improve retirees’ and workers’ standard of living in retirement through individual case advocacy; referrals to appropriate programs and professionals; and issue analysis and reform of public policy. The center, which is part of the Gerontology Institute at UMass Boston, focuses on the experience of participants in retirement plans throughout its work. The PAC is a one-of-a-kind organization in New England that touches the lives of thousands of people.


Employers As Risks, Amy B. Monahan Apr 2014

Employers As Risks, Amy B. Monahan

Chicago-Kent Law Review

In evaluating health and retirement security in the United States, much recent work has focused on shortcomings in individual decision making. For example, in explaining why 401(k) plans are suboptimal for achieving retirement security, a significant volume of literature has catalogued the mistakes individuals make when attempting to save for retirement through such plans. This article seeks to move the discussion of suboptimal decision making in a new direction, by focusing on the impact that employer decision making has on the ability of employees to achieve health and retirement security. The article argues that employer decision making regarding whether ...


Financial Security Scorecard: A State-By-State Analysis Of Economic Pressures Facing Future Retirees, Christian Weller, Nari Rhee, Carolyn Arcand Mar 2014

Financial Security Scorecard: A State-By-State Analysis Of Economic Pressures Facing Future Retirees, Christian Weller, Nari Rhee, Carolyn Arcand

Christian Weller

As Americans increasingly worry about their retirement prospects, states play an important and growing role in retirement security policy. States already manage long-term care programs for the elderly through Medicaid. Concerned about the impact of future elder poverty on state and local budgets and their local economies, a number of states are exploring the creation of low-cost and low-risk retirement savings plans for private sector workers who lack access to pensions or 401(k)s on the job. Some states have developed programs to help older workers find work.

This report presents the Financial Security Scorecard, designed to inform state-level ...


Are Defined Contribution Pension Plans Fit For Purpose In Retirement?, Jeremy R. Cooper Mar 2014

Are Defined Contribution Pension Plans Fit For Purpose In Retirement?, Jeremy R. Cooper

Seattle University Law Review

This Article considers the historical basis for the shift from defined benefit plans to defined contribution plans, the structural and practical shortcomings of defined contribution plans, alternate pension models, and adjustments to existing retirement plan models that may offer a degree of protection to plan contributors. Like the United States, Australia is now realizing the limitations of a defined contribution retirement system insofar as it relates the provision of reliable retirement income for a population with increasing life expectancy. Unlike defined contribution plans, defined benefit plans provide a benefit based typically on time served and a predetermined proportion of either ...


Less Is More: Applying A Modified Reasonable Compensation Standard To Eliminate The Inconsistencies In The Payroll And Net Investment Income Tax Bases, John S. Treu Mar 2014

Less Is More: Applying A Modified Reasonable Compensation Standard To Eliminate The Inconsistencies In The Payroll And Net Investment Income Tax Bases, John S. Treu

John S. Treu

The original policy for the implementation of payroll taxes was to impose a tax on wages as both a funding mechanism for, and a limitation to, qualifying for social security. However, the self-employment tax base developed severe inconsistencies with this original policy and among different tax entities by including certain returns on capital investments in the tax base. At present, different payroll tax obligations arise for similarly situated tax payers based solely on the type of entity the owner elects to be taxed as under the check-the-box regulations. These inconsistencies resulted from misguided efforts by congress and the treasury to ...


Financial Security Scorecard: A State-By-State Analysis Of Economic Pressures Facing Future Retirees, Christian Weller, Nari Rhee, Carolyn Arcand Mar 2014

Financial Security Scorecard: A State-By-State Analysis Of Economic Pressures Facing Future Retirees, Christian Weller, Nari Rhee, Carolyn Arcand

Public Policy and Public Affairs Faculty Publication Series

As Americans increasingly worry about their retirement prospects, states play an important and growing role in retirement security policy. States already manage long-term care programs for the elderly through Medicaid. Concerned about the impact of future elder poverty on state and local budgets and their local economies, a number of states are exploring the creation of low-cost and low-risk retirement savings plans for private sector workers who lack access to pensions or 401(k)s on the job. Some states have developed programs to help older workers find work.

This report presents the Financial Security Scorecard, designed to inform state-level ...


Tontine Pensions: A Solution To The State And Local Pension Underfunding Crisis, Jonathan Forman, Michael Sabin Feb 2014

Tontine Pensions: A Solution To The State And Local Pension Underfunding Crisis, Jonathan Forman, Michael Sabin

Jonathan B. Forman

Tontines are investment vehicles that can be used to provide retirement income. Basically, a tontine is a financial product that combines features of an annuity and a lottery. In a simple tontine, a group of investors pool their money together to buy a portfolio of investments, and, as investors die, their shares are forfeited, with the entire fund going to the last surviving investor. Over the years, this last-survivor-takes-all approach has made for some great fiction. For example, on the television show “Mash,” Colonel Sherman T. Potter, as the last survivor of his World War I unit, got to open ...


Letter Regarding Pbgc Request For Information On Missing Participants In Individual Account Plans, Federal Register, Vol. 78, No. 120, June 21, 2013, Ellen A. Bruce, Brian Reilly Feb 2014

Letter Regarding Pbgc Request For Information On Missing Participants In Individual Account Plans, Federal Register, Vol. 78, No. 120, June 21, 2013, Ellen A. Bruce, Brian Reilly

Ellen Bruce

On August 19, 2013, the Pension Action Center wrote to the Office of the General Counsel of the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation in response to their request for comments on the implementation of a new program to deal with benefits of missing participants in terminating individual account plans.


La Pensión Familiar En Colombia: ¿Una Solución Al Déficit Pensional Colombiano?, Fernando Castillo Cadena, Ana María Muñoz Segura Jan 2014

La Pensión Familiar En Colombia: ¿Una Solución Al Déficit Pensional Colombiano?, Fernando Castillo Cadena, Ana María Muñoz Segura

Fernando Castillo Cadena

Colombia enacted the “family old-age pension” through Law 1580/12. This pension is not one of exceptional type, which is granted to certain beneficiaries: it is one that tries to expand the coverage of the pension system in a novel way. Thus, the right to a pension no longer will be a product of regular contributions or savings made on an individual basis, but one that will correspond to the sum of efforts made by the couple that makes up a family group. So, in the event that an affiliate not eligible to obtain an old-age pension on an individual ...


Putting Retirement At Risk: Has Financial Risk Exposure Grown More Quickly For Older Households Than Younger Ones?, Christian Weller, Sara Bernardo Jan 2014

Putting Retirement At Risk: Has Financial Risk Exposure Grown More Quickly For Older Households Than Younger Ones?, Christian Weller, Sara Bernardo

Gerontology Institute Publications

Financial markets have been characterized by boom and bust cycles since the 1980s, while the responsibility for managing retirement wealth has increasingly shifted onto individual households at the same time. Policymakers and experts have expressed concern over rising risk exposure among older households, who appear to be increasingly exposed to the growing financial risks just as they near retirement. We consider household data from the Federal Reserve’s Survey of Consumer Finances from 1989 to 2010 to analyze the correlation between age and risk exposure. We test if older households’ risk exposure has indeed grown over time, if it has ...


Why Do Retail Investors Make Costly Mistakes? An Experiment On Mutual Fund Choice, Jill E. Fisch, Tess Wilkinson-Ryan Jan 2014

Why Do Retail Investors Make Costly Mistakes? An Experiment On Mutual Fund Choice, Jill E. Fisch, Tess Wilkinson-Ryan

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

There is mounting evidence that retail investors make predictable, costly investment mistakes, including underinvestment, naïve diversification, and payment of excessive fund fees. Over the past thirty-five years, however, participant-directed 401(k) plans have largely replaced professionally managed pension plans, requiring unsophisticated retail investors to navigate the financial markets themselves. Policy-makers have struggled with regulatory interventions designed to improve the quality of investment decisions without a clear understanding of the reasons for investor mistakes. Absent such an understanding, it is difficult to design effective regulatory responses.

This article offers a first step in understanding the investor decision-making process. We use an ...


Privatizing Railroad Retirement, Steven A. Sass Jan 2014

Privatizing Railroad Retirement, Steven A. Sass

Upjohn Press

Sass discusses the evolution of the U.S. Railroad Retirement System and whether its ability to invest its assets in private equities offers any lessons for Social Security.


Increasing Coverage In Today’S Private Retirement System, Regina T. Jefferson Jan 2014

Increasing Coverage In Today’S Private Retirement System, Regina T. Jefferson

Scholarly Articles and Other Contributions

Part I of this Reflection describes and critiques the effective-ness of the existing nondiscrimination standards for encouraging in-creased coverage in the private retirement system. Part II examines current trends with respect to various segments of the working population and concludes that existing pension law and policies are providing inadequate retirement benefits to low- and middle-income workers participating in 401(k) plans. Part III proposes the following three recommendations for increasing participation rates in the current pension climate: (1) mandatory education programs for all 401(k) plans; (2) mandatory automatic features in 401(k) plans; and (3) an additional tax incentive ...


A Reflection On Erisa Claims Administration And The Exhaustion Requirement, James A. Wooten Jan 2014

A Reflection On Erisa Claims Administration And The Exhaustion Requirement, James A. Wooten

Journal Articles

This essay, prepared in connection with the Drexel Law Review Symposium, ERISA at 40: What Were They Thinking?, examines ERISA’s regime for administering benefit claims and, in particular, the requirement that participants exhaust their plan’s review procedures before filing suit to recover benefits. Like other key elements of ERISA’s claims regime, the exhaustion requirement is a judicial creation that is not articulated in ERISA’s text. Interestingly, former congressional staffers who attended the Symposium said they assumed participants would be required to exhaust plan review procedures but failed to include such a requirement in the legislation. After ...