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Full-Text Articles in Retirement Security Law

State Automatic Enrollment Iras After The Trump Election: Are They Preempted By Erisa?, Kathryn L. Moore Jan 2019

State Automatic Enrollment Iras After The Trump Election: Are They Preempted By Erisa?, Kathryn L. Moore

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

In recent years, a number of states have sought to close the retirement savings funding gap by enacting legislation mandating that employers that do not sponsor a voluntary pension plan for their employees automatically enroll their employees in a state-administered IRA program. This Article focuses on the most serious legal challenge these programs face: ERISA preemption.

The Article begins by providing an overview of the state automatic enrollment IRA programs. It then discusses a regulatory safe harbor created for these programs in 2016 and disapproved under the Congressional Review Act in 2018. It then turns to the question whether, in ...


Closing The Retirement Savings Gap: Are State Automatic Enrollment Iras The Answer?, Kathryn L. Moore Oct 2016

Closing The Retirement Savings Gap: Are State Automatic Enrollment Iras The Answer?, Kathryn L. Moore

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Drawing on insights from behavioral law and economics, automatic enrollment IRAs are intended to address the nation’s retirement savings gap by taking advantage of workers’ inertia. Although automatic enrollment IRAs were initially intended to apply at the federal level, they have gained little traction at the federal level, and states have begun to step into the breach. Between September 2012 and June 2016, five states enacted state automatic enrollment IRA programs.

Studies have uniformly shown that workers are more likely to participate in an automatic enrollment 401(k) plan than in a traditional opt-in 401(k) plan. Proponents of ...


A Closer Look At The Iras In State Automatic Enrollment Ira Programs, Kathryn L. Moore Jan 2016

A Closer Look At The Iras In State Automatic Enrollment Ira Programs, Kathryn L. Moore

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

The United States faces a serious retirement savings funding gap. In an effort to fill that gap, a number of states and municipalities have begun to consider, and in some instances adopt, automatic enrollment IRA programs. Indeed, between September 2012 and June 2016, five states enacted state automatic enrollment IRA programs.

This Article takes a closer look at the IRAs in these state programs. It begins by providing an overview of the state laws creating automatic enrollment IRA programs. It then discusses the requirements that the state programs must satisfy in order to qualify as IRAs for purposes of the ...


Same Sex Marriage In A Post-Perry And Windsor America, Kathryn L. Moore, Allison I. Connelly, Ross T. Ewing Jun 2014

Same Sex Marriage In A Post-Perry And Windsor America, Kathryn L. Moore, Allison I. Connelly, Ross T. Ewing

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

These materials accompanied a presentation at the 2014 Kentucky Bar Association Annual Convention entitled Same Sex Marriage in a Post-Perry and Windsor America. The focus of this presentation was on: the legal landscape following major LGBTQ civil rights cases; how these cases would impact families in Kentucky; and any employment or retirement issues.


Social Security In An Era Of Retrenchment: What Would Happen If The Social Security Trust Funds Were Exhausted?, Kathryn L. Moore Oct 2012

Social Security In An Era Of Retrenchment: What Would Happen If The Social Security Trust Funds Were Exhausted?, Kathryn L. Moore

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Social Security's income, including interest income on the Social Security trust funds' reserves, currently exceeds costs. The system, however, is facing a long-term deficit. Specifically, the Social Security Trustees project that, unless the Social Security Act is amended, by 2033 the system's reserves will be depleted, and its income will only be sufficient to cover about 75 percent of scheduled benefits.

This article addresses two questions related to the funding of Social Security. Part I discusses what would happen if the Social Security trust funds were exhausted. Part II discusses whether Congress could amend the Social Security Act ...


An Overview Of The U.S. Retirement Income Security System And The Principles And Values It Reflects, Kathryn L. Moore Oct 2011

An Overview Of The U.S. Retirement Income Security System And The Principles And Values It Reflects, Kathryn L. Moore

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

This article is designed to provide an overview of the U.S. retirement income security system from a comparative law perspective. Like many countries, the U.S. has a three tier pension or retirement income system, with the three tiers consisting of (1) Social Security, (2) employment-based pensions, and (3) individual savings. Thus, superficially, the U.S. retirement income security system resembles that of many around the world. Yet, in other ways, such as its focus on individual rights and responsibility, the U.S. system is unique.

The article begins by discussing the nine guiding principles of the U.S ...


401(K) Plan Fees: A Trifecta Of Governmental Oversight, Kathryn L. Moore Jan 2009

401(K) Plan Fees: A Trifecta Of Governmental Oversight, Kathryn L. Moore

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Arguably, 401(k) plan fees are the biggest policy issue in the retirement world today. They potentially raise questions about the fundamental business underpinnings of the principal form of retirement savings for the last twenty years. As an indication of their significance, three branches of the federal government: administrative, judicial, and legislative are currently and simultaneously addressing 401(k) plan fees.

This Article will not attempt to provide a comprehensive discussion of 401(k) plan fees and all of the issues that they raise. Instead, the Article will focus on recent governmental activity regarding 401(k) plan fees. It will ...


The New Retiree Health Vebas, Kathryn L. Moore Jan 2008

The New Retiree Health Vebas, Kathryn L. Moore

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Granted tax exempt status since 1928, Voluntary Employees' Beneficiary Associations (VEBAs) have received considerable attention since the fall of 2007 when General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler reached separate landmark agreements with the United Auto Workers union pursuant to which the companies agreed to contribute billions of dollars to VEBAs in exchange for transferring their retiree health care liabilities to the VEBAs. Specifically, General Motors agreed to contribute $31.9 billion while Ford agreed to contribute $13.6 billion, and Chrysler agreed to contribute $11 billion. Sometimes referred to as "defeasance" VEBAs, these "new," "stand-alone" retiree health VEBAs, differ significantly from ...


The Future Of Social Security: Principles To Guide Reform, Kathryn L. Moore Jan 2008

The Future Of Social Security: Principles To Guide Reform, Kathryn L. Moore

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

On February 12, 2008, the nation's first Baby Boomer, Kathleen Casey-Kirschling, was the first of her generation to receive a Social Security retirement benefit. Born one second after midnight on January 1, 1946, Ms. Casey-Kirschling was born just eleven years after the Social Security system was originally enacted, nine years after the first Social Security payroll taxes were collected, and six years after the system first began to pay monthly retirement benefits.

"As the nation's first Baby Boomer, Ms. Casey-Kirschling is leading what is often referred to as America's silver tsunami. Over the next two decades, nearly ...


Social Security Reform: Fundamental Restructuring Or Incremental Change?, Kathryn L. Moore Jul 2007

Social Security Reform: Fundamental Restructuring Or Incremental Change?, Kathryn L. Moore

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

In light of Social Security's long-term deficit, reform of the system appears inevitable. Commentators and policymakers have offered a wide range of possible reforms. This Article describes and analyzes five possible types of reform: (1) individual accounts, (2) progressive price indexing, (3) general revenue and/or estate tax revenue financing, (4) increasing the maximum taxable wage base, and (5) increasing the normal retirement. The Article opposes the first two proposed changes, individual accounts and progressive price indexing, because they would fundamentally restructure the current system. The Article recommends that Social Security's financing difficulties be addressed by a combination ...


Social Security Reform: An Analysis Of The Ball/Altman Three-Point Plan, Kathryn L. Moore Jan 2007

Social Security Reform: An Analysis Of The Ball/Altman Three-Point Plan, Kathryn L. Moore

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

In light of Social Security's long-term funding deficit, Robert Ball, a long-serving former Commissioner of the Social Security Administration, has proposed a three part plan that would bring the Social Security system into close actuarial balance. The first part of the plan consists of gradually increasing the maximum earnings base until it reaches 90 percent of earnings. The second part of the plan calls for dedicating the estate tax to funding Social Security beginning in 2010, and the third part of the plan consists of investing a portion of the Social Security trust fund in equities. Nancy Altman, Chairman ...


Book Review | The Battle For Social Security: From Fdr’S Vision To Bush’S Gamble By Nancy J. Altman (2005), Kathryn L. Moore Jan 2007

Book Review | The Battle For Social Security: From Fdr’S Vision To Bush’S Gamble By Nancy J. Altman (2005), Kathryn L. Moore

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

This book review examines The Battle for Social Security: From FDR’s Vision to Bush’s Gamble by Nancy J. Altman (2005).


Reforming Retirement Systems: Why The French Have Succeeded When Americans Have Not, Kathryn L. Moore Jul 2005

Reforming Retirement Systems: Why The French Have Succeeded When Americans Have Not, Kathryn L. Moore

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

In order to understand why the American Social Security system has been so resistant to change while the retirement systems in other countries have been amended, this Article analyzes why one country, France, was able to reform its retirement system significantly in 2003. The Article begins by briefly describing the French retirement system prior to 2003. It then provides an overview of the most significant changes wrought by the reform enacted in 2003. It then analyses why, after years of inaction and failed attempts to reform the French retirement system, the government succeeded in reforming the retirement system in 2003 ...


Lessons From The French Funding Debate, Kathryn L. Moore Jan 2004

Lessons From The French Funding Debate, Kathryn L. Moore

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

The French retirement system, like the American social security system, is facing long-term funding difficulties. As a result, the French are debating whether to expand the role of pre-funded retirement plans. The economic arguments presented in this debate are virtually identical to the economic arguments presented in the American debate on whether the American social security system should be partially privatized.

The French and American debates, however, diverge once history and ideology are considered. The French have a history of failed funded pensions in contrast to the United States where the failure of prominent underfunded pension led to the enactment ...


Raising The Social Security Retirement Ages: Weighing The Costs And Benefits, Kathryn L. Moore Jul 2001

Raising The Social Security Retirement Ages: Weighing The Costs And Benefits, Kathryn L. Moore

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

The Social Security program faces a long-term funding deficit. The Board of Trustees of the Federal Old-Age and Survivors and Disability Insurance ("OASDI") Trust Funds predicts that unless corrective action is taken, Social Security benefit payments will exceed dedicated tax revenues by the year 2015, and the Social Security program will become insolvent—unable to pay promised benefits in full-by the year 2037. As a result of this projected deficit, Social Security has become "a lightning rod for far reaching reform proposals."

Proposals range from "traditional" proposals that would maintain the basics of the program's revenue and benefit structure ...


The Best Of Times And The Worst Of Times: Lessons From Recent Reforms Of The French Retirement System, Kathryn L. Moore Jan 2001

The Best Of Times And The Worst Of Times: Lessons From Recent Reforms Of The French Retirement System, Kathryn L. Moore

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Principally because of increasing life expectancy and the fact that the baby boom generation is reaching retirement age and is followed by a much smaller generation, the American social security system is facing a long-term funding deficit. The Board of Trustees of the Federal Old-Age and Survivors and Disability Trust Funds predicts that unless corrective action is taken, social security benefits will exceed dedicated tax revenues by the year 2016, and the social security system will become insolvent, that is, unable to pay benefits in full, by the year 2038.

The United States is not alone in facing these circumstances ...


The Effects Of Partial Privatization Of Social Security Upon Private Pensions, Kathryn L. Moore Jan 2001

The Effects Of Partial Privatization Of Social Security Upon Private Pensions, Kathryn L. Moore

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Social Security does not provide retirement income in a vacuum. Rather, commentators often refer to our national retirement income system as a three legged stool, with Social Security representing one of the legs and employer sponsored pension plans and individual savings representing the other two legs. Because changes in one leg of the stool are likely to have a direct impact on the other two legs, policymakers must not consider Social Security changes in isolation, but should take account of their effect on employer-sponsored pensions and individual savings. This Article analyzes how one of the most popular proposals, partial privatization ...


Partial Privatization Of Social Security: Assessing Its Effect On Women, Minorities, And Lower-Income Workers, Kathryn L. Moore Apr 2000

Partial Privatization Of Social Security: Assessing Its Effect On Women, Minorities, And Lower-Income Workers, Kathryn L. Moore

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Once viewed as the “third rail” of politics, Social Security appears to be moving inexorably toward reform. In his 1998 State of the Union address, President Clinton proclaimed strengthening Social Security a high priority and called for bipartisan forums on Social Security reform to be held throughout the United States. Similarly, following the 1998 November elections, congressional leaders expressed commitment to “saving Society Security,” and House Ways and Means Chairman Bill Archer renewed his commitment to bipartisan reform of Social Security as recently as December 8, 1999 in a letter to President Clinton. Congressional hearings on reform proposals are ubiquitous ...


Redistribution Under The Current Social Security System, Kathryn L. Moore Jan 2000

Redistribution Under The Current Social Security System, Kathryn L. Moore

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Arguably the most successful program of the modern welfare state, Social Security has been enormously successful in lifting the elderly out of poverty. Thirty years ago, almost 30% of the elderly were in poverty, a poverty rate that was more than twice as high as the rate for the population as a whole. Today, in contrast, only about 12% of the elderly are subject to poverty, a rate that is about the same as the rest of the adult population.

This Article describes how the current system redistributes income. The Article does not attempt to develop a mathematical model to ...


Privatization Of Social Security: Misguided Reform, Kathryn L. Moore Apr 1998

Privatization Of Social Security: Misguided Reform, Kathryn L. Moore

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

This article begins by briefly describing the social security program. It then discusses the reasons for social security's widespread popularity and its impending funding crisis. The article goes on to briefly describe some of the pending privatization proposals. The article concludes by discussing the practical and theoretical problems with privatizing social security. Specifically, it describes the investment risk participants face under a privatized system and the transition problems created by converting to such a system. Finally, this article explains why the privatization proposals promote misguided paternalism and misconceive the role social security should play in our national retirement system.


Redistribution Under A Partially Privatized Social Security System, Kathryn L. Moore Jan 1998

Redistribution Under A Partially Privatized Social Security System, Kathryn L. Moore

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Once viewed as a radical recommendation, proposals to privatize Social Security abound. Moreover, proposals to privatize partially Social Security are beginning to receive serious consideration. Accordingly, this Article will address the likely effect of partial privatization on Social Security's ability to redistribute income. For the purposes of this Article, privatization will refer to proposals that involve individuals directing their own pre-funded individual accounts and bearing the risk of investing in the private market and not to proposals that involve the federal government investing in the private market and bearing the risk. This Article will treat proposals that "add" a ...