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Full-Text Articles in Privacy Law

Brief Of Amicus Curiae, In Re Opinions & Orders Of This Court Addressing Bulk Collection Of Data Under The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, No. Misc. 13-08 (Fisa Ct. June 13, 2018), Laura K. Donohue Jun 2018

Brief Of Amicus Curiae, In Re Opinions & Orders Of This Court Addressing Bulk Collection Of Data Under The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, No. Misc. 13-08 (Fisa Ct. June 13, 2018), Laura K. Donohue

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

No abstract provided.


Transparency And The Marketplace For Student Data, N. Cameron Russell, Joel R. Reidenberg, Elizabeth Martin, Thomas B. Norton Jun 2018

Transparency And The Marketplace For Student Data, N. Cameron Russell, Joel R. Reidenberg, Elizabeth Martin, Thomas B. Norton

Center on Law and Information Policy

Student lists are commercially available for purchase on the basis of ethnicity, affluence, religion, lifestyle, awkwardness, and even a perceived or predicted need for family planning services. This study seeks to provide an understanding of the commercial marketplace for student data and the interaction with privacy law. Over several years, Fordham CLIP reviewed publicly-available sources, made public records requests to educational institutions, and collected marketing materials received by high school students. The study uncovered and documents an overall lack of transparency in the student information commercial marketplace and an absence of law to protect student information.


Search Query: Can America Accept A Right To Be Forgotten As A Publicity Right?, James J. Lavelle Jun 2018

Search Query: Can America Accept A Right To Be Forgotten As A Publicity Right?, James J. Lavelle

Brooklyn Law Review

Search engines have profoundly changed the relationship between privacy and free speech by making personal information widely and cheaply available to a global audience. This has raised many concerns both over how online companies handle the information they collect and how regular citizens use online services to invade other people’s privacy. One way Europe has addressed this change is by providing European Union citizens with a right to petition search engines to deindex links from search results—a so-called “right to be forgotten.” If the information contained in a search result is “inadequate, irrelevant or no longer relevant,” the ...


Things Invisible To See: State Action & Private Property, Joseph William Singer, Isaac Saidel-Goley Jun 2018

Things Invisible To See: State Action & Private Property, Joseph William Singer, Isaac Saidel-Goley

Texas A&M Law Review

This Article revisits the state action doctrine, a judicial invention that shields “private” or “non-governmental” discrimination from constitutional scrutiny. Traditionally, this doctrine has applied to discrimination even in places of public accommodation, like restaurants, hotels, and grocery stores. Born of overt racial discrimination, the doctrine has inflicted substantial injustice throughout its inglorious history, and courts have continuously struggled in vain to coherently apply the doctrine. Yet, the United States Supreme Court has not fully insulated “private” or “horizontal” relations among persons from constitutional scrutiny. The cases in which it has applied constitutional norms to non-governmental actors should be celebrated rather ...


The Naked Truth: Insufficient Coverage For Revenge Porn Victims At State Law And The Proposed Federal Legislation To Adequately Redress Them, Meghan Fay May 2018

The Naked Truth: Insufficient Coverage For Revenge Porn Victims At State Law And The Proposed Federal Legislation To Adequately Redress Them, Meghan Fay

Boston College Law Review

The distribution of revenge porn is a cyber-bullying phenomenon that has proliferated on the Internet. The nonconsensual sharing of sexually explicit photographs and videos causes irreparable harm to revenge porn victims. The current state of the law, however, does little to redress the damage. Tort claims are often unsuccessful because many victims do not have the resources necessary to initiate a lawsuit. Furthermore, federal law grants operators of revenge porn websites immunity from state tort claims. In an effort to fill this gap in the law, many states have made changes or additions to their criminal statutes. To date, thirty-eight ...


No Harm, No Foul: The Fourth Circuit Struggles With The "Injury-In-Fact" Requirement To Article Iii Standing In Data Breach Class Actions, Brandon Ferrick May 2018

No Harm, No Foul: The Fourth Circuit Struggles With The "Injury-In-Fact" Requirement To Article Iii Standing In Data Breach Class Actions, Brandon Ferrick

Boston College Law Review

On February 6, 2017, in Beck v. McDonald, the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit held that the increased risk of future identity theft created by two data breaches was too speculative to constitute an injury-in-fact for the purposes of Article III standing. The court surveyed the split between its sister circuits and determined that, without allegations that a thief deliberately targeted information, misused, or attempted to misuse that personal information, the risk of identity theft was not sufficiently high so as to meet the injury-in-fact requirement of Article III standing. This Comment examines the Fourth Circuit ...


The Exigencies Of Drunk Driving: Cripps V. State And The Issues With Taking Drivers' Blood Without A Warrant, Timothy Andrea May 2018

The Exigencies Of Drunk Driving: Cripps V. State And The Issues With Taking Drivers' Blood Without A Warrant, Timothy Andrea

Boston College Law Review

Few of the government’s investigatory techniques implicate individual privacy concerns more than the taking and testing of a suspect’s blood. These blood draws are a common tool used to fight drunk driving. In 2013, in Missouri v. McNeely, the U.S. Supreme Court reiterated the need for case-by-case review when considering whether exigent circumstances justify warrantless blood testing of drunk driving suspects. An Oklahoma statute takes a different approach by categorically abdicating the warrant requirement and authorizing law enforcement to draw blood from any driver involved in an accident that results in serious bodily injury. In 2016, in ...


Bounded By The Constitution: Resolving The Private Search Doctrine Circuit Split, Mark Kifarkis May 2018

Bounded By The Constitution: Resolving The Private Search Doctrine Circuit Split, Mark Kifarkis

Concordia Law Review

This Article analyzes the private search doctrine exception to the Fourth Amendment and the exception's application to smart phones and computers. The private search doctrine allows governmental authorities to replicate a private individual's search without obtaining a warrant. This Article proposes a standard for court's to use to resolve the circuit split on how to apply the exception to today's technology. Presently, there are two standards used by courts. The Article names one standard as the "boundless search approach" that is used by the Fifth and Seventh Circuits. The Article names the other standard as "bounded ...


Big Brother Is Listening To You: Digital Eavesdropping In The Advertising Industry, Dacia Green May 2018

Big Brother Is Listening To You: Digital Eavesdropping In The Advertising Industry, Dacia Green

Duke Law & Technology Review

In the Digital Age, information is more accessible than ever. Unfortunately, that accessibility has come at the expense of privacy. Now, more and more personal information is in the hands of corporations and governments, for uses not known to the average consumer. Although these entities have long been able to keep tabs on individuals, with the advent of virtual assistants and “always-listening” technologies, the ease by which a third party may extract information from a consumer has only increased. The stark reality is that lawmakers have left the American public behind. While other countries have enacted consumer privacy protections, the ...


Against Notice And Choice: The Manifest Failure Of The Proceduralist Paradigm To Protect Privacy Online (Or Anywhere Else), John A. Rothchild May 2018

Against Notice And Choice: The Manifest Failure Of The Proceduralist Paradigm To Protect Privacy Online (Or Anywhere Else), John A. Rothchild

Cleveland State Law Review

Notice and choice are the foundational principles underlying the regulation of privacy in online transactions and in most other situations in which individuals interact with the government and commercial interests. These principles mean that before collecting personally identifiable information (PII) from an individual, the collector must provide the individual with a disclosure (notice) of what PII it proposes to collect and how it proposes to use that information. That knowledge enables the individual to make a rational decision (choice) about whether to allow that collection of information, generally by declining to enter into the transaction or, in some situations, by ...


Big Brother Is Watching: When Should Georgia Get Involved In Issues Of Family Privacy To Protect Children’S Liberties?, Michelle Wilco May 2018

Big Brother Is Watching: When Should Georgia Get Involved In Issues Of Family Privacy To Protect Children’S Liberties?, Michelle Wilco

Georgia State University Law Review

Alecia Faith Pennington (Faith) did not officially exist until she was nineteen. Faith’s conservative, religious parents, Lisa and James, raised their nine children on the family farm just outside Kerrville, Texas, and kept their family as self-sufficient and separate from the rest of the world as possible.

The family was very insular; the parents home schooled all of the children, and the family rarely left their home, with the rare exception of going to church. Lisa and James also prohibited their children from using the Internet until they were eighteen, at which point they were only allowed limited access ...


Give Me Your Tired, Your Poor, Your Pregnant: The Jurisprudence Of Abortion Exceptionalism In Garza V. Hargan, Kaytlin L. Roholt May 2018

Give Me Your Tired, Your Poor, Your Pregnant: The Jurisprudence Of Abortion Exceptionalism In Garza V. Hargan, Kaytlin L. Roholt

Texas A&M Law Review

Since a majority of Supreme Court justices created the abortion right in 1973, a troubling pattern has emerged: The Supreme Court has come to ignore—and even nullify—longstanding precedent and legal doctrines in the name of preserving and expanding the abortion right. And with a Supreme Court majority that is blithe to manipulate any doctrine or principle—no matter how deeply rooted in U.S. legal tradition—in the name of expansive abortion rights, it should come as no surprise that lower courts are following suit. Most recently, the D.C. Circuit fired up the “ad hoc nullification machine ...


Unfaithful But Not Without Privacy Protections: The Seventh Circuit Addresses When Courts Should Consider An E-Mail Interception Unlawful In Epstein V. Epstein, Joseph Noreña Apr 2018

Unfaithful But Not Without Privacy Protections: The Seventh Circuit Addresses When Courts Should Consider An E-Mail Interception Unlawful In Epstein V. Epstein, Joseph Noreña

Boston College Law Review

On December 14, 2016, the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit, in Epstein v. Epstein, held that contemporaneousness is not a determinative factor at the pleadings stage of a claim for the unlawful interception of electronic communications under the Federal Wiretap Act (“FWA”). In so doing, the Seventh Circuit partly departed from the way in which other Federal Circuit Courts had previously considered the statutory language of the FWA, specifically the definitions of “electronic communication” and “intercept” under 18 U.S.C. § 2510(4), (12). This Comment argues that the Seventh Circuit’s holding that contemporaneousness is ...


The Face-Off Between Data Privacy And Discovery: Why U.S. Courts Should Respect Eu Data Privacy Law When Considering The Production Of Protected Information, Samantha Cutler Apr 2018

The Face-Off Between Data Privacy And Discovery: Why U.S. Courts Should Respect Eu Data Privacy Law When Considering The Production Of Protected Information, Samantha Cutler

Boston College Law Review

When foreign parties involved in U.S. litigation are ordered to produce information that is protected by EU data privacy law, they are caught in an unfortunate “Catch-22.” Historically, U.S. courts have pointed to the unlikelihood of sanctions for data privacy law violations to justify these orders. EU data privacy law, however, has recently undergone several shifts in favor of tougher rules and significantly increased sanctions. Additionally, EU regulators are now more vigilant and active in enforcing these laws. These developments, combined with the benefits of international judicial respect and the intrinsic value of privacy, mean that U.S ...


Drawing The Line: The Jurisprudence Of Non-Consensual Pornography And The Implications Of Kanye West’S Famous Music Video, Karla Utset Apr 2018

Drawing The Line: The Jurisprudence Of Non-Consensual Pornography And The Implications Of Kanye West’S Famous Music Video, Karla Utset

University of Miami Law Review

In June 2016, American rapper Kanye West premiered the music video for Famous from his seventh studio album “The Life of Pablo.” West’s Famous music video, inspired by Vincent Desiderio’s painting Sleep, features nude replications of several celebrities lying together on a bed. The cinematography is voyeuristic, with one journalist describing the video as “predatory.” In making and publicizing the infamous music video, West failed to seek and acquire the consent of several of the individuals featured. The production received both considerable praise and backlash from artists, critics, and the celebrities depicted.

This Note discusses the jurisprudence of ...


The Struggle To Define Privacy Rights And Liabilities In A Digital World And The Unfortunate Role Of Constitutional Standing, Juan Olano Apr 2018

The Struggle To Define Privacy Rights And Liabilities In A Digital World And The Unfortunate Role Of Constitutional Standing, Juan Olano

University of Miami Law Review

Today’s world runs on data. The creation and improvement of technological products and services depend on the exchange of data between people and companies. As people’s lives become more digitized, companies can collect, store, and analyze more data, and in turn, create better technology. But, because consumer data can be very sensitive (think Social Security numbers, GPS location, fingerprint recognition, etc.) this cyclical exchange comes with serious privacy risks; especially in light of more frequent and sophisticated cyberattacks. This creates a face-off between technological growth and privacy rights. While it makes sense that people should be willing to ...


Harmonizing The Tension Between The First Amendment And Publicity Rights And Finding The Right Balance: Discerning How Much Freedom Is Warranted And What Needs Protection, William Buchsbaum Apr 2018

Harmonizing The Tension Between The First Amendment And Publicity Rights And Finding The Right Balance: Discerning How Much Freedom Is Warranted And What Needs Protection, William Buchsbaum

The University of Cincinnati Intellectual Property and Computer Law Journal

This paper examines the tension between the First Amendment and Publicity Rights considering why and how friction is emerging, the legal underpinnings and theories behind the development of publicity rights and how to reconcile this with values raised in support of the First Amendment. This collision course of rights occurs where property interests have vested in human identity itself which brings us face to face with the outer limits of free speech and expression under the First Amendment and evens tests the notion of how we define speech. The paper takes a dive into some of the currently arising issues ...


Privacy, Screened Out: Analyzing The Threat To Individual Privacy Rights And Fifth Amendment Protections In State V. Stahl, Jesse Coulon Apr 2018

Privacy, Screened Out: Analyzing The Threat To Individual Privacy Rights And Fifth Amendment Protections In State V. Stahl, Jesse Coulon

Boston College Law Review

Courts across the United States have applied Fifth Amendment protections to passcodes, as long as those passcodes are not a foregone conclusion. In order for a court to determine that a passcode is a forgone conclusion, and thus not testimonial in nature, the prosecution must show that they knew the existence, possession, and authenticity of the evidence that would be discovered by the compelled passcode, before the passcode is compelled. The foregone conclusion doctrine was established, and had been used, to balance the need of law enforcement to gather incriminating evidence while still protecting defendants’ Fifth Amendment rights. In 2016 ...


The Fight Over Encryption: Reasons Why Congress Must Block The Government From Compelling Technology Companies To Create Backdoors Into Their Devices, Shannon Lear Apr 2018

The Fight Over Encryption: Reasons Why Congress Must Block The Government From Compelling Technology Companies To Create Backdoors Into Their Devices, Shannon Lear

Cleveland State Law Review

Advances in technology in the past decade have blurred the line between individuals’ privacy rights and the government’s ability to access information. How should this issue be handled in a manner that balances the privacy rights of individuals and the government’s access to information in the interest of national security?

This Note proposes a bright-line rule that would continue to allow the government to obtain specific information from a data service provider without forcing the company to circumvent its own security features. Under this rule, a company shall relinquish specific information in its control or possession only by ...


The Surveillance Gap: The Harms Of Extreme Privacy And Data Marginalization, Michele Gilman, Rebecca Green Apr 2018

The Surveillance Gap: The Harms Of Extreme Privacy And Data Marginalization, Michele Gilman, Rebecca Green

Faculty Publications

We live in an age of unprecedented surveillance, enhanced by modern technology, prompting some to suggest that privacy is dead. Previous scholarship suggests that no subset of the population feels this phenomenon more than marginalized communities. Those who rely on public benefits, for example, must turn over personal information and submit to government surveillance far more routinely than wealthier citizens who enjoy greater opportunity to protect their privacy and the ready funds to secure it. This article illuminates the other end of the spectrum, arguing that many individuals who may value government and nonprofit services and legal protections fail to ...


The Language-Game Of Privacy, Joshua A.T. Fairfield Apr 2018

The Language-Game Of Privacy, Joshua A.T. Fairfield

Michigan Law Review

A review of Ronald J. Krotoszynski, Jr., Privacy Revisited: A Global Perspective on the Right to Be Left Alone.


Pii In Context: Video Privacy And A Factor-Based Test For Assessing Personal Information, Daniel L. Macioce Jr. Mar 2018

Pii In Context: Video Privacy And A Factor-Based Test For Assessing Personal Information, Daniel L. Macioce Jr.

Pepperdine Law Review

As a central concept in American information privacy law, personally identifiable information (PII) plays a critical role in determining whether a privacy violation has occurred. Under the Video Privacy Protection Act of 1988 (VPPA), PII “includes information which identifies a person as having requested or obtained specific video materials or services.” Despite the clarity that these words may have when the Statute was enacted, the line separating PII from non-PII in the context of streaming video is not easily drawn, in part due to the prevalence of behavior tracking technologies and the emergence of “big data” analytics. The First Circuit ...


These Walls Can Talk! Securing Digital Privacy In The Smart Home Under The Fourth Amendment, Stefan Ducich Mar 2018

These Walls Can Talk! Securing Digital Privacy In The Smart Home Under The Fourth Amendment, Stefan Ducich

Duke Law & Technology Review

Privacy law in the United States has not kept pace with the realities of technological development, nor the growing reliance on the Internet of Things (IoT). As of now, the law has not adequately secured the “smart” home from intrusion by the state, and the Supreme Court further eroded digital privacy by conflating the common law concepts of trespass and exclusion in United States v. Jones. This article argues that the Court must correct this misstep by explicitly recognizing the method by which the Founding Fathers sought to “secure” houses and effects under the Fourth Amendment. Namely, the Court must ...


“A Search Is A Search”: Scanning A Credit, Debit, Or Gift Card Is A Search Under The Fourth Amendment, John A. Leblanc Mar 2018

“A Search Is A Search”: Scanning A Credit, Debit, Or Gift Card Is A Search Under The Fourth Amendment, John A. Leblanc

Boston College Law Review

On May 18, 2017, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the First Circuit, in United States v. Hillaire, joined the Fifth, Sixth, and Eighth circuits in holding that the government’s act of scanning the magnetic stripes of lawfully seized credit, debit, or gift cards to access the information encoded therein is not a search within the meaning of the Fourth Amendment. In each case, the courts concluded that an individual is precluded from claiming a reasonable expectation of privacy in the electronic information encoded on a card’s magnetic stripe. This Note provides an overview of how Fourth ...


Breach Of Faith: A Lack Of Policy For Responding To Data Breaches And What The Government Should Do About It, Jared Burns Mar 2018

Breach Of Faith: A Lack Of Policy For Responding To Data Breaches And What The Government Should Do About It, Jared Burns

Florida Law Review

One data breach in the summer of 2015 against the United States government cost taxpayers more than $350 million. Since 2005, the U.S. government has lost more than 183 million personnel records and countless files containing sensitive information. Despite all of this, the government has failed to create a policy for responding to data breaches. As proof of a lack of any clear policy, this Note analyzes two recent breaches against the government and explains how the responses, or lack thereof, are at opposite ends of the response continuum.

This Note creates a policy for government response to data ...


Privacy, Mass Intrusion And The Modern Data Breach, Jon L. Mills, Kelsey Harclerode Mar 2018

Privacy, Mass Intrusion And The Modern Data Breach, Jon L. Mills, Kelsey Harclerode

Florida Law Review

Massive data breaches have practically become a daily occurrence. These breaches reveal intrusive private information about individuals, as well as priceless corporate secrets. Ashley Madison’s breach ruined lives and resulted in suicides. The HSBC breach, accomplished by one of their own, revealed valuable commercial information about the bank and personal information about HSBC customers. The employee responsible for the breach has since been convicted of aggravated personal espionage, while third-party news outlets have been free to republish the hacked information.

Some information disclosed in data breaches can serve a public purpose. The Snowden disclosures, for example, revealed sensitive government ...


If Technology Is The Hare, Is Congress The Tortoise? Split Circuits In The Wake Of Dahda, Michael Koch Mar 2018

If Technology Is The Hare, Is Congress The Tortoise? Split Circuits In The Wake Of Dahda, Michael Koch

Boston College Law Review

In United States v. Dahda, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit held that, under Title III of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 (“Title III”), the lower court properly denied Dahda’s motion to suppress evidence gathered by law enforcement using a mobile interception device—a device that wiretaps cell phones. A key part of the decision focused on the definition of mobile interception devices. The Tenth Circuit defined them as devices used to intercept communications that are movable. The Seventh Circuit, in contrast, has defined mobile interception devices as devices used ...


United States V. Hubbell: Encryption And The Discovery Of Documents, Gregory S. Sergienko Mar 2018

United States V. Hubbell: Encryption And The Discovery Of Documents, Gregory S. Sergienko

Greg Sergienko

Five years ago, in a contribution to these pages, I suggested that the Supreme Court's oldest precedents and the original intent of the framers of the Constitution precluded the use of evidence produced under a grant of immunity against the producer, even though the material produced included documents that the producer had not been compelled to write. This implied that information concealed with a cryptographic key could not be used in a criminal prosecution against someone from whom the key had been obtained under a grant of immunity. The issue, however, was doubtful given the tendency of the Court ...


Self Incrimination And Cryptographic Keys, Gregory S. Sergienko Mar 2018

Self Incrimination And Cryptographic Keys, Gregory S. Sergienko

Greg Sergienko

Modern cryptography can make it virtually impossible to decipher documents without the cryptographic key thus making the availability of the contents of those documents depend on the availability of the key. This article examines the Fourth and Fifth Amendments' protection against the compulsory production of the key and the scope of the Fifth Amendment immunity against compelled production. After analyzing these questions using prevailing Fourth and Fifth Amendment jurisprudence, I shall describe the advantages of a privacy-based approach in practical and constitutional terms. [excerpt]


Regulating Data As Property: A New Construct For Moving Forward, Jeffrey Ritter, Anna Mayer Mar 2018

Regulating Data As Property: A New Construct For Moving Forward, Jeffrey Ritter, Anna Mayer

Duke Law & Technology Review

The global community urgently needs precise, clear rules that define ownership of data and express the attendant rights to license, transfer, use, modify, and destroy digital information assets. In response, this article proposes a new approach for regulating data as an entirely new class of property. Recently, European and Asian public officials and industries have called for data ownership principles to be developed, above and beyond current privacy and data protection laws. In addition, official policy guidances and legal proposals have been published that offer to accelerate realization of a property rights structure for digital information. But how can ownership ...