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Articles 1 - 30 of 73

Full-Text Articles in Legal History

The Magna Carta Turns 800, John Hockenberry, Thomas J. Mcsweeney Sep 2019

The Magna Carta Turns 800, John Hockenberry, Thomas J. Mcsweeney

Thomas J. McSweeney

No abstract provided.


The Supreme "Courts" Of The Roman Empire, C.G. Bateman Jan 2018

The Supreme "Courts" Of The Roman Empire, C.G. Bateman

C.G. Bateman

Question
Why and how did Constantine go further than merely tolerating Christianity, and put himself at the head of their affairs and legislate Christian bishops into the position of Roman judges whose decisions were not subject to appeal? What effect did the rescript of 333 have on the meaning of the earlier edict of 318, and why is this important?[1]
 
Constantine, the Roman Emperor from 315-337, was a law-giver who first put the Christian Church in the place of primacy in the organization of the state that it only lost as recently as the seventeenth century; as such, he ...


Seventeenth Annual Grotius Lecture Series - Some Thoughts About Grotius 400 Years On, Sir Kenneth J. Keith Jan 2016

Seventeenth Annual Grotius Lecture Series - Some Thoughts About Grotius 400 Years On, Sir Kenneth J. Keith

American University International Law Review

No abstract provided.


Customary International Law: A Reconceptualization, Roozbeh (Rudy) B. Baker Jan 2016

Customary International Law: A Reconceptualization, Roozbeh (Rudy) B. Baker

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

The current state of international law is one of deep confusion over the role of state practice and opinio juris within the customary element. The debate between adherents of “modern custom” versus those of “traditional custom” has resulted in deep uncertainty and confusion. New theories of customary international law have proved inadequate in clarifying the current state of the field. Confusions over the meanings and relationships between state practice and opinio juris aside, current approaches are all also flawed due to a heavily state-centric bias that fails to take into account the very real affects that norm-generating transnational actors have ...


Targeted Killing: A Legal And Political History, Markus Gunneflo Dec 2015

Targeted Killing: A Legal And Political History, Markus Gunneflo

Markus Gunneflo

Looking beyond the current debate’s preoccupation with the situations of insecurity of the second intifada and 9/11, this book reveals how targeted killing is intimately embedded in both Israeli and US statecraft and in the problematic relation of sovereign authority and lawful violence underpinning the modern state system. The book details the legal and political issues raised in targeted killing as it has emerged in practice including questions of domestic constitutional authority, the norms on the use of force in international law, the law of targeting and human rights. The distinctiveness of Israeli and US targeted killing is ...


Trust And Good-Faith Taken To A New Level: An Analysis Of Inconsistent Behavior In The Brazilian Legal Order, Thiago Luis Sombra Jul 2015

Trust And Good-Faith Taken To A New Level: An Analysis Of Inconsistent Behavior In The Brazilian Legal Order, Thiago Luis Sombra

Thiago Luís Santos Sombra

With the changes in the paradigm of voluntarism developed under the protection of liberalism, the bases for legal acts have reached an objective dimension, resulting in the birth of a number of mechanisms of control of private autonomy. Among these mechanisms, we can point out the relevance of those reinforced by the Roman Law, whose high ethical value underlines one of its biggest virtues in the control of the exercise of subjective rights. The prohibition of inconsistent behavior, conceived in the brocard venire contra factum proprium, constitutes one of the concepts from the Roman Law renown for the protection of ...


Impaled On Morton's Fork: Kosovo, Crimea, And The Sui Generis Circumstance, Christopher Rossi May 2015

Impaled On Morton's Fork: Kosovo, Crimea, And The Sui Generis Circumstance, Christopher Rossi

christopher robert rossi

Abstract: This Article investigates the problematic invocation of unique circumstances as a justification for circumventing the international law relating to use of force and state secession. Borrowing from the teachings of critical sociology, this Article addresses the lessons of NATO’s 1999 intervention in Kosovo and Kosovo’s 2008 declaration of independence from Serbia; it adapts those teachings to Russia’s 2014 annexation of Crimea. Doctrinal, state-sponsored, and international juridical attempts to conform the Kosovo events to the international rule of law mask internal and unreconciled tensions within the Charter system. These tensions, which threaten to further weaken the system ...


The Interwoven Destinies Of The United States, Colombia And Panama: On Friendship, Commerce And Navigation Treaties And International Legal Imperialism, Marco Velásquez-Ruiz Apr 2015

The Interwoven Destinies Of The United States, Colombia And Panama: On Friendship, Commerce And Navigation Treaties And International Legal Imperialism, Marco Velásquez-Ruiz

Marco A. Velásquez-Ruiz

Based on the general contention that International Law can (and has) served imperialist purposes – that is to say, extend a nation’s authority over another by establishing an effective influence on its political and economic affairs –, this paper intends to illustrate how the 1846 Friendship, Commerce and Navigation Treaty concluded between the United States and Colombia – commonly known as the Mallarino-Bidlack Treaty –was eventually used by the former as a neocolonial device on the latter. Essentially, the suggested tale on which this paper is built goes as follows: to a great extent, the United States consolidated its global hegemonic position ...


An Invisible Hand Behind: The Myth Of The Chinese Tax System, Yan Xu Feb 2015

An Invisible Hand Behind: The Myth Of The Chinese Tax System, Yan Xu

Yan XU

To the casual observer, China in 2014 bears little resemblance to imperial society in place two thousand years ago. The agrarian rural society that dominated until recently has shifted to an urbanized services and manufacturing society. The emperor is long dead, along with the Republic government that followedand the subsequent Communist regime has morphed into Party led oligarchy guiding a state controlled market economy. A closer look, however, reveals a remarkable continuity of features. It seems that some aspects of life in China are more resistant to change and the continuity of these features to today indicates that some fundamental ...


Unilateral Non-Colonial Secession And The Criteria For Statehood In International Law, Glen Anderson Jan 2015

Unilateral Non-Colonial Secession And The Criteria For Statehood In International Law, Glen Anderson

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

The following article examines the interactions between the right of peoples to unilateral non-colonial (“UNC”) secession and the criteria for statehood in international law. In this respect a three-point thesis is developed. First, it is argued that the law of self-determination has resulted in a less strict application of the criteria for statehood based on effectiveness, particularly the effective government criterion. This means that a state created by UNC secession pursuant to the law of self-determination will not have its statehood called into question if lacks an effective government. Second, it is argued that the declaratory approach to recognition is ...


Political Community In Carl Schmitt's International Legal Thinking, Markus Gunneflo Dec 2014

Political Community In Carl Schmitt's International Legal Thinking, Markus Gunneflo

Markus Gunneflo

A distinctive feature of Carl Schmitt’s legal thinking is the pivotal role that he grants political community. Against the background of Schmitt’s particular conception of political community and the importance placed on its protection in a domestic law setting; this text highlights the imperative role of political community in Schmitt’s thinking on questions of international law. By consistently relating Schmitt’s work on international law to his own time but also stretching it into our own, the text argues that while Schmitt’s insistence on political community may come across as parochial in present times of globalization ...


Unintended Consequences: The Posse Comitatus Act In The Modern Era, Mark P. Nevitt Oct 2014

Unintended Consequences: The Posse Comitatus Act In The Modern Era, Mark P. Nevitt

Mark P Nevitt

America was born in revolution. Outraged at numerous abuses by the British crown—to include the conduct of British soldiers in the colonists’ daily lives— Americans declared their independence, creating a new republic with deep suspicions of a standing Army. These suspicions were intensely debated at the time of the nation’s formation and enshrined in the Constitution. But congressional limitations on the role of the military in day-to-day affairs would have to wait. They were not put in place until after the Civil War when southern congressmen successfully co- opted the framers’ earlier concerns of a standing Army and ...


Balancing The Scales: Adhuc Sub Judice Li Est Or Trial By Media, Casey J. Cooper Jul 2014

Balancing The Scales: Adhuc Sub Judice Li Est Or Trial By Media, Casey J. Cooper

Casey J Cooper

The right to freedom of expression and free press is recognized under almost all major human rights instruments and domestic legal systems—common and civil—in the world. However, what do you do when a fundamental right conflicts with another equally fundamental right, like the right to a fair trial? In the United States, the freedom of speech, encompassing the freedom of the press, goes nearly unfettered: the case is not the same for other common law countries. In light of cultural and historic facts, institutional factors, modern realities, and case-law, this Article contends that current American jurisprudence does not ...


An Other History Of Knowledge And Decision In Precautionary Approaches To Sustainability, Saptarishi Bandopadhyay Jul 2014

An Other History Of Knowledge And Decision In Precautionary Approaches To Sustainability, Saptarishi Bandopadhyay

Saptarishi Bandopadhyay

In this paper, I offer an alternative reading of precaution with the hope of recovering the capacity of this ethic to facilitate legal and political decisions. Despite being a popular instrument of international environmental governance, decision-makers continue to understand this principle as reflecting an immemorial and natural instinct for preserving the environment in cases of scientific uncertainty. Such a reading, however, ignores the history and moral basis underlying this principle and thereby renders it obvious, and automatically adaptable to the politics of Sustainable Development. By offering a thicker history of precautionary governance at exemplary moments of ecological crisis I trace ...


What Is A Corporation? Liberal, Confucion, And Socialist Theories Of Enterprise Organization (And State, Family, And Personhood), Teemu Ruskola Mar 2014

What Is A Corporation? Liberal, Confucion, And Socialist Theories Of Enterprise Organization (And State, Family, And Personhood), Teemu Ruskola

Seattle University Law Review

What is a corporation? An easy, but not very informative, answer is that it is a legal person. More substantive answers suggest it is a moral person, a person/thing, a production team, a nexus of private agreements, a city, a semi-sovereign, or a (secular) God. Despite the economic, political, and social importance of the corporate form, we do not have a generally accepted legal theory of what a corporation is, apart from the law’s questionable assertion that it is a “person.” In this Article, the author places the idea, and law, of the corporation in a comparative context ...


The Evolution Of The Digital Millennium Copyright Act; Changing Interpretations Of The Dmca And Future Implications For Copyright Holders, Hillary A. Henderson Jan 2014

The Evolution Of The Digital Millennium Copyright Act; Changing Interpretations Of The Dmca And Future Implications For Copyright Holders, Hillary A. Henderson

Hillary A Henderson

Copyright law rewards an artificial monopoly to individual authors for their creations. This reward is based on the belief that, by granting authors the exclusive right to reproduce their works, they receive an incentive and means to create, which in turn advances the welfare of the general public by “promoting the progress of science and useful arts.” Copyright protection subsists . . . in original works of authorship fixed in any tangible medium of expression, now known or later developed, from which they can be perceived, reproduced, or otherwise communicated, either directly or with the aid of a machine or device . . . . In no ...


The Forgotten Nuremberg Hate Speech Case: Otto Dietrich And The Future Of Persecution Law, Gregory S. Gordon Aug 2013

The Forgotten Nuremberg Hate Speech Case: Otto Dietrich And The Future Of Persecution Law, Gregory S. Gordon

Gregory S. Gordon

Among international jurists, the conventional wisdom is that atrocity speech law sprang fully formed from two judgments issued by the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg (IMT): the crimes against humanity conviction of Nazi newspaper editor Julius Streicher, and the acquittal on the same charge of Third Reich Radio Division Chief Hans Fritzsche. But the exclusive focus on the IMT judgments as the founding texts of atrocity speech law is misplaced. Not long after Streicher and Fritzsche, and in the same courtroom, the United States Nuremberg Military Tribunal (NMT) in the Ministries Case, issued an equally significant crimes against humanity judgment ...


A Maelstrom Of International Law And Intrigue: The Remarkable Voyage Of The S.S. City Of Flint, Andrew J. Norris Jul 2013

A Maelstrom Of International Law And Intrigue: The Remarkable Voyage Of The S.S. City Of Flint, Andrew J. Norris

Andrew Norris

No abstract provided.


The Duty To Make Amends To Victims Of Armed Conflict, Scott T. Paul Mar 2013

The Duty To Make Amends To Victims Of Armed Conflict, Scott T. Paul

Scott T Paul

In the past decade, calls for monetary payments by warring parties to the civilians they harm have become significantly louder and more prominent. The law of armed conflict permits parties to harm civilians, so long as the harm is not excessive to the concrete and direct military advantage they anticipate gaining through an attack. This paper examines the current state of international law regarding duties owed to victims suffering harm as a result of lawful combat operations and discusses the moral obligations owed to them by the parties who cause them harm. The paper notes that civilians who suffer incidental ...


The International Law Jurisprudence Of Thurgood Marshall, Craig L. Jackson Feb 2013

The International Law Jurisprudence Of Thurgood Marshall, Craig L. Jackson

Craig L. Jackson

International law conjures up images of large firm lawyers jetting from one glamorous international location to another making deals for an international multilateral corporation. Or one’s thoughts may tend toward civil servants working for their country’s foreign ministry or for an international organization negotiating treaties that stop wars or arguing fine points of public international law before an international tribunal in The Hague or Strasbourg, or some similar place not named Pompano Beach, Florida,[1] Houston, Texas,[2] St. Louis, Missouri,[3] Norman, Oklahoma,[4] Topeka, Kansas[5] even New York City. But the latter areall places where ...


International Law And Ungoverned Space, Matthew Hoisington Jan 2013

International Law And Ungoverned Space, Matthew Hoisington

Matthew Hoisington

Ungoverned spaces, strictly defined as “spaces not effectively governed by the state” exist all over the world, presenting particular difficulties to public international law, which is historically premised on sovereignty and state control. Examples of such spaces include cyberspace, south-central Somalia and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas along the Afghan-Pakistan border. These spaces destabilize the international system in novel ways—and they might also be dangerous. Many of the terrorism plots from the late twentieth and early twenty-first century emanated from “safe havens” afforded by ungoverned spaces. The lack of governance over certain spaces also raises concerns over development, including ...


The Empirical Turn In International Legal Scholarship, Tom Ginsburg, Gregory Schaffer Jan 2012

The Empirical Turn In International Legal Scholarship, Tom Ginsburg, Gregory Schaffer

Tom Ginsburg

No abstract provided.


The Legacy Of Rux V. Republic Of Sudan And The Future Of The Judicial War On Terror, Chad G. Marzen Jan 2012

The Legacy Of Rux V. Republic Of Sudan And The Future Of The Judicial War On Terror, Chad G. Marzen

Chad G. Marzen

The Republic of Sudan’s material support of terrorism has contributed to the loss of innocent American lives. In 2007, a group of more than 50 surviving family members of 17 United States sailors killed in the October 12, 2000 U.S.S. Cole bombing obtained a $7,956,344 judgment against the Republic of Sudan for its material support of Al-Qaeda that enabled Al-Qaeda to carry out the attack. The award included damages for the sailors’ lost wages and earning potential pursuant to the Death on the High Seas Act, but not for emotional loss. The United States Congress ...


Speaker, “The Persistence Of Sovereignty And The Rise Of The Legal Subject”, Michael Helfand Nov 2011

Speaker, “The Persistence Of Sovereignty And The Rise Of The Legal Subject”, Michael Helfand

Michael A Helfand

No abstract provided.


The Relation Of Theories Of Jurisprudence To International Politics And Law, Anthony D'Amato Jan 2011

The Relation Of Theories Of Jurisprudence To International Politics And Law, Anthony D'Amato

Faculty Working Papers

In this essay we shall be concerned with the real world relevance of theories of international law; that is, with the question of the theories themselves as a factor in international decision-making. To do this it is first necessary to review briefly the substance of the jurisprudential debate among legal scholars, then to view some basic jurisprudential ideas as factors in international views of "law," and finally to reach the question of the operative difference a study of these theories might make in world politics.


65-Летие Нюрнбергского Процесса Над Главными Нацистскими Военными Преступниками: Уроки Истории, Leonid G. Berlyavskiy Jan 2011

65-Летие Нюрнбергского Процесса Над Главными Нацистскими Военными Преступниками: Уроки Истории, Leonid G. Berlyavskiy

Leonid G. Berlyavskiy

The article is devoted to the research of the Nazi Law that has been carried out by the International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg. The 65 anniversary of its activity is marked now. The basic attention is given to theoretical bases of the charges shown to the main military criminals in the Nuremberg process, totali-tarian system of power, and also the Legal policy of fascist Germany and the basic components of the Nazi Law presented by the main accusers in the process


A Propósito Del Giro Historiográfico En Derecho Internacional, Ignacio De La Rasilla Del Moral Jan 2011

A Propósito Del Giro Historiográfico En Derecho Internacional, Ignacio De La Rasilla Del Moral

Ignacio de la Rasilla del Moral, Ph.D.

Illiteracy rate in Spain at the turn of the 20th century was of 63.8% and 16.000 students - out of a total Spanish population of 18.6 million - attended the 10 existing Spanish universities. 2.000 university titles were accorded, half of which in Law in 1900, and 200 students obtained their doctorates by the Central University of Madrid which held the academic monopoly of doctoral studies at the time. In 1902, the Bulletin of the Institution of Free Teaching published a chronicle signed by Aniceto Sela y Sampil on the didactic methods he employed to teach Public and ...


Child Labor In India, A Consumer’S Perspective: Identifying Causes, Acknowledging Realities, And Proposing Incentives For Improvement, Vanessa L. Deniro Esq. Jul 2010

Child Labor In India, A Consumer’S Perspective: Identifying Causes, Acknowledging Realities, And Proposing Incentives For Improvement, Vanessa L. Deniro Esq.

Vanessa L. De Niro

The exploitation of modern child labor in developing countries persists in part because of consumers like us. However, in light of increased global trade liberalization in developing countries and free market principles, cheap labor is what allows these nations to have a competitive edge in the global economy. With that said, a category of people that work longer hours for meager wages, absent unionization or labor protections, is an efficient means of production and justified by the economy of scales. Child laborers, exploited by employers competing in the global economy, are simply a product of laissez-fair economics, participating and contributing ...


Una Aproximación Al Debate Democrático En Derecho Internacional, Ignacio De La Rasilla Del Moral Jan 2010

Una Aproximación Al Debate Democrático En Derecho Internacional, Ignacio De La Rasilla Del Moral

Ignacio de la Rasilla del Moral, Ph.D.

Taking as it starting point a critical introduction to the democratic debate in international law, the object of the present work is that of contributing to the critical development of an appropiate methodology for the exam of the normative pretension according to which the international legal order would be developing within itself a particular conception of the liberal State. Such a conception would be premised in the gradual emergence of an international legal obligation that would command the development within every sovereign state of institutions of democratic governance, thus marking the transition from the paradigm of equivalence of domestic political ...


The Furundzija Judgment And Its Continued Vitality In International Law, Chad G. Marzen Jan 2010

The Furundzija Judgment And Its Continued Vitality In International Law, Chad G. Marzen

Chad G. Marzen

The Furundzija decision of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia stands as a landmark decision in international jurisprudence since it not only affirmed that the norm prohibiting torture has attained jus cogens status under international law, but expanded accountability and liability for violations of commission as well as omission. In this essay, I not only address Furundzija’s holdings and its implications in the international sphere, but specifically analyze the legacy of the Furundzija judgment on U.S. domestic civil cases involving the Alien Tort Statute.

Significantly, the Tribunal’s decision not only properly recognizes faults and crimes ...