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University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law

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Articles 1 - 30 of 212

Full-Text Articles in Legal History

The Security Court, Matt Steilen Sep 2018

The Security Court, Matt Steilen

Maryland Law Review Online

The Supreme Court is concerned not only with the limits of our government’s power to protect us, but also with how it protects us. Government can protect us by passing laws that grant powers to its agencies or by conferring discretion on the officers in those agencies. Security by law is preferable to the extent that it promotes rule of law values—certainty, predictability, uniformity, and so on—but, security by discretion is preferable to the extent that it gives government the room it needs to meet threats in whatever form they present themselves. Drawing a line between security ...


Interpretation As Statecraft: Chancellor Kent And The Collaborative Era Of American Statutory Interpretation, Farah Peterson May 2018

Interpretation As Statecraft: Chancellor Kent And The Collaborative Era Of American Statutory Interpretation, Farah Peterson

Maryland Law Review

No abstract provided.


United States V. The William And The Phenomena Of Jury Nullification In Early 19th Century America, Michael G. Lederman Jan 2017

United States V. The William And The Phenomena Of Jury Nullification In Early 19th Century America, Michael G. Lederman

Legal History Publications

In September 1808, Judge John Davis upheld the constitutionality of the Embargo Act of 1807 under the Constitution’s Article I, Section 8, Clause 3 Interstate Commerce power. Judge Davis’s original opinion curiously lacks any reference to Marbury v. Madison. Judge Davis defends judicial review and rejects the notion of jury nullification. While Judge Davis upheld the embargo’s constitutionality, a subsequent jury trial on the facts resulted in the return of The William to its rightful owners. This case reflects the attempts by early American judges to carve out the power of judicial review and maintain the appearance ...


Technological Triggers To Tort Revolutions: Steam Locomotives, Autonomous Vehicles, And Accident Compensation, Donald G. Gifford Jan 2017

Technological Triggers To Tort Revolutions: Steam Locomotives, Autonomous Vehicles, And Accident Compensation, Donald G. Gifford

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Mother. Orator. Woman Suffrage Leader: The Feminist Legacy Of Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Paula A. Monopoli Jan 2017

Mother. Orator. Woman Suffrage Leader: The Feminist Legacy Of Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Paula A. Monopoli

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


United States V. Klintock: Reconsideration Of United States V. Palmer As To General Piracy As Defined By The Law Of Nations Through The Applicable Standards Of Political Action Of Acknowledgement And Recognition And The Status Of Statelessness, Justin L. Sieffert Dec 2016

United States V. Klintock: Reconsideration Of United States V. Palmer As To General Piracy As Defined By The Law Of Nations Through The Applicable Standards Of Political Action Of Acknowledgement And Recognition And The Status Of Statelessness, Justin L. Sieffert

Legal History Publications

During the February 1820 Term, the Supreme Court of the United States decided four significant piracy cases, beginning with United States v. Klintock. Political, economic, and social pressures enhanced the problem of piracy affecting the interests of the United States. Responding to the criticism of his decision in United States v. Palmer and the passage of the Act of 1819 state Congressional intent for defining piracy by the “law of nations,” Marshall authored the decision in Klintock distinguishing Palmer and, upon reconsideration, interpreting the Act of 1790 to include general piracy as defined by the “law of nations.” With a ...


Willson V. Black-Bird Creek Marsh Co., 25 U.S. 245 (1829): An Early Test Of The Dormant Commerce Clause, Michael P. Collins Jr. Nov 2016

Willson V. Black-Bird Creek Marsh Co., 25 U.S. 245 (1829): An Early Test Of The Dormant Commerce Clause, Michael P. Collins Jr.

Legal History Publications

In 1822, Delaware authorized the Blackbird Creek Marsh Company to bank and drain the Blackbird Creek in New Castle County. Subsequently, Thompson Wilson and others destroyed the structure built by the marsh company. The marsh company subsequently sued Mr. Wilson for the damage to its property. The parties eventually appealed their dispute to the Supreme Court of the United States. The Court held that Delaware’s authorization to bank and dam the creek did not conflict with the federal government’s exclusive authority to regulate commerce between the several states. Ultimately, the Court decided Willson in a manner inconsistent with ...


Martin V. Mott And The Establishment Of Executive Emergency Authority, Eli Berns-Zieve Nov 2016

Martin V. Mott And The Establishment Of Executive Emergency Authority, Eli Berns-Zieve

Legal History Publications

In August of 1814, a New York farmer named Jacob E. Mott refused to rendezvous with the militia pursuant to the orders of Governor Daniel D. Tompkins as commanded by President James Madison. In 1818, Mott was court martialed and fined ninety-six dollars. One year later, Mott brought an action in replevin in the New York state courts to recover chattel taken from him by a deputy marshal in lieu of the ninety-six dollars. Both the New York trial and appellate courts sided with Mott. In a unanimous opinion authored by Justice Joseph Story, the Supreme Court of the United ...


Eugenics, Jim Crow, And Baltimore's Best, Garrett Power Nov 2016

Eugenics, Jim Crow, And Baltimore's Best, Garrett Power

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Interest And Irritation: Brown V. Maryland And The Making Of A National Economy, Henry P. Callegary Nov 2016

Interest And Irritation: Brown V. Maryland And The Making Of A National Economy, Henry P. Callegary

Legal History Publications

This paper examines the United States Supreme Court case Brown v. Maryland, 25 U.S. (12 Wheat.) 419 (1827), which struck down Maryland’s licensing fee on wholesalers of imported goods. In doing so, the Court reaffirmed its commitment to a national economic policy, instead of a state-centric system. This paper explores the context of the decision, including profiles of the parties involved, the attorneys for both sides, the lower court decisions, and the majority opinion and dissent from the United States Supreme Court. Additionally, this paper follows the lineage of the case through to the present day, examining its ...


The Armstrong Evolution, Michael Pappas Oct 2016

The Armstrong Evolution, Michael Pappas

Maryland Law Review Online

No abstract provided.


The Bellona Company's Case, Casey Conrad Jan 2016

The Bellona Company's Case, Casey Conrad

Legal History Publications

The Bellona Gunpowder Company of Maryland was one of Maryland’s most prominent gunpowder manufactories during the early nineteenth century. Founded in 1801, the gunpowder company become the second leading gunpowder producer for the American government, and supplied almost one-fifth of American domestic gunpowder. In 1828, the Baltimore and Susquehanna Railroad Company was incorporated by the State of Maryland to construct a railroad that would connect the City of Baltimore to the Susquehanna River. The legislature authorized the railroad company to initiate condemnation proceedings against private property owners, if it was unable to negotiate for the sale of such land ...


United States V. Hodges: Treason, Jury Trials, And The War Of 1812, Jennifer Elisa Smith Jan 2016

United States V. Hodges: Treason, Jury Trials, And The War Of 1812, Jennifer Elisa Smith

Legal History Publications

In August 1814 a number of British soldiers were arrested as stragglers or deserters in the town of Upper Marlboro, Maryland. Upon learning of the soldiers’ absences the British military took local physician, Dr. William Beanes, and two other residents into custody and threatened to burn Upper Marlboro if the British soldiers were not returned. John Hodges, a local attorney, arranged the soldiers’ return to the British military. For this, Hodges was charged with high treason for “adhering to [the] enemies, giving them aid and comfort.” The resulting jury trial was presided over by Justice Gabriel Duvall, a Supreme Court ...


Shreve V. Baltimore: A Municipal Misstep Leads To A City Forever Beautiful, Laura Tallerico Jan 2016

Shreve V. Baltimore: A Municipal Misstep Leads To A City Forever Beautiful, Laura Tallerico

Legal History Publications

This paper explores municipal decision making in condemnation proceedings and whether or not the public use requirement protects individual property owners from poor municipal decision-making. When condemners are allowed to take in fee simple absolute, their decisions have lasting effects on property. The decisions of the Baltimore City government in its creation of a water system illustrate why some may be queasy about this. However, this may actually be desirable because it allows for municipalities, in particular, to both achieve the public purpose necessary at the time of condemnation and to improve in the future rather than go through the ...


United States V. Gooding: The Imperfect Indictment That Created The Perfect Defense For The Illegal Slave Trade, Fernando D. Kirkman Jan 2016

United States V. Gooding: The Imperfect Indictment That Created The Perfect Defense For The Illegal Slave Trade, Fernando D. Kirkman

Legal History Publications

In United States v. Gooding, the Supreme Court quashed an indictment against John Gooding for engaging in international slave trading, a violation of the Slave Trade Act of 1818. The Slave Trade Act of 1818 modified the penalties for engaging the in slave trading, and switched the burden of proof to the defendant, to disprove the presumption that the defendant had engaged in the slave trade. This article looks at how United States v. Gooding stands as a step backwards toward condoning and legitimizing the international slave trade. This paper also examines the moral relativism expressed in the United States ...


Privacy, Police Power, And The Growth Of Public Power In The Early Twentieth Century: A Not So Unlikely Coexistence, Carol Nackenoff Dec 2015

Privacy, Police Power, And The Growth Of Public Power In The Early Twentieth Century: A Not So Unlikely Coexistence, Carol Nackenoff

Maryland Law Review

No abstract provided.


Legal Epistemologies, Howard Schweber Dec 2015

Legal Epistemologies, Howard Schweber

Maryland Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Early Female Jewish Members Of The Maryland Bar: 1920–1929, Deborah Sweet Eyler May 2015

The Early Female Jewish Members Of The Maryland Bar: 1920–1929, Deborah Sweet Eyler

Maryland Law Review

No abstract provided.


Four Futures Of Legal Automation, Frank A. Pasquale, Glyn Cashwell Jan 2015

Four Futures Of Legal Automation, Frank A. Pasquale, Glyn Cashwell

Faculty Scholarship

Simple legal jobs (such as document coding) are prime candidates for legal automation. More complex tasks cannot be routinized. So far, the debate on the likely scope and intensity of legal automation has focused on the degree to which legal tasks are simple or complex. Just as important to the legal profession, however, is the degree of regulation or deregulation likely in the future.

Situations involving conflicting rights, unique fact patterns, and open-ended laws will remain excessively difficult to automate for an extended period of time. Deregulation, however, may effectively strip many persons of their rights, rendering once-hard cases simple ...


Public Takings By The State For Private Use: A Maryland Case Study In Georges Creek Coal & Iron Company V. New Central Coal Company (1871-1874), Joshua T. Carback Jan 2015

Public Takings By The State For Private Use: A Maryland Case Study In Georges Creek Coal & Iron Company V. New Central Coal Company (1871-1874), Joshua T. Carback

Legal History Publications

This paper examines the legal controversy concerning New Central Company’s attempt to execute a public taking of the land of the Georges Creek Coal and Iron Company for its private use to build a railroad. This paper analyzes the significance of the case within the social, economic, and political context of the town of Lonaconing in Allegany County, Western Maryland, where the parties were situated. This paper also traces the procedural history of the case, including its appearance before the Allegany Circuit Court in 1872, and before the Maryland Court of Appeals in 1873 and 1874. Finally, this paper ...


Reddall V. Bryan And The Role Of State Law In Federal Eminent Domain Jurisprudence, Shannon Frede Jan 2015

Reddall V. Bryan And The Role Of State Law In Federal Eminent Domain Jurisprudence, Shannon Frede

Legal History Publications

Prior to 1875, the standard federal takings procedure had been for state governments to condemn property on behalf of the federal government. As a result, the majority of interpretative work in the early history of eminent domain jurisprudence was undertaken by state courts. In 1853, the Maryland General Assembly granted the United States Government the power to condemn land in Maryland for an aqueduct across the Potomac to supply water to two District cities. In Reddall v. Bryan, the Maryland Court of Appeals upheld the aqueduct supplying the city of Washington with water as a public use. The Court reasoned ...


Baltimore V. Valsamaki: The Maryland Court Of Appeals' Response To Kelo, Jeff Shaw Jan 2015

Baltimore V. Valsamaki: The Maryland Court Of Appeals' Response To Kelo, Jeff Shaw

Legal History Publications

In the years following the Supreme Court’s controversial decision in Kelo v. New London, state judges and legislators across the country responded with a tidal wave of reform to state eminent domain law. While legislative reform efforts largely floundered in the Maryland General Assembly, the Maryland Court of Appeals, in the case of Baltimore v. Valsamaki, curbed the City of Baltimore’s use of quick-take condemnation procedures, imposed additional planning requirements on condemning authorities, and emphasizing the fact that property rights are fundamental constitutional rights. This article will begin with an examination of quick-take procedures and the reasons why ...


Case Study: Webster V. Susquehanna Pole Line Company Of Harford County (1910), Alyssa E. Leonhardt Jan 2015

Case Study: Webster V. Susquehanna Pole Line Company Of Harford County (1910), Alyssa E. Leonhardt

Legal History Publications

At the turn of the 20th century, the State of Maryland witnessed an increase in the demand for hydroelectricity. Several public utility companies raced to construct a hydroelectric facility on the Susquehanna River, by which they could distribute electricity to Baltimore, Harrisburg, Philadelphia, and Wilmington. This case study examines the use of eminent domain by one such company, the Susquehanna Pole Line Company of Harford County, for the purpose of erecting a continuous transmission line, originating at McCall’s Ferry Dam, the first hydroelectric facility built on the Susquehanna River. This project was subsequently challenged by Harford County residents, whose ...


The Constitutional Dimensions Of Sports Franchise Takings: Lessons Learned From The Baltimore Colts, Travis Bullock Jan 2015

The Constitutional Dimensions Of Sports Franchise Takings: Lessons Learned From The Baltimore Colts, Travis Bullock

Legal History Publications

This paper chronicles the history of the Baltimore Colts up to and during that franchises’ relocation from Baltimore City to Indianapolis. Although Baltimore City attempted to prevent the relocation by taking the franchise through eminent domain, the Colts were no longer subject to Maryland’s, and therefore the city’s, jurisdiction. By moving, the Colts exposed an important limitation on State eminent domain authority; that condemned property must be located within a state’s territory in order to be subject to eminent domain. Further, the commerce clause would likely have prevented the city from condemning the Colts.


Great Falls Mfg. Co. V. Garland, 124 U.S. 581 (1888): The Final Battle After Thirty Years Of Litigation Over The Rights To Great Falls On The Potomac, Julia Carbonetti Jan 2015

Great Falls Mfg. Co. V. Garland, 124 U.S. 581 (1888): The Final Battle After Thirty Years Of Litigation Over The Rights To Great Falls On The Potomac, Julia Carbonetti

Legal History Publications

The Great Falls Manufacturing Company owned extensive land and water rights at the Great Falls on the Potomac River at the time the United States decided to use the Great Falls as a water supply to the new capital in the City of Washington. In order to use its power of eminent domain, the federal government passed two Acts between 1858 and 1888. During that time, the United States and the Great Falls Manufacturing Company pursued 30 years of litigation to argue the just compensation that was due for the property taken at Great Falls. The 30 years ended in ...


Condemnation Of Fairfield During World War Ii: A City's Quest For Just Compensation, Fernando Papakonyang Jan 2015

Condemnation Of Fairfield During World War Ii: A City's Quest For Just Compensation, Fernando Papakonyang

Legal History Publications

During World War II, when allied cargo ships were being sunk by German U-boats, the

Federal government in a bid to expand its ship building capabilities, condemned land in Fairfield, Baltimore, Maryland. The land was given to Bethlehem Steel Corporation, primarily to build and repair ships. After the owners of property in the condemned area were compensated, the District Court in the District of Maryland convened to determine what compensation if any the Mayor and City of Baltimore were entitled to for the alleys that were condemned.

The Court granted the Mayor and City of Baltimore only nominal damages as ...


The Gran Para: The Delicate Dance Of South American Privateering From Baltimore, Patrick R. Browning Jan 2015

The Gran Para: The Delicate Dance Of South American Privateering From Baltimore, Patrick R. Browning

Legal History Publications

The Consul General of Portugal filed a libel in the District Court of Maryland, alleging silver and gold coin had been taken out of the Portuguese ship, Gran Para, and the specie subsequently deposited in the Marine Bank of Baltimore. In 1818, The Gran Para was sailing to Lisbon from Rio de Janeiro when the privateer, La Irresistible, captained by John Daniel Danels, took her cargo as prize. The lower courts entered decrees in favor of the Consul of Portugal, restoring property to the original owners. The Supreme Court affirmed the lower court decrees, finding it very clear that La ...


The Santissima Trinidad: The Role Of Baltimore's Privateers With The Independence Of The United Provinces, Shannon Price Dec 2014

The Santissima Trinidad: The Role Of Baltimore's Privateers With The Independence Of The United Provinces, Shannon Price

Legal History Publications

After the War of 1812, the maritime industry began to decline and merchants and mariners began serving as privateers for Latin American colonies ceding from Spain. This paper examines the Supreme Court decision in an action filed on behalf of the Spanish government seeking restitution for cargo seized from a Spanish vessel, the Santissima Trinidad, on the high seas by the Independencia Del Sud, a public vessel of Buenos Ayres. The Court holds that jurisdiction exists for neutrality violations as the goods were landed at Norfolk, Virginia and the public vessel had an illegal augmentation of force in a U ...


Livingston & Gilchrist V. The Maryland Insurance Co. (1813): A Testament To Judicial Flexibility, Kathleen Lord Fallon Dec 2014

Livingston & Gilchrist V. The Maryland Insurance Co. (1813): A Testament To Judicial Flexibility, Kathleen Lord Fallon

Legal History Publications

Barely a month before Justice Brockholst Livingston joined the Supreme Court of the United States, a ship he commissioned with a cargo of $50,000, was captured by the British and condemned. The circumstances of the vessel’s voyage led to its capture; she sailed as an American merchant ship under a Spanish license with an American crew. When seized as a prize, the British found papers showing conflicting information concealed amongst the crew belongings. Justice Livingston tried to recoup his losses through an insurance policy with the Maryland Insurance Company, but was denied on the grounds that the voyage ...


Calling Them As He Sees Them: The Disappearance Of Originalism In Justice Thomas's Opinions On Race, Joel K. Goldstein Nov 2014

Calling Them As He Sees Them: The Disappearance Of Originalism In Justice Thomas's Opinions On Race, Joel K. Goldstein

Maryland Law Review

During his first two decades on the Court, Justice Clarence Thomas has been associated with originalism and is often viewed as its leading judicial proponent. Justice Thomas has linked originalism with the effort to limit judicial discretion and to promote judicial impartiality. In cases dealing with many constitutional provisions, Justice Thomas has shown his commitment to originalism by often writing solitary concurrences and dissents advocating an originalist analysis of a problem. Yet in constitutional cases dealing with race, Justice Thomas routinely abandons originalism and embraces the sort of constitutional arguments based on morality or consequentialism that he often discounts. These ...