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Full-Text Articles in Legal History

The Beginning Of The End Of Coverture: A Reappraisal Of The Married Woman’S Separate Estate, Allison Anna Tait Mar 2014

The Beginning Of The End Of Coverture: A Reappraisal Of The Married Woman’S Separate Estate, Allison Anna Tait

Allison Anna Tait

Before statutory enactments in the nineteenth century granted married women a limited set of property rights, the separate estate trust was, by and large, the sole form of married women’s property. Although the separate estate allowed married women to circumvent the law of coverture, historians have generally viewed the separate estate as an ineffective vehicle for extending property rights to married women. In this Article, I reappraise the separate estate’s utility and argue that Chancery’s separate estate jurisprudence during the eighteenth century was a critical first step in the establishment of married women as property-holders. Separate estates ...


Corporate “Soul”: Legal Incorporation Of Catholic Ecclesiastical Property In The United States - A Historical Perspective, Vicenç Feliú Sep 2013

Corporate “Soul”: Legal Incorporation Of Catholic Ecclesiastical Property In The United States - A Historical Perspective, Vicenç Feliú

Vicenç Feliú

This work is a revision and update of a study carried out in 1933 by Monsignor Patrick J. Dignan. Dignan’s purpose in his study was to outline the history of how the Roman Catholic Church secured laws for the protection of church property in accordance with the hierarchical nature of the Church. The purpose of the present article is to bring up to date Dignan’s work and complete a survey of the law in its present state. The article analyzes the differences in the law since the original survey to determine if Dignan’s conclusion that the Church ...


The Evolving Populisms Of Antitrust, Sandeep Vaheesan Mar 2013

The Evolving Populisms Of Antitrust, Sandeep Vaheesan

Sandeep Vaheesan

Scholars often divide the eras of U.S. antitrust law into those of “populism” and “economics” and posit a fundamental conflict between the two concepts. Generally, the decisions of the current antitrust era are described as economic, and the mid-twentieth century period is labeled as populist. A review of Supreme Court decisions on antitrust reveals a more complex picture. From the enactment of the Sherman Act in 1890, the Court’s antitrust rulings have spoken of populist goals and aimed to advance these objectives through economically informed rules. Populism versus economics is thus a false dichotomy.

The populism and economics ...


The Evolving Populisms Of Antitrust, Sandeep Vaheesan Feb 2013

The Evolving Populisms Of Antitrust, Sandeep Vaheesan

Sandeep Vaheesan

Scholars often divide the eras of U.S. antitrust law into those of “populism” and “economics” and posit a fundamental conflict between the two concepts. Generally, the decisions of the current antitrust era are described as economic, and the mid-twentieth century period is labeled as populist. A review of Supreme Court decisions on antitrust reveals a more complex picture. From the enactment of the Sherman Act in 1890, the Court’s antitrust rulings have spoken of populist goals and aimed to advance these objectives through economically informed rules. Populism versus economics is thus a false dichotomy.

The populism and economics ...


Why Do Europeans Ban Hate Speech? A Debate Between Karl Loewenstein And Robert Post, Robert Kahn Feb 2013

Why Do Europeans Ban Hate Speech? A Debate Between Karl Loewenstein And Robert Post, Robert Kahn

Robert Kahn

European countries restrict hate speech, the United States does not. This much is clear. What explains this difference? Too often the current discussion falls back on a culturally rich but normatively vacant exceptionalism (American or otherwise) or a normatively driven convergence perspective that fails to address historical, cultural and experiential differences that distinguish countries and legal systems. Inspired by the development discourse of historical sociology, this article seeks to record instances where Americans or Europeans have argued their approach to hate speech laws was more “advanced” or “modern.”

To that end this article focuses on two authors whose writing appears ...


The Risky Interplay Of Tort And Criminal Law: Punitive Damages, Daniel M. Braun Jan 2013

The Risky Interplay Of Tort And Criminal Law: Punitive Damages, Daniel M. Braun

Daniel M Braun

The rise of modern mass tort litigation in the U.S. has transformed punitive damages into something of a “hot button” issue. Since the size of punitive damage awards grew so dramatically in the past half century, this private law remedy has begun to involve issues of constitutional rights that traditionally pertained to criminal proceedings. This has created a risky interplay between tort and criminal law, and courts have thus been trying to find ways to properly manage punitive damage awards. The once rapidly expanding universe of punitive damages is therefore beginning to contract. There remain, however, very serious difficulties ...


Private Rights Or Public Wrongs? The Crime Victims Rights Act Of 2004 In Historical Context, Christopher J. Truxler Jan 2012

Private Rights Or Public Wrongs? The Crime Victims Rights Act Of 2004 In Historical Context, Christopher J. Truxler

Christopher J. Truxler

Historically, crime victims served as policemen, investigators, and private prosecutors, and were regarded as law enforcement’s most dependable catalyst. The Crime Victim’s Rights Act of 2004 grants crime victims eight substantive and procedural rights and breathes new life into the common law idea that crime is both a public wrong and a private injury. The Act has, however, elicited ardent criticism. Opponents contend that the Act is both bad policy and, most likely, unconstitutional. Without commenting on the Act’s policy or constitutionality, this Note places the Crime Victims’ Rights Act within a broader historical context where victims ...


Chasing Ghosts: On The Possibility Of Writing Cultural Histories Of Tax Law, Assaf Likhovski Jan 2012

Chasing Ghosts: On The Possibility Of Writing Cultural Histories Of Tax Law, Assaf Likhovski

Assaf Likhovski

This Article discusses the use of arguments about “culture” in two debates about the imposition, application and abolition of income tax law: A debate about the transplantation of British income taxation to British-ruled Palestine in the early twentieth century, and a debate about tax privacy in late eighteenth-century and early nineteenth-century Britain. In both cases, “culture,” or some specific aspect of it (notions of privacy) appeared in arguments made by opponents of the tax. However, it is difficult to decide whether the use of cultural arguments in these debates simply reflected some “reality” that existed prior to these debates, whether ...


Islam In The Mind Of American Courts: 1800 To 1960., Marie A. Failinger Jan 2012

Islam In The Mind Of American Courts: 1800 To 1960., Marie A. Failinger

Marie A. Failinger

This article surveys mentions of Islam and Muslims in American federal and state court cases from 1800 to 1960.


‘Sewing The Fly Buttons On The Statute:’ Employee Inventions And The Employment Context, Justine Pila Jan 2012

‘Sewing The Fly Buttons On The Statute:’ Employee Inventions And The Employment Context, Justine Pila

Justine Pila

Section 39(1) of the Patents Act 1977 governs the ownership of inventions devised by employees in the course of their employment. Introduced ‘to codify in a few lines the accumulated common law experience’ prior to 1977, it does not expressly differentiate between employment fields, and has been widely assumed to apply indiscriminately, without regard to the particular context of employment. The purpose of this article is to revisit that assumption. In the argument made, section 39(1) was built around a private sector paradigm the courts’ departure from which is supported by a ‘rational reason’ in the Shanks v ...


Hawthorne's 'Spectacle Of Guilt And Shame' And The Law Of Adultery In Puritan New England: 1631-1694., Joshua Erspamer Mr. Jan 2012

Hawthorne's 'Spectacle Of Guilt And Shame' And The Law Of Adultery In Puritan New England: 1631-1694., Joshua Erspamer Mr.

joshua Erspamer Mr.

The death penalty for the crime of adultery was only imposed on three occasions by the courts in colonial New England. Of these three, a majority come from Puritan Massachusetts. However, this majority is limited to one case and two defendants: the 1644 case of Mary Latham and James Brittaine. Adultery was codified as a capital crime in the Bay Colony in the 1641 Body of Liberties which remained in effect until the loss of charter and merger with Massachusetts Bay Province at the end of the century. This work explores the reasons for the Bay Colony court’s resistance ...


Is Tax Law Culturally Specific? Lessons From The History Of Income Tax Law In Mandatory Palestine, Assaf Likhovski Jan 2010

Is Tax Law Culturally Specific? Lessons From The History Of Income Tax Law In Mandatory Palestine, Assaf Likhovski

Assaf Likhovski

Tax law is a technical area of law which does not seem to be culturally specific. It is thus seen as easily transferable between different societies and cultures. However, tax law is also based on definitions and notions which are not universal (the private sphere, the family, the gift etc.). So, is tax law universal or particular? Is it indeed easily transferable between different societies? And in what ways does tax law reflect ethnic or cultural rather than economic differences? This Article seeks to answer these questions by analyzing one specific example — the history of income tax legislation in Mandatory ...


The Rule Of Law As An Institutional Ideal, Gianluigi Palombella Jan 2010

The Rule Of Law As An Institutional Ideal, Gianluigi Palombella

Gianluigi Palombella

This article aims at offering an innovative interpretation of the potentialities of the "rule of law" for the XXI Century. It goes beyond current uses and the dispute between formal and substantive conceptions, by reaching the roots of the institutional ideal. Also through historical reconstruction and comparative analysis, the core of the rule of law appears to be a peculiar notion, showing a special objective that the law is asked to achieve, on a legal plane, largely independent of political instrumentalism. The normative meaning is elaborated on and construed around the notions of institutional equilibrium, non domination and "duality" of ...


The Great Pharmaceutical Patent Robbery, And The Curious Case Of The Chemical Foundation, Christopher Wadlow Jan 2010

The Great Pharmaceutical Patent Robbery, And The Curious Case Of The Chemical Foundation, Christopher Wadlow

Christopher Wadlow

In 1918, the United States confiscated virtually all German-owned intellectual property assets within its jurisdiction. Out of 6,000 patents in the chemical field, 4,500 were assigned for a very modest consideration to an newly-established entity, the Chemical Foundation, which was incorporated with the objective of licensing and managing them for the benefit of the United States chemical industry. This article describes the origins and activities of the Chemical Foundation, and considers whether it provides a useful model, or at least useful lessons, for the collective management of patents today.


International News V Associated Press: A Theme And Variations Over Four Days, Christopher Wadlow Dec 2008

International News V Associated Press: A Theme And Variations Over Four Days, Christopher Wadlow

Christopher Wadlow

A series of four classes at the University of Trier (Germany) for undergraduate law students, using the International News v Associated Press case 248 U.S. 215 (1918) to discuss some principles of unfair competition and copyright law, as well as some more fundamental doctrines from the common law, and American Constitutional law.


’Including Trade In Counterfeit Goods’: The Origins Of Trips As A Gatt Anti-Counterfeiting Code, Christopher Wadlow Jan 2007

’Including Trade In Counterfeit Goods’: The Origins Of Trips As A Gatt Anti-Counterfeiting Code, Christopher Wadlow

Christopher Wadlow

Like corruption, commercial counterfeiting has no apologists and no redeeming features. The World Trade Organisation (WTO) TRIPs Agreement incorporates provisions intended to address the problem of counterfeit goods in international trade, but these seem to have achieved little more than to slow the trajectory of its growth. However, the low profile of these provisions within TRIPs disguises the fact that TRIPs itself may ultimately be traced to a modest initiative by American business interests to include an “anti-counterfeiting code” within the GATT Tokyo round. This article describes the origins and history of the code, and its gradual metamorphosis into the ...


The British Empire Patent 1901-1923: The ‘Global’ Patent That Never Was, Christopher Wadlow Jan 2006

The British Empire Patent 1901-1923: The ‘Global’ Patent That Never Was, Christopher Wadlow

Christopher Wadlow

Reflects on the lessons which unsuccessful efforts to introduce a British Empire patent prior to 1923 may offer for the European Community patent. Reviews the origin of the proposal in 1901, the state of patent law across the Empire at the time, the progress made at several Imperial conferences, key features of the 1919 memorandum and the issues discussed at the 1922 patent conference. Outlines the reasons for the failure of the 1923 proposals, including the problems created by Canada's claim for reciprocal treatment for its patents, and considers whether the EC Community patent has a greater prospect of ...


The History Of School Trust Lands In Nevada: The No Child Left Behind Act Of 1864, Christopher J. Walker Jan 2006

The History Of School Trust Lands In Nevada: The No Child Left Behind Act Of 1864, Christopher J. Walker

Christopher J. Walker

This Article details the history of the federal school lands grant program in Nevada - the first federal initiative to support public education in the new state. After providing a brief overview of federal land management history in the West, the Article presents the story of school lands in Nevada - tracing its birth in Congress and at the Nevada Constitutional Convention in 1864; analyzing the changes made by state constitutional amendments and court decisions; exploring Congress's attempts to adapt the program to Nevada's needs in the form of the two-million-acre grant of 1880 and the 30,000-acre exchange of ...