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Full-Text Articles in Legal History

Trust And Good-Faith Taken To A New Level: An Analysis Of Inconsistent Behavior In The Brazilian Legal Order, Thiago Luis Sombra Jul 2015

Trust And Good-Faith Taken To A New Level: An Analysis Of Inconsistent Behavior In The Brazilian Legal Order, Thiago Luis Sombra

Thiago Luís Santos Sombra

With the changes in the paradigm of voluntarism developed under the protection of liberalism, the bases for legal acts have reached an objective dimension, resulting in the birth of a number of mechanisms of control of private autonomy. Among these mechanisms, we can point out the relevance of those reinforced by the Roman Law, whose high ethical value underlines one of its biggest virtues in the control of the exercise of subjective rights. The prohibition of inconsistent behavior, conceived in the brocard venire contra factum proprium, constitutes one of the concepts from the Roman Law renown for the protection of ...


The Interwoven Destinies Of The United States, Colombia And Panama: On Friendship, Commerce And Navigation Treaties And International Legal Imperialism, Marco Velásquez-Ruiz Apr 2015

The Interwoven Destinies Of The United States, Colombia And Panama: On Friendship, Commerce And Navigation Treaties And International Legal Imperialism, Marco Velásquez-Ruiz

Marco A. Velásquez-Ruiz

Based on the general contention that International Law can (and has) served imperialist purposes – that is to say, extend a nation’s authority over another by establishing an effective influence on its political and economic affairs –, this paper intends to illustrate how the 1846 Friendship, Commerce and Navigation Treaty concluded between the United States and Colombia – commonly known as the Mallarino-Bidlack Treaty –was eventually used by the former as a neocolonial device on the latter. Essentially, the suggested tale on which this paper is built goes as follows: to a great extent, the United States consolidated its global hegemonic position ...


An Invisible Hand Behind: The Myth Of The Chinese Tax System, Yan Xu Feb 2015

An Invisible Hand Behind: The Myth Of The Chinese Tax System, Yan Xu

Yan XU

To the casual observer, China in 2014 bears little resemblance to imperial society in place two thousand years ago. The agrarian rural society that dominated until recently has shifted to an urbanized services and manufacturing society. The emperor is long dead, along with the Republic government that followedand the subsequent Communist regime has morphed into Party led oligarchy guiding a state controlled market economy. A closer look, however, reveals a remarkable continuity of features. It seems that some aspects of life in China are more resistant to change and the continuity of these features to today indicates that some fundamental ...


Unintended Consequences: The Posse Comitatus Act In The Modern Era, Mark P. Nevitt Oct 2014

Unintended Consequences: The Posse Comitatus Act In The Modern Era, Mark P. Nevitt

Mark P Nevitt

America was born in revolution. Outraged at numerous abuses by the British crown—to include the conduct of British soldiers in the colonists’ daily lives— Americans declared their independence, creating a new republic with deep suspicions of a standing Army. These suspicions were intensely debated at the time of the nation’s formation and enshrined in the Constitution. But congressional limitations on the role of the military in day-to-day affairs would have to wait. They were not put in place until after the Civil War when southern congressmen successfully co- opted the framers’ earlier concerns of a standing Army and ...


Balancing The Scales: Adhuc Sub Judice Li Est Or Trial By Media, Casey J. Cooper Jul 2014

Balancing The Scales: Adhuc Sub Judice Li Est Or Trial By Media, Casey J. Cooper

Casey J Cooper

The right to freedom of expression and free press is recognized under almost all major human rights instruments and domestic legal systems—common and civil—in the world. However, what do you do when a fundamental right conflicts with another equally fundamental right, like the right to a fair trial? In the United States, the freedom of speech, encompassing the freedom of the press, goes nearly unfettered: the case is not the same for other common law countries. In light of cultural and historic facts, institutional factors, modern realities, and case-law, this Article contends that current American jurisprudence does not ...


An Other History Of Knowledge And Decision In Precautionary Approaches To Sustainability, Saptarishi Bandopadhyay Jul 2014

An Other History Of Knowledge And Decision In Precautionary Approaches To Sustainability, Saptarishi Bandopadhyay

Saptarishi Bandopadhyay

In this paper, I offer an alternative reading of precaution with the hope of recovering the capacity of this ethic to facilitate legal and political decisions. Despite being a popular instrument of international environmental governance, decision-makers continue to understand this principle as reflecting an immemorial and natural instinct for preserving the environment in cases of scientific uncertainty. Such a reading, however, ignores the history and moral basis underlying this principle and thereby renders it obvious, and automatically adaptable to the politics of Sustainable Development. By offering a thicker history of precautionary governance at exemplary moments of ecological crisis I trace ...


The Evolution Of The Digital Millennium Copyright Act; Changing Interpretations Of The Dmca And Future Implications For Copyright Holders, Hillary A. Henderson Jan 2014

The Evolution Of The Digital Millennium Copyright Act; Changing Interpretations Of The Dmca And Future Implications For Copyright Holders, Hillary A. Henderson

Hillary A Henderson

Copyright law rewards an artificial monopoly to individual authors for their creations. This reward is based on the belief that, by granting authors the exclusive right to reproduce their works, they receive an incentive and means to create, which in turn advances the welfare of the general public by “promoting the progress of science and useful arts.” Copyright protection subsists . . . in original works of authorship fixed in any tangible medium of expression, now known or later developed, from which they can be perceived, reproduced, or otherwise communicated, either directly or with the aid of a machine or device . . . . In no ...


The Forgotten Nuremberg Hate Speech Case: Otto Dietrich And The Future Of Persecution Law, Gregory S. Gordon Aug 2013

The Forgotten Nuremberg Hate Speech Case: Otto Dietrich And The Future Of Persecution Law, Gregory S. Gordon

Gregory S. Gordon

Among international jurists, the conventional wisdom is that atrocity speech law sprang fully formed from two judgments issued by the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg (IMT): the crimes against humanity conviction of Nazi newspaper editor Julius Streicher, and the acquittal on the same charge of Third Reich Radio Division Chief Hans Fritzsche. But the exclusive focus on the IMT judgments as the founding texts of atrocity speech law is misplaced. Not long after Streicher and Fritzsche, and in the same courtroom, the United States Nuremberg Military Tribunal (NMT) in the Ministries Case, issued an equally significant crimes against humanity judgment ...


A Maelstrom Of International Law And Intrigue: The Remarkable Voyage Of The S.S. City Of Flint, Andrew J. Norris Jul 2013

A Maelstrom Of International Law And Intrigue: The Remarkable Voyage Of The S.S. City Of Flint, Andrew J. Norris

Andrew Norris

No abstract provided.


The Duty To Make Amends To Victims Of Armed Conflict, Scott T. Paul Mar 2013

The Duty To Make Amends To Victims Of Armed Conflict, Scott T. Paul

Scott T Paul

In the past decade, calls for monetary payments by warring parties to the civilians they harm have become significantly louder and more prominent. The law of armed conflict permits parties to harm civilians, so long as the harm is not excessive to the concrete and direct military advantage they anticipate gaining through an attack. This paper examines the current state of international law regarding duties owed to victims suffering harm as a result of lawful combat operations and discusses the moral obligations owed to them by the parties who cause them harm. The paper notes that civilians who suffer incidental ...


International Law And Ungoverned Space, Matthew Hoisington Jan 2013

International Law And Ungoverned Space, Matthew Hoisington

Matthew Hoisington

Ungoverned spaces, strictly defined as “spaces not effectively governed by the state” exist all over the world, presenting particular difficulties to public international law, which is historically premised on sovereignty and state control. Examples of such spaces include cyberspace, south-central Somalia and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas along the Afghan-Pakistan border. These spaces destabilize the international system in novel ways—and they might also be dangerous. Many of the terrorism plots from the late twentieth and early twenty-first century emanated from “safe havens” afforded by ungoverned spaces. The lack of governance over certain spaces also raises concerns over development, including ...


The Empirical Turn In International Legal Scholarship, Tom Ginsburg, Gregory Schaffer Jan 2012

The Empirical Turn In International Legal Scholarship, Tom Ginsburg, Gregory Schaffer

Tom Ginsburg

No abstract provided.


The Legacy Of Rux V. Republic Of Sudan And The Future Of The Judicial War On Terror, Chad G. Marzen Jan 2012

The Legacy Of Rux V. Republic Of Sudan And The Future Of The Judicial War On Terror, Chad G. Marzen

Chad G. Marzen

The Republic of Sudan’s material support of terrorism has contributed to the loss of innocent American lives. In 2007, a group of more than 50 surviving family members of 17 United States sailors killed in the October 12, 2000 U.S.S. Cole bombing obtained a $7,956,344 judgment against the Republic of Sudan for its material support of Al-Qaeda that enabled Al-Qaeda to carry out the attack. The award included damages for the sailors’ lost wages and earning potential pursuant to the Death on the High Seas Act, but not for emotional loss. The United States Congress ...


65-Летие Нюрнбергского Процесса Над Главными Нацистскими Военными Преступниками: Уроки Истории, Leonid G. Berlyavskiy Jan 2011

65-Летие Нюрнбергского Процесса Над Главными Нацистскими Военными Преступниками: Уроки Истории, Leonid G. Berlyavskiy

Leonid G. Berlyavskiy

The article is devoted to the research of the Nazi Law that has been carried out by the International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg. The 65 anniversary of its activity is marked now. The basic attention is given to theoretical bases of the charges shown to the main military criminals in the Nuremberg process, totali-tarian system of power, and also the Legal policy of fascist Germany and the basic components of the Nazi Law presented by the main accusers in the process


A Propósito Del Giro Historiográfico En Derecho Internacional, Ignacio De La Rasilla Del Moral Jan 2011

A Propósito Del Giro Historiográfico En Derecho Internacional, Ignacio De La Rasilla Del Moral

Ignacio de la Rasilla del Moral, Ph.D.

Illiteracy rate in Spain at the turn of the 20th century was of 63.8% and 16.000 students - out of a total Spanish population of 18.6 million - attended the 10 existing Spanish universities. 2.000 university titles were accorded, half of which in Law in 1900, and 200 students obtained their doctorates by the Central University of Madrid which held the academic monopoly of doctoral studies at the time. In 1902, the Bulletin of the Institution of Free Teaching published a chronicle signed by Aniceto Sela y Sampil on the didactic methods he employed to teach Public and ...


Una Aproximación Al Debate Democrático En Derecho Internacional, Ignacio De La Rasilla Del Moral Jan 2010

Una Aproximación Al Debate Democrático En Derecho Internacional, Ignacio De La Rasilla Del Moral

Ignacio de la Rasilla del Moral, Ph.D.

Taking as it starting point a critical introduction to the democratic debate in international law, the object of the present work is that of contributing to the critical development of an appropiate methodology for the exam of the normative pretension according to which the international legal order would be developing within itself a particular conception of the liberal State. Such a conception would be premised in the gradual emergence of an international legal obligation that would command the development within every sovereign state of institutions of democratic governance, thus marking the transition from the paradigm of equivalence of domestic political ...


The Furundzija Judgment And Its Continued Vitality In International Law, Chad G. Marzen Jan 2010

The Furundzija Judgment And Its Continued Vitality In International Law, Chad G. Marzen

Chad G. Marzen

The Furundzija decision of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia stands as a landmark decision in international jurisprudence since it not only affirmed that the norm prohibiting torture has attained jus cogens status under international law, but expanded accountability and liability for violations of commission as well as omission. In this essay, I not only address Furundzija’s holdings and its implications in the international sphere, but specifically analyze the legacy of the Furundzija judgment on U.S. domestic civil cases involving the Alien Tort Statute.

Significantly, the Tribunal’s decision not only properly recognizes faults and crimes ...


The Holy See's Worldwide Role And International Human Rights: Solely Symbolic?, Chad G. Marzen Jan 2009

The Holy See's Worldwide Role And International Human Rights: Solely Symbolic?, Chad G. Marzen

Chad G. Marzen

The Holy See has been actively involved in international relations since its very beginnings. Today, its role in the formation of international human rights instruments is seen by many as “symbolic,” based largely on its concerns as a universal moral witness to humanity.

In this paper, I contend that the Holy See’s role in promoting human rights in international affairs is not solely symbolic; rather, its diplomacy is based more on pragmatic considerations of promoting its conceptions of the universal common good and the fundamental right to life than is currently recognized. By examining the Beijing and Cairo Conferences ...


Dhimmitude And Disarmament, David B. Kopel Jan 2008

Dhimmitude And Disarmament, David B. Kopel

David B Kopel

Under shari'a law, non-Muslims, known as dhimmi, have been forbidden to possess arms, and to defend themselves from attacks by Muslims. The disarmament is one aspect of the pervasive civil inferiority of non-Muslims, a status known as dhimmitude. This Essay examines the historical effects of the shari'a disarmament, based on three books by Bat Ye'or, the world's leading scholar of dhimmitude. As Ye'or details, the disarmament had catastrophic consequences, extending far beyond the direct loss of the dhimmi's ability to defend themselves. The essay concludes by observing how pretend gun-free zones on college campuses ...


Liability For Terrorism In American Courts: Aiding-And-Abetting Liability Under The Fsia State-Sponsor Of Terrorism Exception And The Alien Tort Statute, Chad G. Marzen Jan 2008

Liability For Terrorism In American Courts: Aiding-And-Abetting Liability Under The Fsia State-Sponsor Of Terrorism Exception And The Alien Tort Statute, Chad G. Marzen

Chad G. Marzen

The issue of liability for terrorism and supporting terrorism in American domestic courts is one of the most active issues of current judicial decisionmaking in the area of foreign affairs. Through the state-sponsored terrorism exception to the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act and the Alien Tort Statute, liability extends to foreign governments (in the FSIA context) and to foreign governments, nonstate actors, or nonstate actors acting under color of law (under the ATS) when they provide support to terrorist activities.

In an October 2007 decision, the Second Circuit Court of Appeals in the Khulumani case held that a defendant is liable ...


Is Resisting Genocide A Human Right?, David B. Kopel, Joanne D. Eisen, Paul Gallant Jan 2006

Is Resisting Genocide A Human Right?, David B. Kopel, Joanne D. Eisen, Paul Gallant

David B Kopel

Closely examining the Darfur, Sudan, genocide, and making reference to other genocides, this Article argues that the genocide prevention strategies which are currently favored by the United Nations are ineffective. This Article details the failures of targeted sanctions, United Nations peacekeepers, and other antigenocide programs. Then, this Article analyzes the Genocide Convention and other sources of international human rights law. Because the very strong language of the Genocide Convention forbids any form of complicity in genocide, and because the Genocide Convention is jus cogens (meaning that it prevails over any conflicting national or international law), this Article concludes that the ...


The Laws Of War In The Pre-Dawn Light: Institutions And Obligations In Thucydides’ Peloponnesian War, Steve Sheppard Jan 2005

The Laws Of War In The Pre-Dawn Light: Institutions And Obligations In Thucydides’ Peloponnesian War, Steve Sheppard

Steve Sheppard

This Essay, in honor of Oscar Schachter, discusses Thucydides’ account of the Peloponnesian War, not only glimpsing into the events surrounding the conflict but also considering how the sparring greek city-states understood and manifested laws of war. This article describes numerous customs, practices, and procedures including respect for truces, ambassadors, heralds, trophies, and various forms of neutrality the ancients adhered to during times of conflict. The greek city-states and their warriors recognized and enforced obligations concerning a city-state’s right to war (jus ad bellum) and conduct in war (jus in bello). While the ancients’ laws of war were always ...