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2012

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Articles 31 - 56 of 56

Full-Text Articles in Legal History

Законодательные Основы Противодействия Ксенофобии И Антисемитизму В Советском Государстве (1917-1939 Г.Г.), Leonid G. Berlyavskiy, Eugene V. Kolesnikov Jan 2012

Законодательные Основы Противодействия Ксенофобии И Антисемитизму В Советском Государстве (1917-1939 Г.Г.), Leonid G. Berlyavskiy, Eugene V. Kolesnikov

Leonid G. Berlyavskiy

In the article the legislation of xenophobia and antisemitism counteraction in the Soviet Union is considered. The Sovnarkom of RSFSR Decree 27 July 1918, the Soviet criminal codes in the struggle against nationalism and antisemitism is shown


The Founders’ Hermeneutic: The Real Original Understanding Of Original Intent, Robert G. Natelson Jan 2012

The Founders’ Hermeneutic: The Real Original Understanding Of Original Intent, Robert G. Natelson

Robert G. Natelson

This Article addresses whether the American Founders expected evidence of their own subjective views to guide future interpretation of the U.S. Constitution. The Article considers a range of evidence largely overlooked or misunderstood in earlier studies, such as contemporaneous rules of legal interpretation, judicial use of legislative history, early American public debate, and pronouncements by state ratifying conventions. Based on this evidence, the Article concludes that the Founders were “original-understanding originalists.” This means that they anticipated that constitutional interpretation would be guided by the subjective understanding of the ratifiers when such understanding was coherent and recoverable and, otherwise, by ...


A Republic, Not A Democracy? Initiative, Referendum, And The Constitution's Guarantee Clause, Robert G. Natelson Jan 2012

A Republic, Not A Democracy? Initiative, Referendum, And The Constitution's Guarantee Clause, Robert G. Natelson

Robert G. Natelson

This article debunks the myth, first arising in the 1840s, that the Founders sharply distinguished between a "republic" and a "democracy." It explains that by a "republic," most of the Founders meant a government controlled by the citizenry, following the rule of law, and without a king. Accordingly, state provisions for initiative and referendum are fully consistent with the Constitution's requirement that each state have a republican form of government; in fact, most of the governments the Founders called "republics" had featured analogous forms of direct democracy.


Paper Money And The Original Understanding Of The Coinage Clause, Robert G. Natelson Jan 2012

Paper Money And The Original Understanding Of The Coinage Clause, Robert G. Natelson

Robert G. Natelson

Over a century ago, the Supreme Court decided the Legal Tender Cases, holding that Congress could authorize legal tender paper money in addition to metallic coin. In recent years, some commentators have argued that this holding was incorrect as a matter of original understanding or original meaning, but that any other holding would be absolutely inconsistent with modern needs. They further argue that the impracticality of functioning without paper money demonstrates that originalism is not a workable method of constitutional interpretation. Those who rely on the Legal Tender Cases to discredit originalism are, however, in error. This Article shows that ...


Imbrication Of Legal And Expert Discourses On Monoparental Adoptive Processes, Raquel Medina Plana Jan 2012

Imbrication Of Legal And Expert Discourses On Monoparental Adoptive Processes, Raquel Medina Plana

Raquel Medina Plana

Long and complex, international adoption processes can be seen as constituting a set of performative practices which involve strategies of transmission/ incorporation of culture, implying the construction of relational identities or subjectivities. With an “educational” drive, and a strong uniformity aspiration, the relevant institutions would be constructing a unified kind of adoptive parenthood, not just in their public dimension but also on the more intimate identity configuration level: the emotional life, affections, expectations, personal history… (Borrillo and Pitois-Etienne, 2004). When confronted with “non-traditional” family projects (as it is the case with monoparental adoption), adoptive processes perform a strong governmental control ...


Godsdienst Als Hype, Wouter H. De Been Jan 2012

Godsdienst Als Hype, Wouter H. De Been

Wouter H. de Been

No abstract provided.


Leaking By The Bucketload: The Nature Of Database Leaks, Wouter H. De Been, Khaibar Sarghandoy Jan 2012

Leaking By The Bucketload: The Nature Of Database Leaks, Wouter H. De Been, Khaibar Sarghandoy

Wouter H. de Been

The British expense account scandal, the revelations by Wikileaks, and the Palestine papers are all database leaks. Such leaks were not impossible before, but they have become much simpler. Through global communication networks everybody can now leak on an industrial scale. The question addressed in this paper is: How to understand and regulate such database leaks? The notion that they will empower democratic publics is problematic. Databases, typically, are not easily intelligible. At best they provide the raw data for an understanding of an institutional culture or attitude. Experts and specialists remain essential intermediaries for the interpretation of the raw ...


The Empirical Turn In International Legal Scholarship, Tom Ginsburg, Gregory Schaffer Jan 2012

The Empirical Turn In International Legal Scholarship, Tom Ginsburg, Gregory Schaffer

Tom Ginsburg

No abstract provided.


Constitutional Backdrops, Stephen E. Sachs Jan 2012

Constitutional Backdrops, Stephen E. Sachs

Stephen E. Sachs

The Constitution is often said to leave important questions unanswered. These include, for example, the existence of a congressional contempt power or an executive removal power, the role of stare decisis, and the scope of state sovereign immunity. Bereft of clear text, many scholars have sought answers to such questions in Founding-era history. But why should the historical answers be valid today, if they were never codified in the Constitution's text? This Article describes a category of legal rules that weren't adopted in the text, expressly or implicitly, but which nonetheless have continuing legal force under the written ...


Islam In The Mind Of American Courts: 1800 To 1960., Marie A. Failinger Jan 2012

Islam In The Mind Of American Courts: 1800 To 1960., Marie A. Failinger

Marie A. Failinger

This article surveys mentions of Islam and Muslims in American federal and state court cases from 1800 to 1960.


Correos Electrónicos De Autoridades Públicas: En Torno A Una Mala Caracterización Jurídica, Fernando Muñoz Jan 2012

Correos Electrónicos De Autoridades Públicas: En Torno A Una Mala Caracterización Jurídica, Fernando Muñoz

Fernando Muñoz

Tal como una adecuada caracterización jurídica puede reportar grandes ventajas desde el punto de vista de la sistematicidad y coherencia del sistema jurídico, una mala caracterización puede significar desde una oportunidad perdida hasta un traspié con graves consecuencias.


Images In/Of Law, Jessica M. Silbey Jan 2012

Images In/Of Law, Jessica M. Silbey

Jessica Silbey

The proliferation of images in and of law lends itself to surprisingly complex problems of epistemology and power. Understanding through images is innate; most of us easily understand images without thinking. But arriving at mutually agreeable understandings of images is also difficult. Translating images into shared words leads to multiple problems inherent in translation and that pose problems for justice. Despite our saturated imagistic culture, we have not established methods to pursue that translation process with confidence. This article explains how images are intuitively understood and yet collectively inscrutable, posing unique problems for resolving legal conflicts that demand common and ...


‘Sewing The Fly Buttons On The Statute:’ Employee Inventions And The Employment Context, Justine Pila Jan 2012

‘Sewing The Fly Buttons On The Statute:’ Employee Inventions And The Employment Context, Justine Pila

Justine Pila

Section 39(1) of the Patents Act 1977 governs the ownership of inventions devised by employees in the course of their employment. Introduced ‘to codify in a few lines the accumulated common law experience’ prior to 1977, it does not expressly differentiate between employment fields, and has been widely assumed to apply indiscriminately, without regard to the particular context of employment. The purpose of this article is to revisit that assumption. In the argument made, section 39(1) was built around a private sector paradigm the courts’ departure from which is supported by a ‘rational reason’ in the Shanks v ...


Delegitimizing Aggression: First Steps And False Starts After The First World War, Kirsten Sellars Dr Jan 2012

Delegitimizing Aggression: First Steps And False Starts After The First World War, Kirsten Sellars Dr

Dr Kirsten Sellars

The interwar years marked the movement in international law towards the prohibition of aggressive war. Yet a notable feature of the 1920s and 1930s, despite suggestions to the contrary at the Nuremberg and Tokyo tribunals, was the absence of legal milestones marking the advance towards the criminalization of aggression. Lloyd George’s proposal to arraign the ex-Kaiser for starting the First World War came to nothing. Resolutions mentioning the ‘international crime’ of aggression, such as the draft Treaty for Mutual Assistance and the Geneva Protocol, were never ratified. And the Kellogg-Briand Pact, while renouncing war ‘as an instrument of national ...


Hawthorne's 'Spectacle Of Guilt And Shame' And The Law Of Adultery In Puritan New England: 1631-1694., Joshua Erspamer Mr. Jan 2012

Hawthorne's 'Spectacle Of Guilt And Shame' And The Law Of Adultery In Puritan New England: 1631-1694., Joshua Erspamer Mr.

joshua Erspamer Mr.

The death penalty for the crime of adultery was only imposed on three occasions by the courts in colonial New England. Of these three, a majority come from Puritan Massachusetts. However, this majority is limited to one case and two defendants: the 1644 case of Mary Latham and James Brittaine. Adultery was codified as a capital crime in the Bay Colony in the 1641 Body of Liberties which remained in effect until the loss of charter and merger with Massachusetts Bay Province at the end of the century. This work explores the reasons for the Bay Colony court’s resistance ...


The Modalities Of Constitutional Argument: A Primer, Ian C. Bartrum Jan 2012

The Modalities Of Constitutional Argument: A Primer, Ian C. Bartrum

Ian C Bartrum

This piece is a contribution to Linda Edwards upcoming book Readings In Persuasion: Briefs That Changed the World (forthcoming Wolters Kluwer). In it I offer a short primer on the modalities of constitutional argument, as Philip Bobbitt has described them. As someone who teaches Constitutional Law with the primary goal of educating future practitioners, I have always brought Bobbitt’s very practical (while also very theoretical) work into my classroom discussions. I have regularly used the first chapter of Bobbitt’s Constitutional Interpretation as introductory text on the subject, but I have sometimes found the reading to be too long ...


Constitutional Value Judgments And Interpretive Theory Choice, Ian C. Bartrum Jan 2012

Constitutional Value Judgments And Interpretive Theory Choice, Ian C. Bartrum

Ian C Bartrum

Philip Bobbitt’s remarkable work describing the ‘modalities’ of constitutional argument is an immense contribution to the study of constitutional law. He describes a typology of six forms of argument alive in our interpretive practice, and offers a limited account of how these modalities interact, and sometimes conflict, in actual constitutional decisions. One of the persistent puzzles Bobbitt’s description leaves open, however, is how we should account for the choice between conflicting modalities in cases where that choice is likely outcome-determinative. Because the modalities are ‘incommensurable’—a term’s meaning in one modality may not be fully translatable into ...


Iqbal & Twobly: Will Plausibility Requirments Influence The Supreme Court's Analysis Of Affirmative Action?, Colin W. Maguire Jan 2012

Iqbal & Twobly: Will Plausibility Requirments Influence The Supreme Court's Analysis Of Affirmative Action?, Colin W. Maguire

Colin W. Maguire

The U.S. Supreme Court seems intent on taking another look at affirmative action in higher education. What could this mean for colleges and universities? This blawg post offers no definitive answers, but points out that arguments exists for both sides of the issue through a recent legal development: Iqbal & Twobly's Plausibility Doctrine. If the Doctrine forces a transative duty on case law, then affirmative action programs' legal rationale - long decried for not making logical sense - could suffer. Conversely, the Court appears to have already used plausibility as a factor in promoting a different type of affirmative action program ...


How The British Gun Control Program Precipitated The American Revolution, David B. Kopel Jan 2012

How The British Gun Control Program Precipitated The American Revolution, David B. Kopel

David B Kopel

Abstract: This Article chronologically reviews the British gun control which precipitated the American Revolution: the 1774 import ban on firearms and gun powder; the 1774-75 confiscations of firearms and gun powder, from individuals and from local governments; and the use of violence to effectuate the confiscations. It was these events which changed a situation of rising political tension into a shooting war. Each of these British abuses provides insights into the scope of the modern Second Amendment.

From the events of 1774-75, we can discern that import restrictions or bans on firearms or ammunition are constitutionally suspect — at least if ...


The Ppaca In Wonderland, David B. Kopel, Gary Lawson Jan 2012

The Ppaca In Wonderland, David B. Kopel, Gary Lawson

David B Kopel

The question whether the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (“PPACA”) is “unconstitutional” is thorny, not simply because it presents intriguing issues of interpretation but also because it starkly illustrates the ambiguity that often accompanies the word “unconstitutional.” The term can be, and often is, used to mean a wide range of things, from inconsistency with the Constitution’s text to inconsistency with a set of policy preferences. In this article, we briefly explore the range of meanings that attach to the term “unconstitutional,” as well as the problem of determining the “constitutionality” of a lengthy statute when only some ...


The Great Gun Control War Of The Twentieth Century--And Its Lessons For Gun Laws Today, David B. Kopel Jan 2012

The Great Gun Control War Of The Twentieth Century--And Its Lessons For Gun Laws Today, David B. Kopel

David B Kopel

A movement to ban handguns began in the 1920s in the Northeast, led by the conservative business establishment. In response, the National Rifle Association began to get involved in politics, and was able to defeat handgun prohibition. Gun control and gun rights became the subjects of intense political, social, and cultural battles for much of the rest of the 20th century, and into the 21st.

Often, the battles were a clash of absolutes: One side contended that there was absolutely no right to arms, that defensive gun ownership must be prohibited, and that gun ownership for sporting purposes could be ...


Agree To Disagree: Local Jurisdiction In The Lex Irnitana, Ernest Metzger Jan 2012

Agree To Disagree: Local Jurisdiction In The Lex Irnitana, Ernest Metzger

Ernest Metzger

The lex Irnitana (AD 91) is one of our principal sources for Roman civil procedure during the classical period. In character it is a municipal charter for a muncipium in Baetica. It contains extensive provisions on the conduct of civil lawsuits, and among its most contested provisions is Chapter 84 on jurisdiction. The main point of disagreement: was it possible only to have 'small lawsuits' heard locally, or might the parties, by agreement, consent to have lawsuits of substantial value heard also? The disagreement is of much greater significance than this single inscription might suggest: Roman civil procedure underwent revolutionary ...


The Legacy Of Rux V. Republic Of Sudan And The Future Of The Judicial War On Terror, Chad G. Marzen Jan 2012

The Legacy Of Rux V. Republic Of Sudan And The Future Of The Judicial War On Terror, Chad G. Marzen

Chad G. Marzen

The Republic of Sudan’s material support of terrorism has contributed to the loss of innocent American lives. In 2007, a group of more than 50 surviving family members of 17 United States sailors killed in the October 12, 2000 U.S.S. Cole bombing obtained a $7,956,344 judgment against the Republic of Sudan for its material support of Al-Qaeda that enabled Al-Qaeda to carry out the attack. The award included damages for the sailors’ lost wages and earning potential pursuant to the Death on the High Seas Act, but not for emotional loss. The United States Congress ...


Can (And Should) An Insurance Defense Attorney Be Held Liable For Insurance Bad Faith?, Chad G. Marzen Jan 2012

Can (And Should) An Insurance Defense Attorney Be Held Liable For Insurance Bad Faith?, Chad G. Marzen

Chad G. Marzen

Insurance defense lawyers are faced with many practical and ethical challenges in the contemporary practice of law. Outside of the practical and ethical challenges looms a question concerning insurance bad faith – can (and should) an insurance defense attorney and/or insurance defense law firm ever be held liable for insurance bad faith?

In this article, I state that with the ever-increasing expanse of bad faith liability today, insurance defense attorneys and law firms are potentially next to be encompassed in the liability circle. Today, as a general rule, insurance defense attorneys and law firms are not directly liable to an ...


Nulidad Y Forma En El Proceso Civil - Perspectiva Histórica De La Función De La Nulidad Procesal En Su Camino Hacia El Modelo De La Finalidad, Renzo Cavani Jan 2012

Nulidad Y Forma En El Proceso Civil - Perspectiva Histórica De La Función De La Nulidad Procesal En Su Camino Hacia El Modelo De La Finalidad, Renzo Cavani

Renzo Cavani

This essay intends to build an historical-legal analysis about the evolution of the nullity in civil procedure law, showing a progressive flexibilization of the legal formalism. The investigation covers Roman Law, Middle Age, the most important codifications of 19th Century, and finally arriving in the model adopted by the italian Code of Civil Procedure, which severely influenced the regulation of the nullity in the peruvian Code.


Between “Metaphysics Of The Stone Age” And The “Brave New World”: H.L.A. Hart On The Law’S Assumptions About Human Nature, Péter Cserne Jan 2012

Between “Metaphysics Of The Stone Age” And The “Brave New World”: H.L.A. Hart On The Law’S Assumptions About Human Nature, Péter Cserne

Péter Cserne

This paper analyses H.L.A. Hart’s views on the epistemic character of the law’s assumptions about human behaviour, as articulated in Causation in the Law and Punishment and Responsibility. Hart suggests that the assumptions behind legal doctrines typically combine common sense factual beliefs, moral intuitions, and philosophical theories of earlier ages with sound moral principles, and empirical knowledge. An important task of legal theory is to provide a ‘rational and critical foundation’ for these doctrines. This does not only imply conceptual clarification in light of an epistemic ideal of objectivity but also involves legal theorists in ‘enlightenment ...