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SelectedWorks

2010

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Articles 1 - 30 of 39

Full-Text Articles in Legal History

The Estate Planning Perils Of 2010 And Beyond, Brett T. Bradford Nov 2010

The Estate Planning Perils Of 2010 And Beyond, Brett T. Bradford

Brett T. Bradford

This paper explores the confusion surrounding the repeal of the federal estate tax for the year 2010. The Economic Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act gradually scaled down the federal estate tax and eventually repealed the tax in 2010. The Act has a sunset provision that would return the tax to a much higher rate than has been seen in recent times. This paper explores the history, intent and purpose of federal estate taxes; the intent and purpose behind the repeal in EGTRAA; and what attempts congress has made to fix the mess.


Glimmers Of Hope: The Evolution Of Equality Rights Doctrine In Japanese Courts From A Comparative Perspective, Craig Martin Apr 2010

Glimmers Of Hope: The Evolution Of Equality Rights Doctrine In Japanese Courts From A Comparative Perspective, Craig Martin

Craig Martin

There has been little study of the analytical framework employed by the Japanese courts in resolving constitutional claims under the right to be treated as an equal and not be discriminated against. In the Japanese literature the only comparative analysis done focuses on American equal protection jurisprudence. This article examines the development of the equality rights doctrine in the Japanese Supreme Court from the perspective of an increasingly universal “proportionality analysis” approach to rights enforcement, of which the Canadian equality rights jurisprudence is a good example, in contrast to the American approach. This comparative analysis, which begins with a review ...


Contribución Al Estudio De La Actio Quod Iussu, Patricio Lazo Jan 2010

Contribución Al Estudio De La Actio Quod Iussu, Patricio Lazo

Patricio Lazo

El artículo ofrece una reconstrucción de la actio quod iussu, y hace ver su importancia para el desarrollo de las actividades económicas, principalmente las comerciales, sobre la base de un examen crítico de las anteriores proposiciones de reconstrucción debidas a Otto Lenel y Adolf Rudorff. Indagación especial se dedica al iussum, principal fundamento para la concesión de la acción; y, a propósito de él, se investigan dos problemas, a saber: el del destinatario del iussum y el de la interpretación de su sentido y efectos en Tab. Pomp. 7, cuestión que conecta la actio quod iussu con los instrumentos de ...


La Protection Des Civils Dans Les Nouvelles Configurations Conflictuelles : Retour Au Droit Des Gens Ou Dépassement Du Droit International Humanitaire, Gregory Lewkowicz Jan 2010

La Protection Des Civils Dans Les Nouvelles Configurations Conflictuelles : Retour Au Droit Des Gens Ou Dépassement Du Droit International Humanitaire, Gregory Lewkowicz

Gregory Lewkowicz

In this paper, the development of alternative regulatory tools (codes of conduct, monitoring mechanisms, etc.) dealing with the protection of civilians during armed conflicts is scrutinized in the context of “new wars”. The paper analyses the connections between these alternative regulatory tools and classical international humanitarian law (IHL) instruments. The paper suggests that the profusion of alternative regulatory tools can help to disseminate classical IHL norms and to adapt them to contemporary warfare. The paper also envisages the possibility of a new “lex armorum” emerging from these new regulatory tools and challenging classical IHL.


Is Tax Law Culturally Specific? Lessons From The History Of Income Tax Law In Mandatory Palestine, Assaf Likhovski Jan 2010

Is Tax Law Culturally Specific? Lessons From The History Of Income Tax Law In Mandatory Palestine, Assaf Likhovski

Assaf Likhovski

Tax law is a technical area of law which does not seem to be culturally specific. It is thus seen as easily transferable between different societies and cultures. However, tax law is also based on definitions and notions which are not universal (the private sphere, the family, the gift etc.). So, is tax law universal or particular? Is it indeed easily transferable between different societies? And in what ways does tax law reflect ethnic or cultural rather than economic differences? This Article seeks to answer these questions by analyzing one specific example — the history of income tax legislation in Mandatory ...


Dred Scott Vs. The Dred Scott Case: History And Memory Of A Signal Moment In American Slavery, 1857-2007, Adam Arenson Jan 2010

Dred Scott Vs. The Dred Scott Case: History And Memory Of A Signal Moment In American Slavery, 1857-2007, Adam Arenson

Adam Arenson

The Dred Scott Case centered on the Scott family—Dred and Harriet, and their daughters Eliza and Lizzie—but in the recorded history, after March 6, 1857 the Scotts suddenly fade, as if their lives ended that day in the courthouse. They did not. Elsewhere I have examined how the Dred Scott decision catalyzed the transformation of St. Louis politics, turning Missouri toward gradual emancipation just as the South’s proslavery advocates were declaring victory. And I have described how the Scotts’ lives were recovered to memory through the actions spearheaded by their descendents. Here I chronicle how the legacies ...


The Rule Of Law As An Institutional Ideal, Gianluigi Palombella Jan 2010

The Rule Of Law As An Institutional Ideal, Gianluigi Palombella

Gianluigi Palombella

This article aims at offering an innovative interpretation of the potentialities of the "rule of law" for the XXI Century. It goes beyond current uses and the dispute between formal and substantive conceptions, by reaching the roots of the institutional ideal. Also through historical reconstruction and comparative analysis, the core of the rule of law appears to be a peculiar notion, showing a special objective that the law is asked to achieve, on a legal plane, largely independent of political instrumentalism. The normative meaning is elaborated on and construed around the notions of institutional equilibrium, non domination and "duality" of ...


Кризисный Период Развития Отечественного Юридического Образования (1917-1920 Г.Г.), Leonid G. Berlyavskiy Jan 2010

Кризисный Период Развития Отечественного Юридического Образования (1917-1920 Г.Г.), Leonid G. Berlyavskiy

Leonid G. Berlyavskiy

In 1917-1920 Sovnarkom and Narkompros of the RSFSR have accepted the whole complex of the statutory acts directed on abolition of the Law faculties and simultaneously establishment of the new state high schools and scientific institutions network, under control to the power. The Socialist Academy of Social Studies has been founded as a counterbalance to the project of the Institute of Social Sciences developed within the limits of the Academy of Sciences for social studies, including, jurisprudence, began to be considered as the sphere of the Party apparatus priority interests


From Objective Right To Subjective Rights: The Franciscans And The Interest And Will Conceptions Of Rights, Siegfried Van Duffel Jan 2010

From Objective Right To Subjective Rights: The Franciscans And The Interest And Will Conceptions Of Rights, Siegfried Van Duffel

Siegfried Van Duffel

What are subjective rights? And what makes Will and Interest conceptions of rights into conceptions of rights? I argue that they originate in two very different natural rights theories which are, however, grounded in the same philosophical anthropology.


Gay And Lesbian Elders: Estate Planning And End-Of-Life Decisionmaking, Nancy J. Knauer Jan 2010

Gay And Lesbian Elders: Estate Planning And End-Of-Life Decisionmaking, Nancy J. Knauer

Nancy J. Knauer

This Article addresses the three areas of core concern for gay and lesbian elders -- chosen family, financial insecurity, and anti-gay bias in the context of estate planning. The first section provides an overview of the current generation of gay and lesbian elders, including a summary of pre-Stonewall history and existing demographic information. The second section outlines the challenges associated with drafting an estate plan that favors chosen family over next of kin. The third section engages the topic of financial insecurity, discussing various benefits and government programs, such as social security and Medicaid planning. The fourth and final section discusses ...


Una Aproximación Al Debate Democrático En Derecho Internacional, Ignacio De La Rasilla Del Moral Jan 2010

Una Aproximación Al Debate Democrático En Derecho Internacional, Ignacio De La Rasilla Del Moral

Ignacio de la Rasilla del Moral, Ph.D.

Taking as it starting point a critical introduction to the democratic debate in international law, the object of the present work is that of contributing to the critical development of an appropiate methodology for the exam of the normative pretension according to which the international legal order would be developing within itself a particular conception of the liberal State. Such a conception would be premised in the gradual emergence of an international legal obligation that would command the development within every sovereign state of institutions of democratic governance, thus marking the transition from the paradigm of equivalence of domestic political ...


The Invention Of Common Law Play Right, Jessica Litman Jan 2010

The Invention Of Common Law Play Right, Jessica Litman

Jessica Litman

In this paper, written for Berkeley’s symposium on the 300th birthday of the Statute of Anne, I explore the history of the common law public performance right in dramatic works. Eaton Drone dubbed the dramatic public performance right “playright” in his 1879 treatise, arguing that just as “copyright” conferred a right to make and sell copies, “playright” conferred a right to perform or “play” a script. I examine case law and customary theatrical practice in England, and find no trace of a common law play right before 1833, when Parliament established a statutory public performance right for plays. Similarly ...


Law As Referent, Craig G. Bateman Jan 2010

Law As Referent, Craig G. Bateman

C. G. Bateman

In this article I suggest that “the Law,” (hereinafter the LAW) can be most functionally understood as a conglomeration of referent ideals which emanate from the minds of law creators, and are the source of what we regularly understand as laws. I separate from the concept of the LAW the usual suspects of constitutions, codes, acts, and charters, etc. I separate these from their inceptional ideals and suggest we ascribe a label to these familiar kinds of categories such as “lower order laws,” being careful to confine our discussions of them with the exclusive use of a small “l” (law ...


Just The Facts: Solving The Corporate Privilege Waiver Dilemma, Don R. Berthiaume Jan 2010

Just The Facts: Solving The Corporate Privilege Waiver Dilemma, Don R. Berthiaume

Don R Berthiaume

How can corporations provide “just the facts” — which are, in fact, not privileged — without waiving the attorney client privilege and work product protection? This article argues for an addition to the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure based upon Rule 30(b)(6) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, which allows civil litigants to issue a subpoena to an organization and cause them to “designate one or more officers, directors, or managing agents, or designate other persons who consent to testify on its behalf … about information known or reasonably available to the organization.”[6] Why should we look to Fed ...


Pearson, Iqbal, And Procedural Judicial Activism, Goutam U. Jois Jan 2010

Pearson, Iqbal, And Procedural Judicial Activism, Goutam U. Jois

Goutam U Jois

In its most recent term, the Supreme Court decided Pearson v. Callahan and Ashcroft v. Iqbal, two cases that, even at this early date, can safely be called “game-changers.” What is fairly well known is that Iqbal and Pearson, on their own terms, will hurt civil rights plaintiffs. A point that has not been explored is how the interaction between Iqbal and Pearson will also hurt civil rights plaintiffs. First, the cases threaten to catch plaintiffs on the horns of a dilemma: Iqbal says, in effect, that greater detail is required to get allegations past the motion to dismiss stage ...


Constructing The Constitutional Canon: The Metonymic Evolution Of Federalist 10, Ian C. Bartrum Jan 2010

Constructing The Constitutional Canon: The Metonymic Evolution Of Federalist 10, Ian C. Bartrum

Ian C Bartrum

This paper is part of larger symposium convened for the 2010 AALS annual meeting. In it I adapt some of my earlier constitutional theoretical work to engage the topic of that symposium: the so-called “interpretation/construction distinction”. I make two related criticisms of the distinction: (1) it relies on a flawed conception of linguistic meaning, and (2) while these flaws may be harmless in the “easy” cases of interpretation, they are much more problematic in the difficult cases of most concern. Thus, I doubt the ultimate utility of the distinction as part of a “true and correct” model of constitutional ...


The Constitutional Canon As Argumentative Metonymy, Ian C. Bartrum Jan 2010

The Constitutional Canon As Argumentative Metonymy, Ian C. Bartrum

Ian C Bartrum

This article builds on Philip Bobbitt's Wittgensteinian insights into constitutional argument and law. I examine the way that we interact with canonical texts as we construct arguments in the forms that Bobbitt has described. I contend that these texts serve as metonyms for larger sets of associated principles and values, and that their invocation usually is not meant to point to the literal meaning of the text itself. This conception helps explain how a canonical text's meaning in constitutional argument can evolve over time, and hopefully offers the creative practitioner some insight into the kinds of arguments that ...


The Great Pharmaceutical Patent Robbery, And The Curious Case Of The Chemical Foundation, Christopher Wadlow Jan 2010

The Great Pharmaceutical Patent Robbery, And The Curious Case Of The Chemical Foundation, Christopher Wadlow

Christopher Wadlow

In 1918, the United States confiscated virtually all German-owned intellectual property assets within its jurisdiction. Out of 6,000 patents in the chemical field, 4,500 were assigned for a very modest consideration to an newly-established entity, the Chemical Foundation, which was incorporated with the objective of licensing and managing them for the benefit of the United States chemical industry. This article describes the origins and activities of the Chemical Foundation, and considers whether it provides a useful model, or at least useful lessons, for the collective management of patents today.


New Governance In The Teeth Of Human Frailty: Lessons From Financial Regulation, Cristie L. Ford Jan 2010

New Governance In The Teeth Of Human Frailty: Lessons From Financial Regulation, Cristie L. Ford

Cristie L. Ford

New Governance scholarship has made important theoretical and practical contributions to a broad range of regulatory arenas, including securities and financial markets regulation. In the wake of the global financial crisis, question about the scope of possibilities for this scholarship are more pressing than ever. Is new governance a full-blown alternative to existing legal structures, or is it a useful complement? Are there essential preconditions to making it work, or can a new governance strategy improve any decision making structure? If there are essential preconditions, what are they? Is new governance “modular” – that is, does it still confer benefits when ...


Principles-Based Securities Regulation In The Wake Of The Global Financial Crisis, Cristie L. Ford Jan 2010

Principles-Based Securities Regulation In The Wake Of The Global Financial Crisis, Cristie L. Ford

Cristie L. Ford

This paper seeks to re-examine, and ultimately to restate the case for, principles-based securities regulation in light of the global financial crisis and related developments. Prior to the onset of the crisis, the concept of more principles-based financial regulation was gaining traction in regulatory practice and policy circles, particularly in the United Kingdom and Canada. The crisis of course cast financial regulatory systems internationally, including more principles-based approaches, into severe doubt. This paper argues that principles-based securities regulation as properly understood remains a viable and even necessary policy option, which offers solutions to the real-life and theoretical challenge that the ...


The Right To Arms In The Living Constitution, David B. Kopel Jan 2010

The Right To Arms In The Living Constitution, David B. Kopel

David B Kopel

This Article presents a brief history of the Second Amendment as part of the living Constitution. From the Early Republic through the present, the American public has always understood the Second Amendment as guaranteeing a right to own firearms for self-defense. That view has been in accordance with élite legal opinion, except for a period in part of the twentieth century.

"Living constitutionalism" should be distinguished from "dead constitutionalism." Under the former, courts looks to objective referents of shared public understanding of constitutional values. Examples of objective referents include state constitutions, as well as federal or state laws to protect ...


State Court Standards Of Review For The Right To Keep And Bear Arms, David B. Kopel, Clayton Cramer Jan 2010

State Court Standards Of Review For The Right To Keep And Bear Arms, David B. Kopel, Clayton Cramer

David B Kopel

Cases on the right to arms in state constitutions can provide useful guidance for courts addressing Second Amendment issues. Although some people have claimed that state courts always use a highly deferential version of "reasonableness," this article shows that many courts have employed rigorous standards, including the tools of strict scrutiny, such as overbreadth, narrow tailoring, and less restrictive means. Courts have also used categoricalism (deciding whether something is inside or outside the right) and narrow construction (to prevent criminal laws from conflicting with the right to arms). Even when formally applying "reasonableness," many courts have used reasonableness as a ...


The Keystone Of The Second Amendment: Quakers, The Pennsylvania Constitution, And The Questionable Scholarship Of Nathan Kozuskanich, David B. Kopel, Clayton Cramer Jan 2010

The Keystone Of The Second Amendment: Quakers, The Pennsylvania Constitution, And The Questionable Scholarship Of Nathan Kozuskanich, David B. Kopel, Clayton Cramer

David B Kopel

Historian Nathan Kozuskanich claims that the Second Amendment-like the arms provision of the 1776 Pennsylvania Constitution-is only a guarantee of a right of individuals to participate in the militia, in defense of the polity. Kozuskanich’s claim about the Second Amendment is based on two articles he wrote about the original public meaning of the right to arms in Pennsylvania, including the 1776 and 1790 Pennsylvania constitutional arms guarantees.

Part I of this Article provides a straightforward legal history of the right to arms provisions in the 1776 Pennsylvania Constitution and of the 1790 Pennsylvania Constitution. We examine Kozuskanich’s ...


Commerce In The Commerce Clause: A Response To Jack Balkin, David B. Kopel, Robert G. Natelson Jan 2010

Commerce In The Commerce Clause: A Response To Jack Balkin, David B. Kopel, Robert G. Natelson

David B Kopel

The Constitution’s original meaning is its meaning to those ratifying the document during a discrete time period: from its adoption by the Constitutional Convention in late 1787 until Rhode Island’s ratification on May 29, 1790. Reconstructing it requires historical skills, including a comprehensive approach to sources. Jack Balkin’s article Commerce fails to consider the full range of evidence and thereby attributes to the Constitution’s Commerce Clause a scope that virtually no one in the Founding Era believed it had.


Collaborative Community-Based Natural Resource Management, Prof. Elizabeth Burleson Jan 2010

Collaborative Community-Based Natural Resource Management, Prof. Elizabeth Burleson

Prof. Elizabeth Burleson

This article analyzes the importance of increasing civil society actor access to and influence in international legal and policy negotiations, drawing from academic scholarship on governance, conservation and environmental sustainability, natural resource management, observations of civil society actors, and the authors’ experiences as participants in international environmental negotiations.


Adam Smith's Historical Jurisprudence And The "Method Of The Civilians", Ernest Metzger Jan 2010

Adam Smith's Historical Jurisprudence And The "Method Of The Civilians", Ernest Metzger

Ernest Metzger

Smith lectured in jurisprudence at the University of Glasgow from 1751 to 1764, and various records of these lectures survive. Since Smith never completed a treatise on law, these records are the principal source for his theory of lawmaking. In his final year at Glasgow, Smith undertook to reorganize the course of lectures: he began with a series of lectures on "forms of government," where formerly these lectures had fallen at the very end. He explained that his reorganized lectures followed the method of the civilians (i.e., contemporary writers on Roman law), and that this method was to be ...


Remarks On David Daube’S Lectures On Sale, With Special Attention To The Liber Homo And Res Extra Commercium, Ernest Metzger Jan 2010

Remarks On David Daube’S Lectures On Sale, With Special Attention To The Liber Homo And Res Extra Commercium, Ernest Metzger

Ernest Metzger

This article discusses a collection of lecture notes on the Roman law of sale prepared by David Daube for an advanced course conducted at the University of Aberdeen from 1954 to 1955. The article considers in detail Daube’s lecture on the sale of the liber homo and res extra commercium in Roman law. An excerpt from that lecture is attached as an Appendix. His treatment of the subject is unfinished (and unpublished), though it is possible to see how his views might have developed. The final section offers an opinion on Daube’s approach to interpreting texts and its ...


Civil Procedure In Classical Rome: Having An Audience With The Magistrate, Ernest Metzger Jan 2010

Civil Procedure In Classical Rome: Having An Audience With The Magistrate, Ernest Metzger

Ernest Metzger

During the classical period of Roman law, civil lawsuits were divided into two proceedings: a brief proceeding before the magistrate, who decided certain preliminary matters, and a longer proceeding before a judge, who tried the case. The first proceeding is said to take place “in iure,” which roughly means “in the magistrate’s court.” Unfortunately the figure “in court” has been understood too strictly to refer to the whole of the first phase, and this has given rise to the misunderstanding that the whole of the first phase took place in the magistrate’s presence. The better view is that ...


Antonio Joaquín Pérez Martínez Y La Independencia En Puebla (1810-1821), Alejandro G. Escobedo Rojas, Juan Pablo Salazar Andreu Jan 2010

Antonio Joaquín Pérez Martínez Y La Independencia En Puebla (1810-1821), Alejandro G. Escobedo Rojas, Juan Pablo Salazar Andreu

Alejandro G Escobedo Rojas

No abstract provided.


Notas Para Una Historia Procesal De La Casación En México, Alejandro G. Escobedo Rojas, Juan Pablo Salazar Andreu Jan 2010

Notas Para Una Historia Procesal De La Casación En México, Alejandro G. Escobedo Rojas, Juan Pablo Salazar Andreu

Alejandro G Escobedo Rojas

No abstract provided.