Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Legal History Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 9 of 9

Full-Text Articles in Legal History

An Outline Of Roman Civil Procedure, Ernest Metzger Jan 2013

An Outline Of Roman Civil Procedure, Ernest Metzger

Ernest Metzger

This is a broad discussion of the key feature of Roman civil procedure, including sources, lawmaking, and rules. It covers the three principal models for procedure; special proceedings; appeals; magistrates; judges; and representation. It takes account of new evidence on procedure discovered in the last century, and introduces some of the newer arguments on familiar but controversial topics. Citations to the literature allow further study.


Agree To Disagree: Local Jurisdiction In The Lex Irnitana, Ernest Metzger Jan 2012

Agree To Disagree: Local Jurisdiction In The Lex Irnitana, Ernest Metzger

Ernest Metzger

The lex Irnitana (AD 91) is one of our principal sources for Roman civil procedure during the classical period. In character it is a municipal charter for a muncipium in Baetica. It contains extensive provisions on the conduct of civil lawsuits, and among its most contested provisions is Chapter 84 on jurisdiction. The main point of disagreement: was it possible only to have 'small lawsuits' heard locally, or might the parties, by agreement, consent to have lawsuits of substantial value heard also? The disagreement is of much greater significance than this single inscription might suggest: Roman civil procedure underwent revolutionary ...


Adam Smith's Historical Jurisprudence And The "Method Of The Civilians", Ernest Metzger Jan 2010

Adam Smith's Historical Jurisprudence And The "Method Of The Civilians", Ernest Metzger

Ernest Metzger

Smith lectured in jurisprudence at the University of Glasgow from 1751 to 1764, and various records of these lectures survive. Since Smith never completed a treatise on law, these records are the principal source for his theory of lawmaking. In his final year at Glasgow, Smith undertook to reorganize the course of lectures: he began with a series of lectures on "forms of government," where formerly these lectures had fallen at the very end. He explained that his reorganized lectures followed the method of the civilians (i.e., contemporary writers on Roman law), and that this method was to be ...


Remarks On David Daube’S Lectures On Sale, With Special Attention To The Liber Homo And Res Extra Commercium, Ernest Metzger Jan 2010

Remarks On David Daube’S Lectures On Sale, With Special Attention To The Liber Homo And Res Extra Commercium, Ernest Metzger

Ernest Metzger

This article discusses a collection of lecture notes on the Roman law of sale prepared by David Daube for an advanced course conducted at the University of Aberdeen from 1954 to 1955. The article considers in detail Daube’s lecture on the sale of the liber homo and res extra commercium in Roman law. An excerpt from that lecture is attached as an Appendix. His treatment of the subject is unfinished (and unpublished), though it is possible to see how his views might have developed. The final section offers an opinion on Daube’s approach to interpreting texts and its ...


Civil Procedure In Classical Rome: Having An Audience With The Magistrate, Ernest Metzger Jan 2010

Civil Procedure In Classical Rome: Having An Audience With The Magistrate, Ernest Metzger

Ernest Metzger

During the classical period of Roman law, civil lawsuits were divided into two proceedings: a brief proceeding before the magistrate, who decided certain preliminary matters, and a longer proceeding before a judge, who tried the case. The first proceeding is said to take place “in iure,” which roughly means “in the magistrate’s court.” Unfortunately the figure “in court” has been understood too strictly to refer to the whole of the first phase, and this has given rise to the misunderstanding that the whole of the first phase took place in the magistrate’s presence. The better view is that ...


Lawsuits In Context, Ernest Metzger Jan 2008

Lawsuits In Context, Ernest Metzger

Ernest Metzger

The study of Roman procedure has benefited enormously from the discovery of wooden tablets near Pompeii. Unfortunately, the tablets are sometimes misinterpreted, for the simple reason that the procedures they describe do not always match the procedures which more familiar sources have led us to believe existed. The tablets, in fact, give us the rare opportunity to revise our understanding of procedure, particularly when taken together with another remarkable find, the lex Irnitana. This article gives a sketch of the ‘new’ Roman civil procedure now available to us as a result of these exciting finds.

In: J. W. Cairns and ...


The Buyer Who Wants To Pay More, Ernest Metzger Jan 2006

The Buyer Who Wants To Pay More, Ernest Metzger

Ernest Metzger

In Roman law, a valid contract of sale required the parties to agree on a certain price. Some modern works nevertheless accept that the law ignored a certain species of error: the buyer is willing to pay more than the seller expects to receive, and a valid contract of sale is formed on the lower price. This supposed exception is based, not any text on sale, but on a single text on contracts of hire, Digest 19.2.52. This text suggests that, in some cases, a contract of hire might arise where the tenant believes he is paying a ...


Acquisition Of Living Things By Specification, Ernest Metzger Jan 2004

Acquisition Of Living Things By Specification, Ernest Metzger

Ernest Metzger

Ownership of the product of living things, such as human tissue or cultures developed from human cells, is difficult for the law to determine. Civilian jurisdictions, with their legal heritage grounded in Roman law, offer one solution. Civilian jurisdictions would resolve such cases under the rules of specification. A recent case from the Outer House of the Scottish Court of Session (Kinloch Damph Ltd v Nordvik Salmon Farms Ltd) addresses the problem. The case was properly decided, though the grounds of the decision could be improved. Specifically, on civil law principles, civilian courts ought to award ownership of a living ...


Roman Judges, Case Law, And Principles Of Procedure, Ernest Metzger Jan 2004

Roman Judges, Case Law, And Principles Of Procedure, Ernest Metzger

Ernest Metzger

Roman law has been admired for a long time. Its admirers, in their enthusiasm, have sometimes borrowed ideas from their own time and attributed them to the Romans, thereby filling some gap or fixing some anomaly. Roman private law is a well known victim of this. Roman civil procedure has been a victim as well, and the way Roman judges are treated in the older literature provides an example. For a long time it has been accepted, and rightly so, that the decision of a Roman judge did not make law. But the related, empirical question, whether Roman judges ever ...