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Articles 1 - 9 of 9

Full-Text Articles in Legal History

Fault At The Contract-Tort Interface, Roy Kreitner Jun 2009

Fault At The Contract-Tort Interface, Roy Kreitner

Michigan Law Review

The formative period in the history of contract and tort (in the second half of the nineteenth century) may be characterized by the cleavage of contract and tort around the concept of fault: tort modernized by moving from strict liability to a regime of "no liability without fault," while contract moved toward strict liability. The opposing attitudes toward fault are puzzling at first glance. Nineteenth-century scholars of private law offered explanations for the opposition, reasoning that alternative ideas about fault account for the different character of state involvement in enforcing private law rights: tort law governs liabilities imposed by law ...


The Many Faces Of Fault In Contract Law: Or How To Do Economics Right, Without Really Trying, Richard A. Epstein Jan 2009

The Many Faces Of Fault In Contract Law: Or How To Do Economics Right, Without Really Trying, Richard A. Epstein

Michigan Law Review

Modern law often rests on the assumption that a uniform cost-benefit formula is the proper way to determine fault in ordinary contract disputes. This Article disputes that vision by defending the view that different standards of fault are appropriate in different contexts. The central distinction is one that holds parties in gratuitous transactions only to the standard of care that they bring to their own affairs, while insisting on the higher objective standard of ordinary care in commercial transactions. That bifurcation leads to efficient searches. Persons who hold themselves out in particular lines of business in effect warrant their ability ...


Property, Contracts, And Politics, Mark Tushnet Apr 2007

Property, Contracts, And Politics, Mark Tushnet

Michigan Law Review

Rebecca Scott is a historian, not an economist. Describing how a dispute over a mule's ownership was resolved, Professor Scott reproduces a receipt two claimants left when they took the mule from the plantation whose manager claimed it as well (p. 185). By contrast, analyzing property relations in the pre-Civil War American South, economic historian Jenny Wahl observes, "[E]conomic historians tend to [use] ... frequency tables, graphs, and charts." The differences in visual aids to understanding indicate the various ways historians and economists approach a single topic-the relation between markets and politics, the latter defined to include the deployment ...


A Public Choice Approach To Private Ordering: Rent-Seeking At The World's First Futures Exchange: Comments On Mark West's 'Private Ordering At The World's First Futures Exchange', Omri Yadlin Jan 2000

A Public Choice Approach To Private Ordering: Rent-Seeking At The World's First Futures Exchange: Comments On Mark West's 'Private Ordering At The World's First Futures Exchange', Omri Yadlin

Michigan Law Review

The literature on private ordering systems has expanded exponentially over the last decade. Yet, very few scholars have actually attempted to define the term "private ordering" - a failure that sometimes leads to confusion. Some scholars identify private ordering with non-state ordering. According to this view, the private legal systems Robert Ellickson, Lisa Bernstein, McMillan & Woodruff, Mark West, and others have investigated are "private" simply because their norms are not manufactured or enforced by the state. The alternative view emphasizes the decentralized feature of private ordering systems. Robert Ellickson, for example, studied "how people manage to interact to mutual advantage without ...


Empirical Insight And Some Thoughts On Future(S) Investigation: Comments On Mark West's 'Private Ordering At The World's First Futures Exchange', A.W. Brian Simpson Jan 2000

Empirical Insight And Some Thoughts On Future(S) Investigation: Comments On Mark West's 'Private Ordering At The World's First Futures Exchange', A.W. Brian Simpson

Michigan Law Review

Some considerable number of years ago, when I was in Chicago, I had a plan to undertake a general study of the origins of futures markets. They fascinated me for a variety of reasons, one being their bizarre nature: traders meeting together, usually in some form of ring, in order to sell, on a huge scale, quantities of commodities which they neither possess, nor intend to possess, to other traders, who have not the least wish to receive such commodities, and nowhere to put them if they did. At first sight it appears a weird perversion of the institution of ...


Private Ordering At The World's First Futures Exchange, Mark D. West Jan 1999

Private Ordering At The World's First Futures Exchange, Mark D. West

Michigan Law Review

Modern derivative securities - financial instruments whose value is linked to or "derived" from some other asset - are often sophisticated, complex, and subject to a variety of rules and regulations. The same is true of the derivative instruments traded at the world's first organized futures exchange, the Dojima Rice Exchange in Osaka, Japan, where trade flourished for nearly 300 years, from the late seventeenth century until shortly before World War II. This Article analyzes Dojima's organization, efficiency, and amalgam of legal and extralegal rules. In doing so, it contributes to a growing body of literature on commercial self-regulation while ...


Freeing The Tortious Soul Of Express Warranty Law, James J. White Jan 1998

Freeing The Tortious Soul Of Express Warranty Law, James J. White

Articles

I suspect that most American lawyers and law students regard express warranty as neither more nor less than a term in a contract, a term that is subject to conventional contract rules on formation, interpretation, and remedy. Assume, for example, that a buyer sends a purchase order to a seller and the purchase order specifies the delivery of 300 tons of "prime Thomas cold rolled steel." The acknowledgment also describes the goods to be sold as "prime Thomas cold rolled steel." Every American lawyer would agree that there is a contract to deliver such steel and furthermore would conclude that ...


Promulgating The Marriage Contract, Lynn A. Baker Jan 1990

Promulgating The Marriage Contract, Lynn A. Baker

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

I begin Part I of this Article by positing several logically necessary, but insufficient, conditions that precede a state's decision to promulgate a law more aggressively than usual. I then show that each of these conditions was met with regard to the economic terms of the marriage contract in virtually all states by 1975. In Part II, I explore what Louisiana's unusually aggressive promulgation of certain terms of the marriage contract reveals about the legal system's conception of the marital relationship as of 1975. In Part III, I discuss what is added to that conception of the ...


Promise Fulfilled And Principle Betrayed, James J. White Jan 1988

Promise Fulfilled And Principle Betrayed, James J. White

Articles

My responsibility in this paper is to address three questions. (1) How has the legal realist body of thought affected contract law and its application? (2) How will contract law and its application be affected in the future by realist thinking? (3) If the realist viewpoint were fully accepted, what kind of system would result and how would contract law be affected? Because my focus is upon a principal legislative monument to realism, Article Two of the Uniform Commercial Code (the "U.C.C."), and upon its drafter, Karl Llewellyn, I will not answer any of the three questions explicitly ...