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Full-Text Articles in Law Enforcement and Corrections

Prosecuting Rape Victims While Rapists Run Free: The Consequences Of Police Failure To Investigate Sex Crimes In Britain And The United States, Lisa Avalos Jan 2019

Prosecuting Rape Victims While Rapists Run Free: The Consequences Of Police Failure To Investigate Sex Crimes In Britain And The United States, Lisa Avalos

Michigan Journal of Gender and Law

Imagine that a close friend is raped, and you encourage her to report it to the police. At first, she thinks that the police are taking her report seriously, but the investigation does not seem to move forward. The next thing she knows, they accuse her of lying and ultimately file charges against her. You and your friend are in shock; this outcome never entered your minds. This nightmare may seem inconceivable, but it has in fact occurred repeatedly in both the United States and Britain—countries that are typically lauded for their high levels of gender equality. In Britain ...


Federal Law Enforcement: Law Enforcement As Political Question, Zachary S. Price Sep 2017

Federal Law Enforcement: Law Enforcement As Political Question, Zachary S. Price

The Judges' Book

No abstract provided.


Tragedy, Outrage & Reform: Crimes That Changed Our World: 1983 – Thurman Beating - Domestic Violence, Paul H. Robinson, Sarah M. Robinson Aug 2017

Tragedy, Outrage & Reform: Crimes That Changed Our World: 1983 – Thurman Beating - Domestic Violence, Paul H. Robinson, Sarah M. Robinson

Faculty Scholarship

Can a crime make our world better? Crimes are the worst of humanity’s wrongs but, oddly, they sometimes do more than anything else to improve our lives. As it turns out, it is often the outrageousness itself that does the work. Ordinary crimes are accepted as the background noise of our everyday existence but some crimes make people stop and take notice – because they are so outrageous, or so curious, or so heart-wrenching. These “trigger crimes” are the cases that this book is about.

They offer some incredible stories about how people, good and bad, change the world around ...


Trigger Crimes & Social Progress: The Tragedy-Outrage-Reform Dynamic In America, Paul H. Robinson, Sarah M. Robinson Aug 2017

Trigger Crimes & Social Progress: The Tragedy-Outrage-Reform Dynamic In America, Paul H. Robinson, Sarah M. Robinson

Faculty Scholarship

Can a crime make our world better? Crimes are the worst of humanity’s wrongs but, oddly, they sometimes do more than anything else to improve our lives. It is often the outrageousness itself that does the work. Ordinary crimes are accepted as the background noise of everyday existence but some crimes make people stop and take notice – because they are so outrageous or so heart-wrenching.

This brief essay explores the dynamic of tragedy, outrage, and reform, illustrating how certain kinds of crimes can trigger real social progress. Several dozen such “trigger crimes” are identified but four in particular are ...


Police Officer Followership, Bradley W. Gronke Aug 2017

Police Officer Followership, Bradley W. Gronke

All Capstone Projects

The problem within the River Grove Police Department is that the majority of our leadership is getting close to retirement and there is minimal leadership training available for our patrol officers that will soon fill those leadership roles. Action research with the River Grove Police Department explored this problem. Utilizing a foundation of theoretical framework based upon followership, career development, and leader-member exchange three objectives were identified and accomplished through this research. This research identified that there was not a positive linear relationship between followership typology, age and years of experience groups. It also identified if there was a perception ...


Intutitve Decision-Making: Engagement, Agency, And Leverage, Roger E. Callese Jul 2017

Intutitve Decision-Making: Engagement, Agency, And Leverage, Roger E. Callese

All Capstone Projects

This project explored law enforcement decision-making through the review of decision-making literature, consideration of the Critical Decision Model (CDM), and semistructured interviews with law enforcement officers. In 2016, the Police Executive Research Forum (PERF) recommended the adoption and use of the CDM by law enforcement officers as a new way to approach tactical decisions. A review of the CDM suggests a linear, rational, weighing of options by officers. While this may be an excellent tool for slowly developing situations, for pre-mortems, or for debriefing, the CDM step four (identify options and determine best course of action) and step five (act ...


The Five Stages Of Lgbtq Discrimination And Its Effects On Mass Incarceration, Michael D. Braunstein Jul 2017

The Five Stages Of Lgbtq Discrimination And Its Effects On Mass Incarceration, Michael D. Braunstein

University of Miami Race & Social Justice Law Review

Although the Supreme Court’s recent decision in Obergefell v. Hodges provided some indication of equality for members of the LBGTQ community, the sad truth is that discrimination against those who do not identify as “heterosexual” reaches far deeper than the right to marry. This discrimination is especially present with regards to biased treatment by law enforcement officers and a lack of accommodations or protections within the court and prison systems. In a nation that has seen various groups of people fight for and earn their equality over and over again, it is truly concerning that the LGBTQ community is ...


Mass Incarceration’S Second Generation – The Unintended Victims Of The Carceral State And Thinking About Alternatives To Punishment Through Restorative Justice, Alexandra A. Hoffman Jul 2017

Mass Incarceration’S Second Generation – The Unintended Victims Of The Carceral State And Thinking About Alternatives To Punishment Through Restorative Justice, Alexandra A. Hoffman

University of Miami Race & Social Justice Law Review

The evolution of the juvenile criminal court system has involved a sharp movement away from the nineteenth century “rehabilitative ideal” to today’s state of hyperincarceration and punitive policies of control. Amongst the unintended and under-recognized harms of our carceral state includes a generation of minority children growing up with imprisoned parents. This analysis spotlights the tangible effects of parental incarceration on juvenile growth and development, which creates risks for further mass incarceration. This note suggests that restorative justice may offer an alternative method of “punishment” that can work towards breaking the connection between parental incarceration and adverse life outcomes ...


Breaking The Cycle: An Exploratory Study Of Alternative Solutions For Mentally Ill Adults In The Criminal Justice System, Lindsey Whitley Jul 2017

Breaking The Cycle: An Exploratory Study Of Alternative Solutions For Mentally Ill Adults In The Criminal Justice System, Lindsey Whitley

Masters Theses

Mental illness is a prevalent issue and many times individuals diagnosed with a mental illness are repeat offenders within the criminal justice system; therefore, it is important to understand the problems at hand and find ways to handle the problems, or best yet take preventative measures to stop the problems from ever occurring. The literature review and interviews show that the criminal justice system seems to be handling mental illness in the best way possible with the current resources that are available to them. However, the literature review and interviews also show that an increase in resources and training on ...


Prisoner's Rights And The Correctional Scheme: The Legal Controversy And Problems Of Implementation - A Symposium - Introduction, Donald W. Dowd Jun 2017

Prisoner's Rights And The Correctional Scheme: The Legal Controversy And Problems Of Implementation - A Symposium - Introduction, Donald W. Dowd

Donald W. Dowd

No abstract provided.


Cleaning Up The Standards Of The Mental Hygiene Law: State V. Dennis K. And Civil Commitment, Maria Benvenuto Jun 2017

Cleaning Up The Standards Of The Mental Hygiene Law: State V. Dennis K. And Civil Commitment, Maria Benvenuto

Boston College Journal of Law & Social Justice

On July 5, 2016, in State v. Dennis K., the Court of Appeals of New York upheld the civil commitment of two individuals in accordance with article 10 of the Mental Hygiene Law. The majority relied on the testimony of expert witnesses and the individuals’ past criminal records to classify them as possessing a “mental abnormality” that predisposes them to commit sexual offenses, a necessary element of a civil commitment finding. The court ultimately found the evidence presented sufficient to make this classification and indefinitely restrict the freedom of such individuals. In contrast, the dissent emphasized the lack of certainty ...


Trapped To Confess: State V. Gray And Arizona’S Outlier Entrapment Statute, Venus Chui Jun 2017

Trapped To Confess: State V. Gray And Arizona’S Outlier Entrapment Statute, Venus Chui

Boston College Journal of Law & Social Justice

On June 20, 2016, in State v. Gray, the Arizona Supreme Court held that for a defendant to invoke the defense of entrapment, he or she must affirmatively admit each element of the crime. The case emerged after Maverick Gray was arrested and charged for selling cocaine to an undercover police officer, and raised the entrapment defense at trial without disputing the government’s evidence of his guilt. The court explained that simply choosing not to challenge the evidence does not rise to the level of an affirmative admission. The dissent persuasively argued that Arizona’s entrapment statute is draconian ...


Mean Muggin’ No More: Detroit Free Press V. U.S. Dep’T Of Justice And A Non-Trivial Privacy Interest In Booking Photographs, Meghan Looney Jun 2017

Mean Muggin’ No More: Detroit Free Press V. U.S. Dep’T Of Justice And A Non-Trivial Privacy Interest In Booking Photographs, Meghan Looney

Boston College Journal of Law & Social Justice

On July 14, 2016, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit held that criminal defendants have a legitimate privacy interest in their booking photographs, thereby reversing and remanding a grant of summary judgment in favor of the Detroit Free Press’s request for the booking photographs of four police officers who had recently been indicted for bribery and drug conspiracy. In holding that the public disclosure of booking photographs may constitute an unwarranted invasion of personal privacy, the majority overturned twenty years’ worth of Sixth Circuit precedent. The court properly acknowledged that booking photographs convey a portrait ...


The Limits Of Executive Clemency: How The Virginia Supreme Court Blocked The Restoration Of Felons’ Political Rights In Howell V. Mcauliffe, Alexander Pringle Jun 2017

The Limits Of Executive Clemency: How The Virginia Supreme Court Blocked The Restoration Of Felons’ Political Rights In Howell V. Mcauliffe, Alexander Pringle

Boston College Journal of Law & Social Justice

On July 22, 2016, the Supreme Court of Virginia found Virginia Governor Terence McAuliffe’s actions restoring full political rights to 206,000 Virginians convicted of a felony unconstitutional. At the same time, the court issued a writ of mandamus ordering Commonwealth officials to remove these convicted felons from the voting rolls and return their names to the list of prohibited voters. Governor McAuliffe had restored the political rights of these released felons en masse, via a single Executive Order on April 22, 2016, eschewing the typical case-by-case review process for restoration of voting rights. The majority in the case ...


Introduction: Marijuana Laws And Federalism, Erwin Chemerinsky Jun 2017

Introduction: Marijuana Laws And Federalism, Erwin Chemerinsky

Erwin Chemerinsky

No abstract provided.


One Toke Too Far: The Demise Of The Dormant Commerce Clause's Extraterritoriality Doctrine Threatens The Marijuana-Legalization Experiment, Chad Deveaux Jun 2017

One Toke Too Far: The Demise Of The Dormant Commerce Clause's Extraterritoriality Doctrine Threatens The Marijuana-Legalization Experiment, Chad Deveaux

Boston College Law Review

This Article argues that the pending feuds between neighboring states over marijuana decriminalization demonstrate the need for a strict doctrine limiting a state’s regulatory authority to its own borders. Precedent recognizes that the dormant Commerce Clause (“DCC”) “precludes the application of a state statute to commerce that takes place wholly outside the State’s borders, whether or not the commerce has effects within the State.” This prohibition protects “the autonomy of the individual States within their respective spheres” by dictating that “[n]o state has the authority to tell other polities what laws they must enact or how affairs ...


Reefer Madness: How Non-Legalizing States Can Revamp Dram Shop Laws To Protect Themselves From Marijuana Spillover From Their Legalizing Neighbors, Jessica Berch Jun 2017

Reefer Madness: How Non-Legalizing States Can Revamp Dram Shop Laws To Protect Themselves From Marijuana Spillover From Their Legalizing Neighbors, Jessica Berch

Boston College Law Review

Reefer madness is sweeping the nation. Despite a federal ban on marijuana, states have begun to legalize medical and, increasingly, recreational use of the drug. As more states legalize marijuana, their non-legalizing neighbors have seen a distinct uptick in marijuana possession and use—and an attendant increase in crime and accidents. In December 2014, Nebraska and Oklahoma, non-legalizing states that border Colorado, a trail-blazer in the full-legalization movement, requested permission to file suit in the U.S. Supreme Court over their neighbor’s lax marijuana controls, which allow cannabis to come into their states. The Supreme Court denied leave to ...


Introduction: Marijuana Laws And Federalism, Erwin Chemerinsky Jun 2017

Introduction: Marijuana Laws And Federalism, Erwin Chemerinsky

Boston College Law Review

No abstract provided.


Policy, Preemption, And Pot: Extra-Territorial Citizen Jurisdiction, Gabriel J. Chin Jun 2017

Policy, Preemption, And Pot: Extra-Territorial Citizen Jurisdiction, Gabriel J. Chin

Boston College Law Review

In contemporary America, legislators send messages about values through symbolic legislation and lawsuits. One conflict is between states where marijuana is legal and others that continue to ban it. This Article evaluates what might happen if anti-marijuana states made it illegal for their citizens to purchase or use marijuana, borrowing a page from the playbook of activists opposed to reproductive choice who propose that if Roe v. Wade is overturned, individuals could be prohibited from traveling to another state for the purpose of obtaining an abortion. Although such laws would be hard to enforce, they still present important questions of ...


Budding Conflicts: Marijuana's Impact On Unsettled Questions Of Tribal-State Relations, Katherine J. Florey Jun 2017

Budding Conflicts: Marijuana's Impact On Unsettled Questions Of Tribal-State Relations, Katherine J. Florey

Boston College Law Review

In the wake of a December 2014 decision by the Department of Justice to deprioritize enforcement of federal marijuana laws against tribes as well as states, many tribes have reevaluated their policies toward marijuana. Tribal attitudes toward marijuana are diverse; some tribes regard marijuana as a public health menace, whereas others see it as a source of economic opportunity. Where tribal policies are significantly more or less restrictive than those of the surrounding state, tribal-state relations have often suffered friction. The problem is particularly acute given the jurisdictional uncertainty that characterizes Indian country and the absence of any equivalent to ...


Marijuana, State Extraterritoriality, And Congress, Mark D. Rosen Jun 2017

Marijuana, State Extraterritoriality, And Congress, Mark D. Rosen

Boston College Law Review

The Trump administration inherits the Obama administration’s policy of under-enforcing federal marijuana laws and a nation with a patchwork of divergent state laws. Although allowing diversity and experimentation, such divergence may impose spillover costs to some states. Some states may attempt to address these costs by exercising extraterritorial regulatory powers on their citizens. Although it is unclear and a matter of dispute whether and to what extent states have such extraterritorial authority, this Article shows that it is certain that Congress has power to set the bounds of state extraterritorial regulation, subject to only limited constitutional restraints. The Article ...


Marijuana Legalization And Nosy Neighbor States, Alex Kreit Jun 2017

Marijuana Legalization And Nosy Neighbor States, Alex Kreit

Boston College Law Review

As more states proceed with marijuana legalization laws, questions have arisen about how to accommodate those states that wish to retain prohibition. For instance, in 2014, Oklahoma and Nebraska unsuccessfully sued Colorado based on the spillover effects that Colorado’s marijuana legalization law had on its neighboring states. This article asserts that there are several reasons why state marijuana legalization laws are unlikely to have a large effect on neighboring states. First, marijuana is not a previously unobtainable good being introduced into the stream of commerce, as it is already available through the black market inexpensively. Second, legalization laws have ...


Hfc Smuggling: Preventing The Illicit (And Lucrative) Sale Of Greenhouse Gases, Graham Donnelly Welch Jun 2017

Hfc Smuggling: Preventing The Illicit (And Lucrative) Sale Of Greenhouse Gases, Graham Donnelly Welch

Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review

The Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer is a pivotal development in global cooperation to stem climate change. Through incorporating hydrofluorocarbons into the Montreal Protocol, the international community will be able to combat the deleterious effects of a common, yet potent, chemical. Nonetheless, the United States and its fellow parties will likely have to combat an illicit trade in these banned substances in the immediate future. Through lessons learned from the original Montreal Protocol, the United States can effectively combat smuggling and ensure the Kigali Amendment’s success.


Law Enforcement And Criminal Law Decisions, Erwin Chemerinsky Jun 2017

Law Enforcement And Criminal Law Decisions, Erwin Chemerinsky

Erwin Chemerinsky

No abstract provided.


Radio Dispatch Cognitive Abilities And Working Memory, David A. Buitron Jun 2017

Radio Dispatch Cognitive Abilities And Working Memory, David A. Buitron

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Public safety radio dispatchers incontrovertibly have to manage multiple tasks at any given time, from relaying lifesaving information to field units, to simultaneously overseeing several monitors and keeping up with the radio transmissions in a timely manner. Interestingly, however, the underlying cognitive abilities necessitated for performing such tasks have not been thoroughly investigated. To begin understanding the cognitive faculties that underlie dispatching tasks, we gauged cognitive ability measures relevant to dispatcher duties and introduced Working Memory Capacity (WMC) as underlying the differentiation on performance. The four general dispatcher cognitive factors identified by Peace Officer Standards and Training (POST) literature, were ...


Excessive Lethal Force, Melissa Hamilton Jun 2017

Excessive Lethal Force, Melissa Hamilton

Northwestern University Law Review

This Essay considers the use by Dallas police officers of a robot armed with plastic explosives to kill a suspected gunman on a shooting rampage in 2016. In the wake of Dallas, many legal experts in the news maintained that the police action was constitutional. The commentators' consensus was that as long as the police had the right to use lethal force, then the means of that force is irrelevant. This Essay argues the contrary. Under the current state of the constitutional law on the police use of force on a suspected felon, excessive lethal force is a valid consideration ...


The Impact Of Incarceration And Societal Reintegration On Mental Health, Veronica Wicks Jun 2017

The Impact Of Incarceration And Societal Reintegration On Mental Health, Veronica Wicks

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine ex-offender’s beliefs on the impact of incarceration and societal reintegration on mental health. The study is a qualitative design using interviews that were audio recorded and transcribed for analysis. The study sought to address the relationship between perceptions of mental health and experiences of incarceration and reintegration among formerly incarcerated individuals. The following themes emerged from participant responses: incarceration challenges, mental health stigma, and rehabilitation service accessibility. The findings of this study may contribute to social work practice by providing awareness to the factors impacting ex-offenders’ mental health and interventions needed ...


The Beast Of Burden In Immigration Bond Hearings, Mary P. Holper May 2017

The Beast Of Burden In Immigration Bond Hearings, Mary P. Holper

Mary Holper

In this article, I examine the burden of proof in bond proceedings. I apply theories for why burdens of proof exist in the law to demonstrate why the government should bear the burden of proof. I also argue that in order to ensure that such detention comports with Due Process, the government must prove, by clear and convincing evidence, that a detainee is dangerous. This presumption of freedom previously existed, yet was eviscerated by the former Immigration and Naturalization Service in a 1997 regulation and the Board of Immigration Appeals in a 1999 decision. That the detainee must bear the ...


Small Cells, Big Problems: The Increasing Precision Of Cell Site Location Information And The Need For Fourth Amendment Protections, Robert M. Bloom, William T. Clark May 2017

Small Cells, Big Problems: The Increasing Precision Of Cell Site Location Information And The Need For Fourth Amendment Protections, Robert M. Bloom, William T. Clark

Robert M. Bloom

The past fifty years has witnessed an evolution in technology advancement in police surveillance. Today, one of the essential tools of police surveillance is something most Americans carry with them in their pockets every day, the cell phone. Cell phones not only contain a huge repository of personal data, they also provide continuous surveillance of a person’s movement known as cell site location information (CSLI). In 1986, Congress sought to provide some privacy protections to CSLI in the Stored Communication Act. Although this solution may have struck the proper balance in an age when cell phones were a mere ...


Tattoos And Criminal Behavior: An Examination Of The Relationship Between Body Art And Crime, Daniel D. Dajani May 2017

Tattoos And Criminal Behavior: An Examination Of The Relationship Between Body Art And Crime, Daniel D. Dajani

Student Theses

This thesis investigates the relationship between having tattoos and crime. A review of past research concerning tattoos, crime and other forms of deviancy demonstrates that a relationship exists to some extent. This thesis gathers new data concerning tattoos and crime and adds to the knowledge base by examining the alterations in the correlation and what may be causing said alterations. This thesis utilized the survey method and participants were recruited via a mix of in-person and online strategies. We aimed to garner participation from a varied group of respondents that would ensure data relevant to the study would be produced ...